Web design and development practices

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The Web design and development practices, the review of the wed design and what are the technologies we are used and the also the review about the effective web site design practices, and the is the good practice. And here also discuss the Security in the web site design in the E-commerce websites. And also include the what type of security mechanism are in the E-commerce web site.

In the final part develop an informative website, and that website provide a quick and easy access to our recommendations.

WEB PAGE DESIGN:

Web page design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modelling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via internet in the form of technologies such as mark up language like html, xhtml, xml suitable for interpretation and display by a web browser or other web based graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

The intent of web design is to create a web site (a collection of electronic files residing on one or more web servers) that presents content (including interactive features or interfaces) to the end user in the form of web pages once requested. Such element as text, forms, and bitmapped images can be placed on the page using HTML, XHTML and XML tags. Displaying more complex media (vector graphics, animations, videos, sounds) usually required plug-ins such as flash, quick time, java run time environment etc. Plug-ins also embedded into web pages by using HTML or XHTML tags.

Improvements in the various browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance of XHTML and XML in conjunction with Cascading Style sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements. The latest standards and proposals aim at leading to the various browsers' ability to deliver a wide variety of media and accessibility options to Clint possibly without employing Plug-ins.

Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic.

* Static pages don't change content and layout with every request a human manually updated the page.

* Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on the end user's input or interaction or changes in computing environment. Content can be changed on the client side by using client side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, media players and PDF reader plug-ins, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (PHP, ASP, Perl, Coldfusion, JSP, Python, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications.

WEB SITE DESIGN:

A web site is a collection of information about a particular topic or subject. Designing a web site is defined as the arrangement and creation of web pages that in turn make up a web site. A web page consists of information for which the web site is developed. A web site might be compared to a book, where each page of the book is a web page.

There are many aspects (design concerns) in this process, and due to the rapid development of the Internet, new aspects may emerge. For non-commercial web sites, the goals may vary depending on the desired exposure and response. For typical commercial web sites, the basic aspects of design are:

* The content: The substance and information on the site should be relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the website is concerned with.

* The usability: the site should be user-friendly, with the interface and navigation simple and reliable.

* The appearance: the graphics and text should include a single style that flows throughout, to show consistency. The style should be professional, appealing and relevant.

* The visibility: the site must also be easy to find via most, if not all, major search engines and advertisement media.

A web site typically consists of text and images. The first page of a web site is known as the Home page or Index. Some web sites use what is commonly called a Splash Page. Splash pages might include a welcome message, language or region selection, or disclaimer. Each web page within a web site is an HTML file which has its own URL. After each web page is created, they are typically linked together using a navigation menu composed of hyperlinks. Faster browsing speeds have led to shorter attention spans and more demanding online visitors and this has resulted in less use of Splash Pages, particularly where commercial web sites are concerned.

Once a web site is completed, it must be published or uploaded in order to be viewable to the public over the internet. This may be done using an FTP client. Once published, the web master may use a variety of techniques to increase the traffic, or hits, that the web site receives. This may include submitting the web site to a searc engine such as Google or Yahoo, exchanging links with other web sites, creating affiliations with similar web sites, etc.[1]

These key topics needed for an effective web design include:

* Accessibility

* User-centred design and usability

* Internet marketing planning and improvement process

* Information architecture and findability

* Search engine optimisation (SEO)

* Web standards

* Persuasion to deliver business results

* Web analytics

· Legal requirements

Principles of Effective Web Design:

There are 14 key aspects of web design implementation which need to be managed for a successful project. These are broken down into six parts which we have made available as separate sections for ease of reference. We have summarised the success factors in Success map for effective web design.

Here is an overview, a flavour of what we cover in the different sections:

PART 1: Strategy and Planning

* Section 2. Internet marketing planning and improvement process.

To create a website which delivers results for its owners is not just about visual design, it‟s not just about usability or accessibility or indeed about the development tools selected. An effective site requires an in-depth understanding of marketplace within which the website operates. In particular, the context for an effective customer experience should be assessed as part of customer experience management. To understand the marketplace and to tap into it requires a sound Internet marketing plan. In this section, we outline a structured process for developing an Internet marketing strategy that aligns with an organisations online and offline marketplaces. We also give examples of how strategic goals translate into site designs.

PART 2: User-centred design and usability

* Section 3. User-centred web design process.

