Problematic behaviour of children, in the school perspective, area, community, comprises conduct that: hinders by means of the pupil's personal and/or other pupils' information
â€¢ interrupts the everyday working of the school;
â€¢ endangers the privilege of staff plus pupils to a protected as well as systematic environment;
â€¢ Has a period, occurrence, power or determination that is ahead of the usual series that schools bear; and (McVeigh, M, 2003)
â€¢ Is not as much likely to be receptive to the usual variety of interferences used by the school to undertake pupil misbehaviour.
An examination of the behaviour documentations of mainly initial schools will provide clear instances of dissimilar types of problematic behaviour displayed by children. These comprise:
â€¢ Aggressive behaviour, including pushing, punching, kicking, biting, scratching, as well as threatening behaviour as well as verbal abuse;
â€¢ Disruptive behaviour, including screaming, tantrums, non co-operation, running away;
â€¢ Destructive behaviour, including destruction of property and the environment;
â€¢ By means of drawn behaviour, including refusal to respond, such as elective mutizm;
â€¢ Stereotypical behaviour, particularly in children by means of learning disabilities plus autistic spectrum disorders, which can comprise rocking, repetitive vocalisations, ritualistic hand movements; and (McVeigh, M, 2003)
â€¢ Self-injurious behaviour, including head banging, scratching as well as poking.
Why does problematic behaviour occur?
There are several reasons why children behave in a problematic manner. Thus, identifying why they do so can be the key to finding a solution to the issues caused by the behaviour. This analysis has to comprise a consideration of the behaviour and the context in which it occurs.
Children by means of communication difficulties might engage in problematic behaviour. If a child is unable to express his/her requirements or wants because of a lack of understanding or ability to use language, inappropriate behaviour might be used to express those requirements. In such cases, teaching a child to use acceptable ways to communicate his/her requirements might form part of the solution. (McVeigh, M, 2003)
Environmental factors might contribute to the issue. Children might react negatively to noise, heat plus cold or to invasion of their space. A number of children, particularly children by means of autistic spectrum disorders, might be over sensitive to certain stimuli such as noise, and might therefore react by displaying problematic behaviour. (McVeigh, M, 2003)
Attention-seeking is often identified as a cause of problematic behaviour. This begs the question as to why the child requirements to seek attention in this way. A number of children might be unable to manage a particular task as well as might be frustrated or bored. However, attention-seeking behaviour can in addition be a learned behaviour which has been effective in the past in ensuring that children get what they want. Even negative attention can be motivating for a number of children, especially if they feel that this is the just attention they receive. (McVeigh, M, 2003)
Factors associated by means of socio-economic disadvantage in addition sway the prevalence of problematic behaviour. Poor communal skills as well as language growth, associated by means of poor parenting skills might lead to a child exhibiting problematic behaviour. This behaviour might be used as a survival method in the child's environment. (McVeigh, M, 2003)
Problematic behaviour might have an underlying medical cause or reason, such as pain, illness or sensory difficulties. A number of forms of problematic behaviour are particularly associated by means of certain conditions as well as disabilities such as repeated and involuntary body movements (tics) and uncontrollable vocal sounds (Tourette's syndrome) or ritualistic or obsessive behaviour (Autistic Spectrum Disorders). (McVeigh, M, 2003)
Strategies for Promoting Optimistic Behaviour:
The mainly effective method adopted by teachers when attempting to manage problematic behaviour is to prevent it occurring in the first place. To this end, several schools have developed strategies to promote optimistic behaviour. This is based on the assumption that mainly behaviour patterns (unenthusiastic plus optimistic) are learned, and therefore, that acceptable behaviour can in addition be learned. It is in addition based on the belief that behaviour is contextual, so children can be taught to behave in a certain way in the school context. Acceptable behaviour is then reinforced in a school and classroom environment which is supportive of optimistic behaviour. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
Mainstream schools are becoming increasingly inclusive, and therefore regularly encounter a situation where they meet children by means of problematic behaviour as an aspect of special education. A optimistic approach to the promotion of good behaviour benefits all children, including those by means of special educational requirements. However, approaches have to be modified to ensure that they are developmentally appropriate to the child by means of special educational requirements. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
Promoting Optimistic Behaviour in the Classroom
Children have an inherent need for a safe and secure environment.
