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1. As the people of Sri Lanka presently we are passing the period with victorious feeling and tasting the sweetness of liberty and harmony because of the peace. As a nation as well as a country, all human being of this beautiful island suffered from hardest time period. It is not only war with the LTTE, but also with some other rebels starting from 1971. All the people of country tasted the bitterness of war for few decades. If somebody tries to unfasten and examine the reason behind that, why country faced such an unfortunate time period. There may be thousands of reasons. Some of are very prominent. But one main reason is shading all of these prominent heading. That, they could not able to realize their expectations. Why they could not realize their expectations? The simplest answer is "Money". Why I try to point it out. Each and every one has an ambition when they start their life. It is comfortable life. At present global scenario the deciding factor is money. Money decides levels of people, ambitions which can be made realistic. When the group of people missed their expectations and ambitions those group is isolated from the community. Because they don't have any order over the community. They do not have identity. Then they try to re-establish their image by hook or crook. The war makers used their unrest to accomplish their organizational goals. What is the most threaten and liable to expose to this category. School drop-outs are the main group. Because they are equipped with the worming young bloods.

2. As a country we should stop it today not even tomorrow. If we unable to do it again our country will lose thousands of lives millions of rupees and uncountable worth of freedom? What is the answer we can make as a government and authorizing power. The government should clearly identify the group of people which is exposing the unrestrained situation. They should guide to the way what they can realize their ambitions.

3. The vocational training is the effective and sustainable answer for it. Country should have strategic level plan to enhance the vocational training. Still country is not enriched with the wealth of skill labour force. Not only Sri Lanka but all over the world skill labour has good market value. As a country if we are able to address that, government will be able earn lot of foreign revenues other than sending as unskilled labours.

Statement OF PROBLUM

4. The statement of problem can divided to two major parts:

a. Social

Due to the large number of school drop outs may cause serious social problem. They are express high trends to join with underworld gangs and other kind of armed gang such as rebels and robbers and certain ill legal activities.

b. Economic

The young age is equipped with more courage and morale. As a country if not utilized younger generation in correct way, it will lose most energetic valuable labour force. As a developing country it is very difficult to bear up large amount of dependants.



1. General Objective. Analyze the best course of action and make suggestion to improve vocation training sector.

2. Specific Objective. The specific objectives of the paper are as follows.

a. present condition of vocational training and what are the areas have to improve?

b. why school dropouts are specially targeted?

c. what is employment scarcity and vocational training.


3. Improving the vocational training in Sri Lanka will encourage school drop-out to foresee various job opportunities.


4. The data collection has planned through the ministry of youth affaires and skills development and The Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka and based on the documentary sources including publications, browsing the Internet and non government organization.


5. The time available to conduct this research will be only less than 2 1/2 months. The length of the paper will be limited to about 5000 words, and it will not be possible to collect data from all the reliable sources.



1. This study will be based on documentary sources such as government organization, publications, Newspapers and Internet. It is intended to gather primary and secondary data information as follows

Primary Source The data collection will based on government organizations.

Secondary Source The data collection will be based on publications, Newspaper articles and browsing the Internet.



1. Employment scarcity is defined as unavailability of employment opportunities. It is calculated as rate of unemployment. What are the reasons for the job scarcity? If it examine in closer view number of reasons are behind it. But it can identify few of prominent reasons. The first one is economical reason. As a developing country, government cannot offer job opportunity for each and every living been at the country. Even it cannot offer for the developed country. Another factor is cultural and social attitude of the people. The society is recognize some jobs are belongs to lower level and some are higher level. As an example most of people do not like work as a farmers. Everybody try to get higher position. The people do not like to join as labours because they believe it is not suited to their family levels. Some of jobs are labelled to the relevant casts. It is going to family to family. New generation does not like to continue it as it is. Some of jobs are labelled with the names such as "Malu Karaya" then people refuse to do job like that. Some of educated people such as graduates are looking job opportunity from the government. They don't like to join to private sector. To overcome those situations are not an easy. Because it is practised from the generations ago. But as a government it has to find remedies for this. Otherwise society will lose the sustainability. The conceptual thinking cannot change overnight. It will take more and more time. But government can occupy people to another opportunity. Through the vocational training it can help to maintain social sustainability. The definition of vocational training is [1] "Train group or individuals for the specific career or trade, excluding professions. Vocational training may focus on practical applications of skills and not much related with the academic skills". The problem which is arise in Sri Lanka whether vocational training programs meet the required standard and is it included ethical and philosophical training which helps to maintain social sustainability. When Sri Lanka considered, the unemployment rate as last quarter [2] of year 2010 is 4.9% it is excluded North and East province. Even excluded both provinces 353163 people are remain as unemployed strength [3] . The statistic department assume including North and East province it will easily pass the 600,000. Government of Sri Lanka have to have a strategic level plan to take a contribution of younger generation to the economy. The vocational training is the best stream for it. Because still Sri Lanka has colonial educational system. When the British governing the country they introduced educational system to cater their requirements and it was limited to government service. Even after 1948 none of government tries to change the educational system. But time to time some amendments were made. But none of were address the root cause. After introduction of free education system rate of school attendee was increased rapidly. More and more people send their children to school. But at that time the product was sufficient to the island requirements and it fulfilled the requirement of government service. The major problem was raised after introducing of free trade system to Sri Lanka. Most of wealthy people started their own business and companies. But still problem is existing none of them were address the problem.