User-centred design (UCD) is an established, proven approach to design or range of products. It has been embraced by web design and usability agencies as a sound approach to delivering customer-centric websites that deliver value for a business. It should be a key business requirement to appoint an agency which has a sound UCD process and the right skill set and experience to execute it. In this section we introduce the key techniques of UCD such as audience analysis, persona development, usability and information architecture. We then cover these in more detail later in the document.

* Section 4. Web usability.

The reason why usability is critical to website design is obvious. Jakob Nielsen expresses it well in his "Usability 101" when he says: "On the Web, usability is a necessary condition for survival. If a website is difficult to use, people leave. If the homepage fails to clearly state what a company offers and what users can do on the site, people leave. If users get lost on a website, they leave. If a website's information is hard to read or doesn't answer users' key questions, they leave. Note a pattern here?" The implication is that many will never return either.

In this section, we examine the rationale for usability and best approaches for different usability techniques including expert reviews, questionnaires, interviews, usability testing and focus groups.

PART 3:Accessibility and Web standards

* Section 5. Web accessibility.

"For me being online is everything. It's my hi-fi, it's my source of income, it's my supermarket, it's my telephone. It's my way in." Lynn Holdsworth, screen reader user, Web Developer and Programmer. (Source: RNIB) This quote shows the importance of web accessibility to a visually impaired user of a website who uses a screen-reader which reads out the navigation options and content on a website. In this section, we review the benefits of implementing accessibility and web standards, different requirements for accessibility and summarise the places you can go to find the latest standards and tools for assessing the accessibility of your sites

PART 4:Information Architecture

* Section 6. Information architecture.

"It is important to recognise that every information system, be it a book or an intranet, has an information architecture. `Well developed' is the key here, as most sites don't have a planned information architecture at all. They are analogous to buildings that weren't architected in advance. Design decisions reflect the personal biases of designers, the space doesn't scale over time, technologies drive the design and not the other way around." Rosenfeld and Morville (2002) Information architecture tends to play the role of the ugly stepsister at the Web Design Ball - it‟s not sexy for many tastes. But just how important is information architecture (IA)? Where does it come on the list of priorities for a new site design? Is it more important or less important than each of usability, accessibility and persuasion? Most would argue that it is less important, but we believe the value of information architecture is under-estimated. As the quote suggests, without a sound foundation provided by effective information architecture a site is likely to be less usable, accessible and less persuasive. In this section, we review structured techniques for creating an information architecture including information seeking behaviour analysis; content analysis and document metadata, card-sorting and controlled vocabularies.

* Section 7. Visual Design.

With such a focus on usability, accessibility and persuasion in results-led website design, the role of the visuals within a site can be underestimated compared to the more functional aspects of website design. But the visual design certainly does have a major influence on the experience as perceived by visitors and designers certainly spend a lot of intention on the visual design. In this section, we explore different aspects of getting the visuals right including site personality, use of colour, images, typography and page templates and layout.

* Section 8. Findability Best Practice Principles.

Many web users visiting many sites are directed information seekers who are looking for something specific - a particular product or particular content. And they want to find it fast. So a key requirement of all sites is to make it easy for the site visitor to find the content - to quickly connect them with what they are looking for. Usability and accessibility don‟t quite emphasise the importance of this, so we need a new „ility‟. Findability. We like this word it emphasises the importance of focusing on navigation, on-site search and document metadata within a design project. In this section of the guide, we will take an in-depth look at maximising findability on your site through redesigning or refining your navigation and search functions.

* Section 9. Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) Best Practice Principles

Search engine optimisation (SEO) should be built into your plan for a new or refined site from the outset. Amongst designers, there is a debate about how proactive they should be in achieving SEO. Some believe that SEO occurs naturally with a good quality of standards based coding. We disagree. Our view is that for commercial sites, it is essential to be proactive to gain the best results in a competitive market. Good positions won‟t happen by accident. SEO should be at the core of all site developments. In this section, we introduce the key practical elements of SEO for designers which determine a website‟s ranking position.

PART 5:Persuasive Design, copywriting and web analytics

* Section 10. Persuasive design & copywriting.

Persuasive design is perhaps talked about less than the other techniques we have covered in this guide such as usability and accessibility. But in our view, it is equally important. Sites which are reviewed, built and monitored through a persuasion approach will likely give better results than those where usability or accessibility is to the fore. In this section, we will illustrate Persuasive Design techniques for different page types and SEO Best Practice by examining Econsultancy.com, so showing some of the „secrets of our success‟. We also review other sites.