The classroom, in several instances, might be the just stable element in the life of a child not experiencing such security in other parts of his/ her life. Teachers model optimistic behaviour by treating children plus adults by means of respect as well as building up a optimistic relationship by means of pupils. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
Children react well to routines and boundaries. There is, of course, a natural tendency to try and push out boundaries that are set as well as to test their limits. Establishing and maintaining rules plus routines in the classroom requires a good deal of effort as of teachers, but it has been shown to promote optimistic behaviour.
The following strategies have been found to be effective in promoting optimistic behaviour in classrooms, when implemented appropriately. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
Develop clear and simple classroom rules in discussion by means of the children. These can be displayed in the classroom, perhaps by means of pictorial clues for non-readers. Regarding three to five rules, stated in terms of observable behaviours is sufficient for mainly classes. Optimistic statements such as "We put our hands up when we wish to speak" are preferable to unenthusiastic statements such as "No noise in class". Rules can be taught as well as practised through role-play, and reinforced by praise or reward. It is significant that there are optimistic consequences for children who keep the rules. There have to in addition be consequences for those who do not. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
All children respond to attention plus consequently a focus on optimistic behaviour will reinforce optimistic behaviour. Several teachers build a point of trying to catch children being good and honour or recompense them for this, placing the focus of attention in the classroom on the majority of children who behave appropriately. In several classrooms, teachers have adopted a formalised advance to rewards and praise, where children make tokens, points or stickers for optimistic behaviour. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
Gordon (1996) gives the following advice on the use of rewards:
- Reward appropriate behaviour as soon as possible;
- Build the pay-offs small, and attainable;
- Build the rewards cumulative;
- Build the pay-offs co-operative (i.e. encouraging the class to work together for a reward);
- Never take back a reward; and
- Use the element of shock (e.g. by giving a dual prize suddenly).
Several troublesome behaviours occur at transition times, for instance when children are moving as of one activity to another. It is therefore essential to plan for routines as well as transitions. Transitions can be flagged by the teacher e.g. "In five minutes, we will finish this activity plus eat our lunch". A child by means of a specific learning difficulty might, for instance, find organising books as well as equipment a particular challenge. A verbal or visual clue regarding what will happen next can therefore help by means of management of classroom life. (NSW Health Child Protection Service Plan, 2004)
The role of parents in an approach to optimistic behaviour is extremely significant. Teachers have in addition establish that parental participation in acknowledging optimistic behaviour, through the use of a note in the homework journal, or in making reports to parents, is very helpful. Research has shown that children regard an optimistic note home as the best reward, while a negative note home was seen as the worst sanction. (Ryan, G, 2000)
A whole-school approach to the promotion of optimistic behaviour in addition enables staff to support each other. Collaboration involves staff in discussions regarding behaviour, devoid of the danger that individuals might feel that their classroom management skills are being questioned. Staff support has in addition been identified as one of the major factors in coping effectively by means of incidents relating to problematic behaviour. In schools where there are particular issues, staff might have a system of calling on the principal or designated member of staff to assist by removing a pupil, or class group, where necessary, to calm a difficult situation. (Ryan, G, 2000)
Ultimately, a sagacity of common reason in the support of optimistic behaviour is very effectual in dealing by means of behaviour in public areas, such as corridors, meeting areas and the playground/yard. A joint considerate of what constitutes satisfactory behaviour in these spaces, a enthusiasm by all staff to deal by means of all children, as well as facilitating other members of staff to become involved in situations, leads to a cohesive approach to behaviour which is more easily accepted by children. Children will test the limits of every system, and so it is particularly significant that a school's induction policy ensures that novel or substitute teachers are given a clear understanding of procedures relating to behaviour. (Ryan, G, 2000)
The key to success of any system is that the procedures are fully discussed, understood plus agreed by all staff, including ancillary staff.