The prevailing education system is filter students at the two major stages. It is Ordinary level and Advance level. Though government spend millions of money due to lack of productivity of prevailing educational system the ultimate product is very less. Only few students are getting opportunity to enter the University for higher education. If less number of students get the chance for higher studies what would happen for the rest amount. That is the root cause government should address. As sustainable remedy government can introduce vocational training. It should spread to broader area. It should focus every kind of school dropouts. As an example it should start from Non-schooling stage to students who are completed advance level without selecting to the university. If government success on this aspect.

As a government it can utilize its labour force 100%. It will bring benefits for the whole community from various aspects, especially socially and economic. In economic aspect government have less number of dependents and more skilled labour force. In social aspect less amount of problematic situations such as robberies.



1. During this chapter will discuss the group aimed for the vocational training are.

a. Primary-Early dropouts

b. Secondary - Mid drop outs

c. Tertiary-Late dropouts

2. Two major factors are playing the behind why they are targeted. First one is energetic value of they have. Other one is their rebellion thinking pattern. Who are the school dropouts? There are common mistake that all over the community make when they describe the "school dropouts". School dropouts are not only people who are not completed their primary education. Non-school attainders, secondary education completed students and tertiary education completed students also count as a school dropouts. The deciding factor is time period when are they leaving the education.

3. As a developing country Sri Lanka has a good record about literacy. The school enrolment of Sri Lanka is higher much as 97.5 percent. It is in numerically more than 400.000 per year. Even though country has that much higher number of school enrolment, annually 18% students are leavening school before completing the ordinary level education. It is in numerically around 72.000. Another side of this is more than 70% of prisoners who are at the prisons are belongs to this group of school dropouts. In the year 2009, 272,640 students were sat for the GCE O/L examination. Out of that only 143,000 got qualification for their higher education. However 129,640 candidates, as a percentage 47% candidates were fail to qualify for the A/L.

3. Why this group is essential? Firstly this is the group, most efficient and energetic labour force of the country. As briefly mentioned in introduction part, younger age is having a natural trend to find new arenas. Naturally younger's are very curious and rebellion thinkers. Always they think they must have a respectable place at the community.

Child labour is another face of the school drop outs at the society. The child labours can divide for the few sub types. Those are:

a. Child domestic labour.

b. Children working in hazardous industries.

c. Children working in export industries.

d. Child trafficking.

e. Child bonded labour in agriculture and certain parts of the industrial and informal sectors.

f. Child prostitution.

4. UNICEF and the ILO was carried out a research on Sri Lanka with the help of Department of Census & Statistics and found a very sad story about child labours who were left the school before completing their education. They revealed 0.926Million children are working as a child labours and they are between ages of 05 to 14. They found nearly 40,000 child prostitutes in the country while 5,000 to 30,000 Sri Lankan boys are used by Western paedophile sex tourists. Nearly 10,000 to 12,000 children from rural areas are trafficked and prostituted by organized crime groups, according to the statistics. These are only reported and calculated data and real situation may be worst than this.

Training is not only learning something. It is a kind of meditation. Through the training people can gain maturity other than learning.



1. When examine the present situation of vocational training in Sri Lanka two major parties are playing at the vocational training sector. The two major parties are

a. Government involvement [4] .

b. Non- governmental organizations.

