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When creating a lesson plan, teacher has to think of meeting the needs of every student in his/her class. It's important to remember, there are all types of learners. Some students learn through auditory methods others through visual and some through hands-on methods (Jonassen & Grabowski, 1993). So, when constructing a lesson plan, teachers need to make sure that all types of learners are addressed. Teachers can better instruct students with different disabilities through computer-based instruction, which provides immediate feedback and can increase motivation. Special software can assist students in managing behavior and expressing themselves with less fatigue, frustration, and misunderstanding. More independence for individual students gives teachers more time with other students and with group activities. Other students also benefit since students using assistive technology are more fully integrated in classroom activities and cause fewer distractions (Rose & Meyer, 2002).
Many teachers write on a board, so by writing and saying what you write, they are meeting the needs of those who learn by hearing and by seeing. To accommodate students with various disabilities such as learning disability, hearing impairment and other disabilities, teacher can provide students with notes. Some students may be able to copy all the notes, while others may not. For those that have difficulty copying notes, teacher can provide adapted notes in which they only fill in a few words. Teacher can also provide students with all of the notes and give them a highlighter to highlight important concepts on the notes. A copy of other students' notes may also be a practical option. Teacher can also record the notes on tape or other adaptive technology devices for the students to listen to (Pitler, 2007).
Assignments are another area of a lesson plan that should be planed carefully to accommodate students with different learning styles as well as students with disabilities. Teacher can create an alternate assignment for students with disabilities that are based on the major topic that was introduced. Longer assignments, such as a project, should be divided into smaller parts for students with disabilities. Instead of giving them one due date, teacher should break the project up into small sections and provide due dates for each section. It may also be necessary to extend the deadline all together depending on the length of the assignment.
Therefore, a good lesson plan should have: a clear stated objective, standards that this lesson plan would cover in accordance to state guidelines, procedure - step by step process of teaching the lesson. A good lesson plan also has an assessment plan.Â This could come in the form of the rubric or an activity. Teacher has to take into consideration the time factor and think about materials. Teacher also has to think how to make his/her lesson interesting as well as educational.
It is important to remember that each student is different and may require different adaptations in order to be successful. The 1997 Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which calls for access to the general education curriculum for all students, mandates that assistive technology be part of a student's Individualized Education Plan. In order to give students equal access to curriculum and improve student outcomes, teachers must deliver new and creative ways to meet the educational needs of all students. Assistive technology accomplishes these goals by allowing students with many types of disabilities to see, hear, read, write, and communicate (Schunk, 2004).
A teacher should make adjustments in the classroom as well as modify his/her lesson to accommodate children with hearing loss and to build up their knowledge step by step. Education of children with disabilities should be based on their IEP (Individualized Education Plan). The classroom teacher together with a student who is hearing impaired needs to meet with the special education teacher to learn about the specific type of hearing loss experienced by the student. For example, children with recurrent otitis media may be able to hear one day and not the next, whereas children with a unilateral hearing loss may or may not be able to hear depending on which ear is closest to the source of sound. The special education teacher can provide the classroom teacher with useful information about the student's ability, the types of sounds the student might have particular difficulty hearing and discriminating among, and the effects of classroom noise on the student's ability to hear.
When teaching the lesson, teacher should try to use short and clear sentences. It's important to pause between the words and try to speak slowly so students can process what is being said using lip reading and enhanced auditory tools. In most classrooms in which students with hearing impairments are included, the radio frequency FM auditory trainer is the system used (Nussbaum, 1988). This system requires the teacher to wear a microphone and the student to wear a hearing aid.
An effective way to teach a lesson would be to incorporate pictures, images, graphs and gestures to explain things to hearing impaired students. According to multiple research studies, children with hearing impairments learn more easily by watching. Teacher should check the progress of a child frequently, for example by giving a short written assignment after each lesson. Group teaching is also beneficial for children with hearing impairments therefore; teacher has to modify his lesson to include group assignments, group projects and group discussion. Hearing impaired children should face each other in a circle when working in a group discussion. In a group discussion a hearing impaired child can prepare his/her answer while waiting for his/her turn to speak or sign during the conversation (Alm & Ronnberg, 1991).
Teachers should learn ASL (American Sign Language) to teach hearing impaired students. ASL is considered to be the best language to help hearing impaired children and other students engage in meaningful peer/teacher conversation (Nussbaum, 1988). It is important for a teacher to make every student a part of the class. Learning will become easy and effective if a hearing impaired child is expected and encouraged to participate in the activities of the class.