* Section 11. Using web analytics to improve website design effectiveness

Although "web analytics" is the formal name for the process and tools used to analyse and improve the marketing effectiveness of websites, many marketers and designers, know it simply as „website statistics‟. Many initially view these statistics on a par with paint drying after seeing the 100 pages of monthly site statistics provided by IT, but if so, they are probably in the wrong job. Consequently, in many companies where the website is not core to business activity, these site stats are ignored. But successful e-marketers make the effort to understand the different reports and then ask the right questions to understand cause, effect and remedy or opportunity. In this section we introduce different types of web analytics tools and highlight the most useful reports to review in your web analytics system to improve website results.

PART 6: Implementation and management

* Section 12. Technical site requirements.

A site will fail if it fails to deliver satisfactory experiences for its visitors. This is not only down to the factors we have reviewed such as content, usability and accessibility, but also dependent on the infrastructure including hosting, servers, content management systems. Speed and availability are still important in the broadband world. In this section, we give pointers on how you can assess and improve the performance of your website.

* Section 13. The Law - is your site legally compliant?

Many laws have been enacted in many countries to control e-communications and e-commerce and to protect the consumer. Website owners are subject to these and it is typically directors within a company who are liable, so it is important to check your site is compliant. Reputational damage may be greater than the financial consequences of breaking the law. These laws are constantly being refined and new test cases in the courts help clarify the compliance required. While we can‟t hope to take you through all the laws, and aren‟t qualified to do so you should consult a lawyer. In this section, we can explain the main types of laws to which the owners of websites are subject and point you in the right direction for detailed, up-to-date guidance.

* Section 14. Selecting agencies to support web design.

We have seen that results-led web design is dependent on many success factors. This makes finding the best agencies for you is challenging. In this section, we look at some of the types of agencies and issues to consider and we give a briefing checklist of issues to consider.[2]

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE WEB DESIGN:

1. Don't make users think

According to Krug's first law of usability, the web-page should be obvious and self-explanatory. When you're creating a site, your job is to get rid of the question marks. The decisions users need to make consciously, considering pros, cons and alternatives.

If the navigation and site architecture aren't intuitive, the number of question marks grows and makes it harder for users to comprehend how the system works and how to get from point A to point B. A clear structure, moderate visual clues and easily recognizable links can help users to find their path to their aim.

2. Don't squander users' patience

In every project when you are going to offer your visitors some service or tool, try to keep your user requirements minimal. The less action is required from users to test a service, the more likely a random visitor is to actually try it out. First-time visitors are willing to play with the service, not filling long web forms for an account they might never use in the future. Let users explore the site and discover your services without forcing them into sharing private data. It's not reasonable to force users to enter an email address to test the feature.

As Ryan Singer, The developer of the 37Signals team states, users would probably be eager to provide an email address if they were asked for it after they'd seen the feature work, so they had some idea of what they were going to get in return.

3. Manage to focus users' attention:

As web-sites provide both static and dynamic content, some aspects of the user interface attract attention more than others do. Obviously, images are more eye-catching than the text just as the sentences marked as bold are more attractive than plain text.

The human eye is a highly non-linear device, and web-users can instantly recognize edges, patterns and motions. This is why video-based advertisements are extremely annoying and distracting, but from the marketing perspective they perfectly do the job of capturing users' attention.

4. Strive for feature exposure:

Modern web designs are usually criticized due to their approach of guiding users with visually appealing 1-2-3-done-steps, large buttons with visual effects etc. But from the design perspective these elements actually aren't a bad thing. On the contrary, such guidelines are extremely effective as they lead the visitors through the site content in a very simple and user-friendly way.

5. Make use of effective writing:

As the Web is different from print, it's necessary to adjust the writing style to users' preferences and browsing habits. Promotional writing won't be read. Long text blocks without images and keywords marked in bold or italics will be skipped. Exaggerated language will be ignored.

Talk business. Avoid cute or clever names, marketing induced names, company-specific names, and unfamiliar technical names. For instance, if you describe a service and want users to create an account, "sign up" is better than "start now!" which is again better than "explore our services".

An optimal solution for effective writing is to

* use short and concise phrases (come to the point as quickly as possible),

* use scannable layout (categorize the content, use multiple heading levels, use visual elements and bulleted lists which break the flow of uniform text blocks),

* use plain and objective language (a promotion doesn't need to sound like advertisement; give your users some reasonable and objective reason why they should use your service or stay on your web-site).