Managing Problematic Behaviour
Steps taken to promote optimistic behaviour impact optimistically on the general climate in the school and the classroom, as well as minimise the occurrence of negative behaviour. Nevertheless, despite the best efforts of schools to develop shared approaches that promote optimistic behaviour, it is likely that all teachers and schools will encounter situations of problematic behaviour. (Silovsky, J.F. & Niec, L, 2002)
"By means of parents as well as pupils fully engaged in improving standards," were the principle underpinning the education plus inspections act. Parental engagement has to not stop just by means of the choice of school, it says, but it has to continue throughout a child's education. In all this there are concerns regarding what engaging parent actually means, and emphasis that the process works two ways - by means of rights for parents, but in addition responsibilities on them as well. This is discussed more on page 4 of this supplement. The act's main aspect is that every parent has to be able to access pupil-level information kept on their child, so that they can work by means of teachers to "enable their child to achieve their full potential". The act seeks to ensure that: (Silovsky, J.F. & Niec, L, 2002)
â€¢ Parents have the chance to form parent councils to influence school decisions on issues such as school meals, uniform and discipline. This will be compulsory in the novel trust schools but optional for other schools.
â€¢ Parents have better local complaints procedures and access to a novel national complaints service as of off set for when local procedures have been exhausted.
A spin off of the act is that there is now a determination that parents will receive regular, meaningful reports during the school year regarding how their child is doing, by means of opportunities to discuss their child's progress by means of their teachers. The government in addition wants parents to have access to more as well as clearer information regarding local schools, how to get involved and how to lever change. (Silovsky, J.F. & Niec, L, 2002)
Everyone is generally agreed that parents need to be fully engaged in their children's education.
A lot is heard of parents' rights, but equally significant are their responsibilities.
Parents who understand the significance of education convey that to their children through:
â€¢ ensuring that they attend school regularly plus punctually.
â€¢ taking responsibility for their behaviour.
â€¢ taking an interest in their school work and supporting them in the completion of their homework (Silovsky, J.F. & Niec, L, 2002)
â€¢ taking advantage of the opportunities for dialogue by means of teachers and other staff on educational progress.
"The focus has to be on how to ensure that all parents have information that will enable them to become engaged as well as support their child devoid of having to become involved in any formal or informal school structure or activity.
"The information has to build explicitly clear the expectations the school might have of them and assist in building their confidence to support their children's learning," she explained.
The Education plus Inspections Act sets out an entitlement for every parent to receive regular and high quality information regarding what their child is learning, how they are progressing, the areas for growth, and how they can support them in doing better.
As mentioned on earlier, the Act lays down responsibilities for schools and in addition for parents. (Silovsky, J.F. & Niec, L, 2002)
On one hand parents will be responsible for their children during the first five days of exclusion, as well as could in addition be subject to extended parenting contracts.
On the other hand governors now have to have regard to the views of parents, while Ofsted will be given a statutory power to investigate parental complaints, which will come in addition to its current responsibilities for inspecting a school's links by means of parents.
Children plus young public quickly pick up on the fact that a classmate is dissimilar, and use this against them. (Whitehouse, C, 2003)
Prejudice-related bullying is usually a response to characteristics or traits that victims themselves are just coming to terms by means of, such as homosexuality.
But prejudice can take several forms. Pupils can in addition be picked on for their faith, ethnic background or body image, and schools need effective anti-bullying policies in place making it clear that any form victimisation is unacceptable.
ChildLine, the helpline charity, receives an estimated 2,725 calls a year regarding sexual orientation, by means of concerns regarding homophobic bullying accounting for regarding 27 per cent of these. Two-thirds of calls regarding sexual orientation came as of under-15s and six per cent as of children aged six or under.
Boys accounted for 55 per cent of these calls, even though they represent just 25 per cent of all calls to the helpline.
It has become the norm for words such as "gay" to be used in schools as a term of abuse. Figures published the use of the word as a way of attacking or making fun of a number of one.
Furthermore, the effects of childhood homophobic bullying have implications in adulthood.
More than half of puplic who had been bullied in this way at school contemplated self-harm or suicide later in life, by means of 40 per cent making at least one attempt to self-harm.
A number of schools have seen a rise in bullying related to the victim's culture as well as religion, particularly following the London bombings in 2005, which can be borne out of fear or cultural ignorance.
