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To have a better understanding of how the Tablet PC implementation affected teachers, I interviewed three lecturers from Brunel University. Lecturers had been chosen randomly at their convenient time by appointments, and interviews
were conducted in May 2005. The interviews lasted from 40 to 60 minutes, and.
The interview questions are presented in Appendix A in Volume 2.
In my interviews, we talked regarding challenges and affordances of the Tablet PC in education and learning. In this segment we also take account of selected information from the teachers responses to a number of open-ended questions on the survey. These survey questions are given bellow:
1. Please express how the use of Tablet PC changed the curriculum?
2. Briefly describe the ways in which you might use the Tablet PC in your teaching.
3. Please tell us about things that you like about using the Tablet PC.
4. Please describe things that you find objectionable about using the Tablet PC.
Tablet PC Teaching:
Writing, Drawing, and Envisioning
Examples from Teachers answer of how they might use the Tablet PCs in teaching which includes teaching descriptive writing in various languages by using pictures, different characters, numbers and linking them all together for better understanding of different materials.
Teachers can also type up notes for students to download via Virtual Classroom, manipulating digital text such as leaving blank sections in a digital text for fill-in-the-blank , put tick marks on correct answers or leaving blank space to answer the questions during online quiz's.
In Math or Science classes the pen technology facilitates students and teachers to write math and science nomenclature without the usual keyboard limitations.
The major use of the Tablet PC is to replace the blackboard with the tablet.
Teachers can effortlessly re-display formerly covered material that would
normally have been erased on a blackboard. The access to multiple pens in different colors, widths, and styles become very convenient .Easy to switch to other applications while working on one.
Easy Sharing of Information among Groups and Presenting Work with
Group works had been seen easier with the usage of Tablet PCs because students can do their own work of collecting information from the Internet and then distribute it among themselves by using a flash memory drive or infrared beaming of files.
The Tablet PC can be used instead of a whiteboard, or chalkboard when combined with a digital projector, and is, in many ways, advanced to the previously used methods. For beginners, it is usually easier to write on a tablet PC compared to a Smart board, whiteboard, or chalkboard. With the accurate software, one can pick up a wider range of communication tools, ranging from pen types, sizes, and colors to geometric objects, tables and pictures.
Often time's teachers find it useful to solve the problems in a step-by-step fashion.. Using a Tablet PC mixed with PDF software such as Blue beam PDF Revue, they scan the homework or assessment sheet into a PDF file, project it, and mark it up in real time as the problems are solve together.
Teachers also mentioned it is quite easy to set up problems in advance, copy and paste a picture or two from the web to zest up the problem, and have students work in groups to resolve the problem.Â
At the outset, some teachers felt apprehension about adoption how can teachers manage students and their learning when they are faced with screens instead of
faces? Teachers developed classroom management strategies such as walking around more to check that students are focusing on the given tasks, standing in the back of the classroom more often than they had done before, and having students put their Tablet PC in tablet mode when using it in class. Teachers also discourage students from working on several tasks at once so they do not get distracted. Control is valued, and with large class sizes (i.e., 40 students) and secondary students (i.e., ages 12-16) teachers are less inclined to conduct lessons that are more open to student control. This cautious approach is to be expected with teachers early in the implementation phase of a new technology in the classroom.
Teachers Enjoy Instant Access, Organization, and Convenience
With the help of wireless access, information is made easily available at once, and teachers can effortlessly read newspapers and Web sites to stay connected. On the survey, teachers predominantly preferred easy contact to information as a Positive feature. They also liked the multimedia features such as photos, animations, and movies in a great manner. Teachers see an advantage of the Tablet PC over desktop computers in the complete access to information. Moreover, the teachers enjoy the convenience of accessing the Internet from their classroom versus going to a computer lab. They prefer to use the Tablet PC to arrange class and student information, check homework, write with the stylus, pen or just the touch screen, and interpret items like poems with ink.
Teachers wanted to be informed when a student submitted work to the school portal .They also check online if the homework's were done. Two teachers mentioned about the convenience of going paperless, and convenience was also brought up by several on the survey, to be more clear, they liked the convenience of the digital textbooks more than others .Digital textbook help a student can see more real-life phenomena via media for example , sound ,animation, and 3D views.
Research, Internet research, Analyze Data
Teachers pointed that researching and analyzing data have become so much easier with the aid of tablet-PCs. Using a tablet pc they can read news paper, books or can even watch videos from any where. Life has become so mobile and Internet research has become very handy .Analyzing any amount of data has become so convenient.
Teachers Find Strategies for Controlling Classroom Behavior
Most of the teachers said that the classroom feels different with using Tablet PCS. several teachers believe that engagement in education makes the student management easier. For instance, if a new subject is introduced using a special Web Quest, the students behave much focused, it's easier to administer. Now students are more provoked and thrilled by the Tablet PC applications and this keeps them from being distracted instead of being bored in a classroom where a usually teacher just simply lectures them. This thought regarding easier supervision is not echoed across the board by teachers, also in the survey, several teachers reported complexity in keeping students from disruption. This could be more regarding instruction skill than it is about equipment.
Learning with Tablet PCs: Views from Students
Student Focus Groups
To obtain a better understanding of how students feel about using the Tablet PCs, 10 random students were picked as a focus group. The students were selected randomly from different backgrounds. They had been randomly asked how they might want to use their tablet pcs?
What do they think are the benefits of using tablet pc and about the probable changes it brings to the lifestyle.
Students Make the most out of Their Tablet PCs
For both school and personal use students like to surf the internet. They like to communicate through e-mail, instant messaging (IM), and blogging. E-mail and IM are used mostly for talking about homework between classmates, as well as for social purposes.