6. Strive for simplicity:

The "keep it simple" principle (KIS) should be the primary goal of site design. Users are rarely on a site to enjoy the design; furthermore, in most cases they are looking for the information despite the design. Strive for simplicity instead of complexity

7. Don't be afraid of the white space:

Actually it's really hard to overestimate the importance of white space. Not only does it help to reduce the cognitive load for the visitors, but it makes it possible to perceive the information presented on the screen. When a new visitor approaches a design layout, the first thing he/she tries to do is to scan the page and divide the content area into digestible pieces of information.

Complex structures are harder to read, scan, analyze and work with. If you have the choice between separating two design segments by a visible line or by some whitespace, it's usually better to use the whitespace solution. Hierarchical structures reduce complexity (Simon's Law): the better you manage to provide users with a sense of visual hierarchy, the easier your content will be to perceive.

8. Communicate effectively with a "visible language":

In his papers on effective visual communication, Aaron Marcus states three fundamental principles involved in the use of the so-called "visible language" the content users see on a screen.

* Organize: provide the user with a clear and consistent conceptual structure. Consistency, screen layout, relationships and navigability are important concepts of organization. The same conventions and rules should be applied to all elements.

* Economize: do the most with the least amount of cues and visual elements. Four major points to be considered: simplicity, clarity, distinctiveness, and emphasis. Simplicity includes only the elements that are most important for communication. Clarity: all components should be designed so their meaning is not ambiguous. Distinctiveness: the important properties of the necessary elements should be distinguishable. Emphasis: the most important elements should be easily perceived.

* Communicate: match the presentation to the capabilities of the user. The user interface must keep in balance legibility, readability, typography, symbolism, multiple views, and color or texture in order to communicate successfully. Use max. 3 typefaces in a maximum of 3 point sizes a maximum of 18 words or 50-80 characters per line of text.

9. Conventions are our friends:

Conventional design of site elements doesn't result in a boring web site. In fact, conventions are very useful as they reduce the learning curve, the need to figure out how things work. For instance, it would be a usability nightmare if all web-sites had different visual presentation of RSS-feeds. That's not that different from our regular life where we tend to get used to basic principles of how we organize data (folders) or do shopping (placement of products).

With conventions you can gain users' confidence, trust, and reliability and prove your credibility. Follow users' expectations - understand what they're expecting from a site navigation, text structure, search placement etc.

10. Test early, test often:

This so-called TETO-principle should be applied to every web design project as usability tests often provide crucial insights into significant problems and issues related to a given layout.

Test not too late, not too little and not for the wrong reasons. In the latter case it's necessary to understand that most design decisions are local; that means that you can't universally answer whether some layout is better than the other one as you need to analyze it from a very specific point of view (considering requirements, stakeholders, budget etc.).

Some important points to keep in mind:

* According to Steve Krug, testing one user is 100% better than testing none and testing one user early in the project is better than testing 50 near the end. According to Boehm's first law, errors are most frequent during requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removed.

* Testing is an iterative process. That means that you design something, test it, fix it and then test it again. There might be problems which haven't been found during the first round as users were practically blocked by other problems.

* usability tests always produce useful results. Either you'll be pointed to the problems you have or you'll be pointed to the absence of major design flaws which is in both cases a useful insight for your project.

* according to Weinberg's law, a developer is unsuited to test his or her code. This holds for designers as well. After you've worked on a site for few weeks, you can't observe it from a fresh perspective anymore. You know how it is built and therefore you know exactly how it works - you have the wisdom independent testers and visitors of your site wouldn't have. [4]

2. Web Design Security:

INTRODUCTION:

The Web is one of the most revolutionary technologies that changes the business environment and has a dramatic impact on the future of electronic commerce (EC). The future of EC will accelerate the shift of the power toward the consumer, which will lead to fundamental changes in the way companies relate to their customers and compete with one another (Slywotzky, 2000).The immense popularity of the Internet indecent years has been fuelled largely by the prospect of performing business on-line. More and more companies set up their own corporate LANs by Intranet, apply Extranet and Internet to work collaboratively with their customers, suppliers, and partners.