Obesity is another form of prejudice, which can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Children who are teased regarding their size often take comfort in food, thus compounding their issue. Or they respond by dieting or starving themselves, so making themselves vulnerable to eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia.
The Cycle of deficiency
In trying to discover a manner to tackle the main drivers of poverty, the general loom of the
Government has been too short term, relying on knee-jerk reactions, slight changes to legislation and headlines to be the guide. We often failed to recognise that the 'pathways to poverty' and the corresponding link to crime, are so fundamentally interlinked that we have to adopt a more holistic, coherent approach when forming policy. (Whitehouse, C, 2003)
Finally, it is no coincidence that so several disaffected young public has a multitude of communal issues, and that unless we endeavour to tackle poverty as a whole, our efforts are bound to fail. We know that the majority of young offenders come as of broken homes, nearly two thirds have drug plus alcohol addiction issues, more than three in four have no educational qualifications as well as several young prisoners have mental health issues rooted in drug abuse.
It is for this reason that the Communal Justice Policy Group has been committed to tackling the six "pathways to poverty". Its six working groups have covered family breakdown, educational failure, addictions, economic dependence, serious personal debt and the vital role which the voluntary sector plays in tackling these drivers. (Whitehouse, C, 2003)
The significance of the Home Context
Academics1 who have conducted empirical studies in juvenile criminology, point to the overwhelming need to look at the home context; they state that early prevention that fosters an ideology that links [our emphasis] family issues, communal inequality, economic deprivation and juvenile offending have to be the basis of any attempt to reduce the risk of engaging in offending behaviour. The Communal Justice Policy Group's interim report published in December 2006 implicated debt, economic dependency, failed education, drugs and alcohol addiction as contributors to family breakdown, which in turn is implicated so often in criminality. In making these correlations we drew upon a robust evidence base. Research studies conducted in the UK, US, China, Novel Zealand, Scandinavia, Hong Kong and Taiwan all agree that the following are risk factors or indicators of susceptibility to youth criminal activity:
â€¢ Derisory parenting
â€¢ Child abuses/mistreatment
â€¢ Family disturbance
â€¢ Poor parental management
â€¢ Parental or sibling criminality
â€¢ Having adolescent parents
â€¢ Unstable living circumstances
â€¢ The effects of financial disadvantage
Children who were parented well by lone parents, though the substantiation of a series of
UK longitudinal studies demonstrates strong correlations flanked by broken homes plus delinquency.6
70% of youthful offenders arrive as of lone-parent families. Contrasted to children in two parent families, children in one parent families are significantly further likely to smoke weekly
(2.4 times at age 12, 1.7 times at age 17), drink weekly (1.6 times at age 12, 1.1 times at age Fathers rights organizations point to the irregularity by means of which fathers are totally absent as of their children's lives, several live close by plus might be described as 'visiting' or 'closely involved by means of' the child's mother. However, children born in these circumstances practice qualitatively dissimilar parenting as of both their mothers as well as fathers to those born into a steady plus healthy married partnership. (Whitehouse, C, 2003)
Arthur (2007) builds the significant point that this is not just regarding poverty. "Children as of deprived backgrounds who avoided a criminal record had tended to enjoy good parental care as well as supervision in a less crowded home. The statistical link flanked by socioeconomic rank plus children's early offending behaviour was entirely mediated by family management practices." This is not a novel conclusion. The primary public body to examine youth aberrant established in 1815 was the Committee for investigating the reasons of the Alarming Increase of Juvenile criminal behaviour in the Metropolis. (Arthur, 2007)
Disciplinary evaluates to curb anti-communal behaviour plus youth offence will, like purely financial process to fight poverty, fail to address the edifying drivers of the issues. Family circumstances in general and family breakdown in particular have tended to be neglected dimensions in policy initiatives which are preventative in their focus. We require policies which implicitly assume the worth of long term domestic stability and which therefore support and encourage healthy marriage as the relationship mainly likely to deliver that communal good. We are not treating marriage like a magic bullet: the Communal Justice Policy Group is tackling debt, educational breakdown, addiction plus economic dependence, all of which lead to family breakdown, and found the cycle of deficiency. (Whitehouse, C, 2003)