2. Since years back lot of steps has been taken to up lift the standard of vocational training by the government as well as non-government sector. But major role is playing by the government. Followings are the institutes established by the government to cope up the assign task. The government cannot drive away job scarcity by addressing along the job market at Sri Lanka. It has to foresee the foreign market also. With the globalization the word is very closer to each other. Lot of countries has formulated some procedures and impel some standards for the qualification. In Sri Lanka also some standards has been gazetted by the government. It is known as National Vocational Qualifications of Sri Lanka (NVQSL). By implementing NVQSL the governing authority is expecting resolve the mismatch between labour market and courses conducting at vocational training centres. Further they expect easy control for the government and it is differentiate from the courses. Vocational training has divided to 7 levels of qualification. The level starts from level 01 to level 07. Level 01 to level 03 awarded by a national level certificate. Level 04 and 05 awarded by a full national craftsmanship. Level 06 and 07 is national diploma and it is recognize as a management level. The heights level is level 07 it is equal to bachelor degree.

3. The Ministry of Vocational and Technical Training (MVTT). This is the national governing body for the vocational training within the island. MVTT is the responsible authority for development and implementation of national policies which are related to the skill development, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) all over the country. The main objectives of the MVTT are to facilitate for the vocational training centres to product a highly qualified and market oriented and vocational, technical education and skill levels development training. MVTT is the regulatory body for all aspects of implementation of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Sri Lanka. MVTT has outlined the key policies and operational features of the National Vocational Qualifications Systems in Sri Lanka (NVQSL).

The NVQSL provides the opportunity for sustainable, strategic solutions for national training needs and it will easily be able to achieve international recognition for qualifications, skills and knowledge of Sri Lankan workers in an increasing competitive global environment.

To accomplish this several agencies are functioning under MVTT. To accomplish their objectives, 06 separate vocational training centres are functioning island wide.

Those are The Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC), The National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA), The National

Institute of Technical Education - Sri Lanka (NITE_SL) it is presently change to University of Technology (UNIVOTEC), The Department of Technical Education and Training (DETE) The Vocational Training Authority (VTA) and The National Youth Service Council (NYSC).

a. The Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC). The TVES was established on 1991. When it was established, it was dedicated to the following tasks. The primary responsibility was formulation of policies, planning, and quality assurance of registered vocational training centres. Further it is responsible for coordination and development of tertiary and vocational education

centres all over the country. The Tertiary and Vocational education Commission is the authorized body of conduct assessments and registration of vocational training centres. Further every type of courses has to accreditation and certified by the TVEC. It is monitoring quality of courses and standards of registered and accredited vocational training centres.

b. The National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA). The NAITA is responsible for apprenticeship training island wide. Further it is responsible for followings activities to implement of NVQSL

1) National Competency Standards

2) Competency Based Assessment Resources

3) Validation of Curriculum

4) Implementation of Competency Based Training (CBT)

5) Conducting competency based assessments (including RPL)

6) Industry placement of trainees

c. The National Institute for Technical Education - Sri Lanka (NITE-SL) This institute was converted to the University of Technology (UNIVOTEC) in March 1999 by the government of Sri Lanka. This institute is facilitating level 07 degree programs and training instructors who are teaching at vocational training centres. further it is responsible for the following activities in order to implementation of NVQSL.

1) Development of CBT Curricula

2) Staff Development

3) Development of Learning Resources

4) Implementing and Coordinating Learning Resource Development Centre (LRDC)

d. The Department Of Technical Education and Training (DTET). This is one of prominent technical education and training centre in Sri Lanka. This is responsible to manage 09 technical education centres which are offer NVQ level 5 and 06 diploma. Further it is responsible for the following activities in order to implementation of NVQSL.

1) Implementation of Competency Based Training (CBT)

2) Conducting Competency Based Assessment

3) Implementation of career guidance and counselling activities

4) Implementation of Self Employment Promotion Initiatives

5) Implementation of entrepreneurship programs

e. The Vocational Training Authority (VTA). This is responsible to manage vocational training institutes which are offer level NVQ level 01 to 05. To implement that, VTA is control following training institutes. National Vocational Training Institutes, District Vocational Training Centres, Special Vocational Training Centres, and Rural Vocational Training Centres. Further it is responsible for the following activities in order to implementation of NVQSL.

1) Implementation of Competency Based Training (CBT)

2) Conducting Competency Based Assessment

3) Implementation of career guidance and counselling activities

4) Implementation of Self Employment Promotion Initiatives

5) Implementation of entrepreneurship programs

f. The National Youth Service Council (NYSC). This is founded to organize and develop of youth and it is responsible for the following activities in order to implementation of NVQSL.

1) Implementation of Competency Based Training (CBT)

2) Conducting Competency Based Assessment 

3) Implementation on of career guidance and counselling activities 

4) Implementation of Self Employment Promotion Initiatives 

 5) Implementation of entrepreneurship programs




1. Key issues and other issues

As per the primary sources of data, it is revealed the condition of people who already working. Some of those are