The Internet can bring down physical barriers to commerce, almost immediately giving even the smallest business access to untapped markets around the world. At the same time, consumers can conduct business and make purchases from companies previously unavailable to them. Furthermore, companies are able to place marketing material on Internet servers ranging from simple advertising to comprehensive virtual brochures. In today's global marketplace, fast reliable information is a necessity for most companies to attain some kind of competitive advantage. For reach millions of users on the Internet 24 hours a day. Electronic commerce is defined as buying and selling of product, services or information via computer networks, mainly the Internet. As the fastest growing facet of the Internet and other information technologies, EC offers functionality and new ways of doing business that no company can afford to ignore. The basis for moving to an electronic commerce is a belief that electronic markets have the potential to be more efficient in developing new formation-based goods and services, Finding global customers and trading partners to conduct business. Electronic commerce via the Internet or the next generation Internet Protocol, IPv6, will change business institutions, operations and products/services as we know today, just as the telephone, TV, fax, and e-mail changed the way businesses and consumers Communicate. Electronic commerce has become very popular because of the benefits and the convenience it brings along. As shown in Table I, the benefits include product promotion, cost saving, timely information, shortened remittance time, information consistency, better customer service, better customer relationship, customization of products, competitive advantages, and convenience of doing business.

Security tips for website design:

Define and assess the security risks:

Define what the security requirements are, how information is classified, a security policy, how the policy will be monitored and who is responsible. List everything that is used, interacted with or altered by the website. Classify the data based on sensitivity and the effect unauthorised modification, release or loss would have on your business. This will assist deciding where the most effort should be placed in protection. For very simple systems with no sensitive data, just insist on some standard security baselines for the project. If the website or web application is more complex or includes sensitive data, consider creating a threat model and identify the threats and possible vulnerabilities. The analysis will assist development of the website's requirements and is very useful to the development team.

Take a holistic view:

Information security is not just about preventing theft or damage. It also includes ensuring your website is available, is fast enough, complying with legal and regulatory requirements, providing accurate information, preventing release of confidential information to unauthorised users protecting your business data and intellectual property from mis-use or loss, inappropriate use, protecting your users, ensuring business continuity and providing the ability to analyse and learn from incidents. Balance the level of security with ease of use and cost constraints.

Don't trust anyone else's data (or your own):

Your website will have input from users, but also from other sources such as news feeds, other purchased data and the back-office systems of your own organisation and perhaps of partners. All this data should be validated on input and on output to protect users and systems.

Enforce review and approval at each milepost:

By undertaking a review of security into the project's mileposts and formal approval, security becomes built into the development process and security issues can be tackled as soon as possible. The earlier security is thought about, the cheaper it is to mitigate risks. Build change control methodology into the design process.

Help the development team code securely:

Good development practices should ensure that the development team are working to a consistent framework and that developers produce high quality code. Software will always contain errors, but with training, use of development standards and guidelines, security risks can be minimised. Ensure that you provide enough time to develop the website or web application securely - not just achieve the functionality requirements.

Integrate security into the testing programme:

All projects must include structured testing. The threat model (see No 4 above) can be used to help create test scenarios. Security testing involves checking what is not allowed as well as the intended functionality. This requires a change in mindset for conventional testers.

Deploy the website securely:

Development, test and live environments may be configured differently and many security issues can arise because of this. The management of the setup and launch of the website needs to be undertaken in a controlled and defined way to ensure all the security controls are in place and additional vulnerabilities are not created. Document the configuration and any future alterations.

Include security in every contract and service level agreement:

Define what security protection you need from your suppliers, partners and sub-contractors. Use the same processes to assess their security as you would your own. Identify what security monitoring you require and how security breaches will be detected and disclosed Consider disaster recovery (and business continuity):

Consider what might cause loss of availability of the website and identify the likelihood of occurrence and the effect on the business. Examine whether actions should be taken to eliminate, reduce, insure or accept the risks. [5]

The benefits of electronic commerce:

Product promotion: Through a direct, information-rich and interactive contact with customers, EC enhances the promotion of products. Electronic medium also allows interactivity and customization for advertising content, based on the customer profile or input. EC thus offers an opportunity for new promotion strategies, enhancing the branding of products.

Cost saving: By using a public shared infrastructure such as the Internet and digitally transmitting and reusing information, EC systems lower the cost of delivering information to customers, including personnel, phone, postage, and printing costs.

Timely information: Due to their instantaneous nature, EC systems allow a reduction of the cycle time required to produce and deliver information and services.

Shortened remittance time: With electronic funds transfer (EFT), customers send their remittances electronically to the company's bank. This arrangement eliminates the time delay associated with the remittance in the mail system Information consistency: EC ensures the consistency and accuracy of information through sharing of information and use of electronic forms for doing business.

Better customer service: The ability to provide on-line answers to problems through resolution guides, archives of commonly encountered problems and electronic mail interaction 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, builds customer confidence and retention.

Better customer relationship :EC enables the learning about customers due to its ability to record every event in which a customer asks for information about a product, buys one, requests customer service, etc. Through these interactions, the needs of the customer are identified and will feed future marketing efforts.

Customization of products: The information-based nature of the EC processes allows for new products to be Created or existing products to be customized based on customers' exact needs.

Competitive advantages: EC enables a company to achieve competitive advantages of: cost saving based on Reduced advertising/promotion costs; product differentiation by customizing Products and timely response to market; customer focus through better customer Relationships and better customer services.

Convenience of doing business: There is no limit on time and location to conduct a business with related parties. The information delivered to manufacturers, suppliers and warehouses is almost real time.

E-commerce Web site design models:

There is no doubt that many Web design models exist on the Internet and new models are increasing expeditiously. EC is not just about doing business over the Internet, it is about changing the way companies do business. It is about creating new business models while transforming traditional ones.

After visiting many Web sites, a total of 12 Web site design models for EC were found, the first four models that related to the informational/communicational design are:

1. Brand awareness and image building model;

2. cost saving model;

3. Promotion model; and

4 .info-mediary model

Brand awareness and image building

Model:

Web sites that apply this model provide detailed, rational information about the firm and its offerings. They may also serve as a signal to current and prospective customers and competitors that the firm is on the cutting edge. The model reaches motivated customers with an information/image-rich communications message. Because the entry barriers are so low, smaller firms can set up this kind of site as well or in some cases even better than larger firms. Examples of the brand awareness and image building model include:

* Ford (www.ford.com) not only lists all the models of its seven famous automotive brands, but also posts its environmental policy, cleaner manufacturing, community involvement, and corporate citizenship report.

* Reebok (www.reebok.com) lets visitors read about sports and fitness, hear from Reebok-sponsored athletes, and learn about Reebok's human-rights activities, among other things.

Cost saving model:

Saving from commercial activity on the Web includes cost-effective savings and productivity savings. By directly meeting information needs, a Web site can be highly cost-effective. Many companies now use their Web site to support the ownership phase of the customer service life cycle. Productivity savings arise from reduction in order and processing costs and more efficient inventory management. Cost savings result through reduced brochure printing and distribution costs and reductions in order-taking as customers use fill-out forms to prepare their own orders. As control is effectively transferred to the customer, customer satisfaction might actually be increased.

Examples of the cost saving model include:

* Microsoft (www.microsoft.com) provides voluminous support material, live audio broadcasts of Microsoft conferences, product user groups, and free download of the patch and supplemental programs.

* FedEx (www.fedex.com) has a Web-based parcel tracking service. The Web site saves at least 100,000 shipment tracking requests a day. The savings from reducing the number of employees in answering standard customer inquiries are tremendous.

Promotion model:

The promotion model represents a unique form of advertising that attracts a potential customer to a site. The objective is to attract the user to the commercial site behind it. In many cases, Web sites provide free gifts to get users' attention. The gifts typically include digitized material such as software, photographs, music, and consumer reports.

Examples of the promotion model include:

* Auto-By-Tel (www.autobytel.com) offers a comprehensive consumer report for all major manufacturers. It attracts consumers to visit the site to read the report and compare the price. The Web site produces significant sales for local car dealers.

* Kodak (www.kodak.com) provides technical help and tutorials for its digital cameras and offers a library of colorful, high-quality digital images that are downloadable.

Info-mediary model

An info-mediary may offer users free Internet access or free hardware in exchange for detailed information about their surfing and purchasing habits. This is more likely to succeed than the pure promotion model. Data about consumers and their buying habits are extremely valuable. Especially when that

Information is carefully analyzed and used to target marketing campaigns. Some firms are able to function as info-mediaries by collecting and selling information to other businesses. The model can also work in the other direction: providing consumers with useful information about the Web sites in a market segment that compete for their dollar.

Examples of the info-mediary model include:

* Audio Review (www.AudioReview.com) is a site that allows users to exchange information with each other about the quality of products and services ± or the sellers with whom they have had a good/ bad purchase experience. Other sites take the concept a step further by integrating an intelligent agent into a Web browser.Such agents monitor a user's habits, thereby increasing the relevance of its recommendations to the user's needs ± and the value of the data to the collector.

* New York Times (www.NYTimes.com), a content-based site, is free to view but requires users simply to register (other information may or may not be collected). Registration allows inter-session tracking of users' site usage patterns and thereby generates data of greater potential value in targeted advertising campaigns. This is the most basic form of info-mediary model.[6]

CONCLUSION:

In the web design and development practice, the final review as tell that the good web design practice and the bad design practice in the good and bad design practice the design of the website as the depends on the way that the web site was the developed and the which technologies are used for that development of the web site.

In that we finally concluded that the website good and the bad as depended on which technology as used for developing of the wed page.

REFERENCES:

[1].http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Design

[2]. http://econsultancy.com/reports/web-design-best-practice-guide

[3]. http://econsultancy.com/reports/web-design-best-practice-guide-figure

[4].http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/01/31/10-principles-of-effective-web-design/

[5].http://www.watsonhall.com/methodology/top10s.pl.

[6].http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/emeraldfulltextarticle/pdf/0460090101.pd

3. Website Development

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<h1 class="font3"><a href="home.html">Home</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<a href="gallery.html"> Histroy</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<a href="players.html"> Players</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<a href="photos.html">Gallery</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<a href="Contact.html"> Contact Us</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<a href="Q&A.html">Q&A </a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

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<center><img src="liverpool.jpg", width=95%,height=1%></center>

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2. Home.html

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<img src="liverpool.jpg", width=33%,height=10%>

<img src="1.jpg", width=33%,height=10%>

<img src="2.jpg", width=33%,height=10%>

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<h1>Home</h1></center>

<h2>History of Liverpool F.C</h2>

<p>&nbsp; If it wasn't for one man, Liverpool Football Club would never have been born. When Everton left Anfield in a dispute over rent in 1892, club chairman John Houlding stayed behind along with a handful of supporters and just three first-team players. But he was determined to see football continue at the ground. He formed a new club from scratch, chose the name Liverpool... and created a legend.

Even John Houlding couldn't have predicted how successful it would become. More than 100 years on, no English club can match the LiverpoolFC roll of honour; League Champions 18 times, FA Cup winners seven times, League Cup winners seven times, European Cup winners five times and UEFA Cup winners three times.

When it is completed, the History channel will chart the rise and rise of Liverpool FC to the very summit of the England game, from the struggles of the early years right up to Gerard Houllier's historic treble in 2001. This channel will recall glorious domestic victories and European triumphs and reflect on the tragedies of Heysel and Hillsborough.

We've focused on 10 key dates in Liverpool Football Club's history to begin with but over time, we'll have over 100 chapters in this section alone as we present the ultimate history of England's greatest ever football club. This is a story of incredible passion and pride - a story that not only inspires Liverpool fans but football supporters the world over.

</p>

<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

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3. Gallery.html

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<h1> LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB</h1></center>

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<h1>

L.F.C HISTORY

</h1></center>

<ul type="disc">

<li><h3>1892 - Liverpool Football Club formed</li> :The history of Liverpool Football Club begins with our greatest rivals and neighbours, Everton, for it was from a dispute with Everton that Liverpool Football Club was born.

</h3>

<li><h3>1959 - Shankly appointed manager</li> :December 1st 1959 is a date that will forever be etched in the annals of Anfield history. For it was on this day that Liverpool Football Club announced Huddersfield Town boss Bill Shankly would be their new manager in succession to Phil Taylor.

</h3>

<li><h3>1965 - Winning the FA Cup for first time</li> :There was a feeling of quiet optimism around Anfield that this could, at last, be Liverpool's year in the competition we so desperately craved success in. After all, we were the reigning league champions and, under Bill Shankly, anything seemed possible.

</h3>

<li><h3>1977 - European Champions</li>:If winning the FA Cup for the first time in 1965 is regarded as the greatest day in the history of Liverpool Football Club, then there is no doubt that winning the European Cup for the first time in 1977 was the greatest night.

</h3>

<li><h3>2001 - Clinching the cup treble</li> :Just four days after dramatically snatching the FA Cup from Arsenal's grasp in Cardiff, and with the Worthington Cup already safely tucked away in the Anfield trophy cabinet, Liverpool's class of 2001 completed an unprecedented cup treble.

</h3>

<li><h3>2005 - Champions League Winners 2005</li> :On what will go down as THE most incredible night in this club's illustrious history Liverpool reclaimed their crown as Kings of Europe after miraculously overcoming a 3-0 half-time deficit to defeat AC Milan at the Ataturk Stadium in Istanbul.

</h3>

<li><h3>2006 - FA CUP WINNERS 2006 </li> :The 2006 FA Cup Final will be remembered in Anfield folklore as the Gerrard final as captain fantastic Steven Gerrard rescued Liverpool with a stunning last minute equaliser to break West Ham's hearts and force extra-time...

</h3>

<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

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4. Players.html

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<h1> LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB</h1></center>

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<h1>

TEAM SQUAD

</h1></center>

<h4>Liverpool FC Squad - 2008-2009:</h4>

<ol>

<li>Diego Cavalieri</li>

<li>Andrea Dossena</li>

<li>Sami Hyypia </li>

<li>Daniel Agger</li>

<li>Robbie Keane</li>

<li>Steven Gerrard</li>

<li>Andriy Voronin</li>

<li>Albert Riera</li>

<li>Fabio Aurelio</li>

<li>Xabi Alonso </li>

<li>Yossi Benayoun </li>

<li>Jermaine Pennant </li>

<li>Alvaro Arbeloa </li>

<li>Dirk Kuyt Louise </li>

<li>Ryan Babel Victor </li>

<li>Javier Mascherano </li>

<li>Lucas Leiva Felix </li>

<li>Emiliano Insua </li>

<li>Jamie Carragher </li>

<li>David Ngog </li>

<li>Pepe Reina </li> <BR><BR>

<h4>Liverpool FC Staff</h4>

<body>

<table border="1">

<tr>

<td>Manager

</td>

<td>Assistant Manager</td>

<td>Reserve Team Manage</td>

<td>First-team Coach</td>

<td> Fitness Coach

</td>

</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Rafael Benitez

</td>

<td>Sammy Lee</td>

<td>Gary Ablett</td>

<td>Mauricio Pellegrino</td>

<td>Paco De Miguel </td>

</tr>

</table><br><br>

<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

</body>

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5. Photos.html

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body {background-color: white}

h1 {background-color: red}

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<h1> LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB</h1></center>

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<h1>

Gallery

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h4 {color: red}

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<dl><ul>

<dt><h4>GALLERY<h4></dt> <br>

<dd><li><a href="22.html"> <h3> PLAYERS GALLERY</h3></a></li><BR><BR>

</dd><dd><li>

<a href="21.html"> <h3>L.F.C GALLERY</h3></a></li></dd></ul>

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<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

6. Contact.html

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body {background-color: white}

h1 {background-color: red}

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<h1> LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB</h1></center>

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<h1>

Contact us

</h1></center>

<h3>CONTACT US BY PHONE:</h3>

&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<br>

<h3>CONTACT US BY EMAIL:</h3>

&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

<br><br>

<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

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7. Q&A.html

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body {background-color: white}

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<h1> LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB</h1></center>

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<h1>

Q&A

</h1></center>

<ol>

<li><h3>Q: History of the L.F.C?</h3>

ANSWER:- <a href="gallery.html" align="center"> Click here</a>

<li><h3>Q: Players list of L.F.C?</h3></h3>

ANSWER:- <a href="players.html" align="center"> Click here</a>

<li><h3>Q: L.F.C contact Details?</h3>

ANSWER:- <a href="contact.html" align="center"> Click here</a><br><br>

<a href="main.html" align="center"> Click here to go main page </a>

</body>

</html>

DESCRIPTION OF WEBSITE:

In the developed website there are seven html files are there, each html file as the inter linked with each of the file. The seven html files are main.html, home.html, gallery.html, photos.html, players.html, contact.html, Q&A.html.

Main.html:

The main.html is the main page of the website in this page, this page as the linked with the all pages of the website, this page as the displayed as the background of the L.F.C photo. In this page i implemented the CSS.

Home.Html:

The home.html as the home page of the website the in this page we the headings and the Para of the texts as the about the L.F.C.And also in this page displayed the three images as the left alien and centralised and right aligned as the used.

Gallery.html:

The gallery.html as the content of the gallery of the L.F.C. in this page we i implemented the bulleted list for the points.

Player.html:

In this palyers.html i implemented the a numbered list and the also the implemented the two tables as used the name of the team of L.F.C.

Photes.html:

The photos.html as the use photos of the players and the L.F.C stadium, in this page i implemented the the inter connection of the pages and the also the define list as the used in this page.

Contact.html:

The contact.html as the use the contact list of the L.F.C, in this i implement the email id that can be used for the direct contact of the email.

Q&A.html:

The Q&A.html as the use the question answer of the developed website. In this page i implementeted the anchor links as the answers.

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