Students Access the Internet from Anywhere
Students reported that use of the Internet during class time depends on the classroom activities. They agreed that the information they find is variable in its nature, some Web sites are easy to understand and some are difficult. For the internet access, students wish not to use tablet mode for the quick access to the keyboard. They think it is important for typing search items. Each campus has absolute wireless internet coverage, so that the Internet is accessible from anywhere. Students reported they work between classes and after school at different locations on the campus PC than as a school-related activity.
Some students mentioned about using internet for researching. With the help of wireless internet and their Tablet-PCs, they mentioned life has become very convenient. Anywhere anything you need to know about, you just get connected to internet and the world full of information is yours.
Students Easily Create Presentations and Artwork
Most of the students mentioned, Using Tablet PCs, they can use the stylus to write, sketch, circle, or add notes during the presentation to highlight important points the class. They can select pointer options such as; arrow, ballpoint pen, felt tip pen, and highlighter during presentation. Students use ink to keep the audience focused while projecting the presentation on a large screen. By circling the important information, attention can be drawn very easily to the key points. Handwritten notes, questions and comments can be taken for everyone to see to make the presentation more interactive. Some students talked about the convenience of art work by using Tablet Pcs. They can quickly draw sketches or schematics to illustrate or share the idea.
Organizing Information Is No Longer a Chore
Students are very much fond of the note-taking features of the Tablet PC. Compared to paper, taking notes and connecting information together on a tablet is convenient because everything is in the same place and in a flexible form. Students mentioned that Tablet PC users never run out of paper.
Some of them enjoy the facility to attach a picture or video clip to notes.
Working in Groups Face-to-Face and Remotely
Students mentioned when they are working collectively in groups, they can easily send information to each other using Tablet-PCS. They like projects done with the Tablet-PCs. With the help of rich multimedia available to them, they mentioned that they can almost bring the subjects to life. With the help of media such as videos, sound and pictures projects look so alive than any materials that is normally found in textbooks. With this enhanced information admittance, both reports and presentations are improved. They communicate their work to each other with lots of freedom to roam around anywhere to work on campus or home. Collective work can be done when needed, they are capable of going anywhere to meet up, abd if anybody misses the meeting, and they can in fact do the discussion online."
Challenges: Form Factors and Classroom Distractions
Battery life is a challenge to the students using Tablet PCs but they have instituted ways to extend battery life by reducing the display brightness.
They worry about teachers' receiving their submissions timely , Sometimes they also worry about getting their assignments lost. Students are well aware that the teachers are always watch out for distractions.
you would have to bring around the iPad and an external keyboard with you. Typing isn't horrible with the virtual keyboard but there's no 'tab' key which I use a lot while taking notes in class. Also, sometimes apps crash, and I don't think there's an automatic save feature on Pages for iPad (like on Word) that periodically saves your work in case it suddenly crashes. I love my iPad, but another reason I would never use it to take notes in class is that I think I would look ridiculous. Right now, I think the iPad is just a laptop/computer supplement rather than a replacement so if you're between a Ma
5. Assessment THROUGH SURVEYS:
Assessment activities included written surveys and a focus groups.
The survey was conducted during the last few weeks of
class to 117 , among them 86 were males and 31 were females. Survey was conducted during the 2011 academic year. The classes surveyed comprised of an introductory level accounting class (Accounting 1), two 200-level accounting classes (accounting 2), one
300-level accounting course (accounting 3), and one 400-level
Course ( accounting 4)
The intention of the survey was to determine undergraduate students thoughts towards using the Tablet Pcs. In this survey the interviewers for the Accounting 1 course is relatively different as of the audience for the other
courses, the survey was particularly intended to examine diversities between various courses.However the survey provided
Information required to examine gender differences.
The complete set of questions with the mean responses calculated over
117 respondents, is provided in Table 1. The questions were answered
using a 5-point rating scale in which, 1=strongly disagree, 2=To some extent
disagree , 3=neutral, 4= agree to some extent, and 5=strongly agree. All
63 analyses described later in this section were conducted using a .05
significance level for determining differences among means and
linear relationships among variables.
Findings : Mean survey responses among 117 students:
Items to survey
Working with Tablet Pc is enjoyable.
Working with Tablet Pc is stressful
Using Tablet Pc makes my understanding of the course material better
By using Tablet Pc dents can make better set of notes
Tablet PC projection makes me more attentive towards the materials
I would be more likely to suggest this course to other students if Tablet Pcs were used.
I would be more likely to enroll in a class if Tablet pcs were used.
Correlations between the rating scales exposed that all these variables
have significant linear relationships. As a result, if students rated working with Tablet Pcs as enjoyable, they also believed that Using Tablet Pc made their understanding of the course material better, supplied them with a improved set of notes, made them put more attention during classes, made them more likely to suggeat the classes with Tablet pcs to others and to take another
class for themselves were Tablet pcs to be used. To conclude, same students also felt that using Tablet pcs were not stressful.
Study of variance comparing the mean scores for males and
females on the questions disclosed two significant arguments. primarily, all
students, despite of gender, rated the Tablet pcs usage in a great positive manner, the means were over 4 on the 5 point scale, apart from for the question regarding stress, which came out with a mean of 1.44.
Next, gender differences were mostly irrelevant in five of the
seven questions. Two of questions exposed the fact that females felt more strongly that Tablet pcs usage boosted their understanding of the course material . In that question females M= 4.65 against males
M=4.23 to another question and that Tablet Pcs provided a better set of notes, females M=4.87 against males M=4.52.
Appraisal USING FOCUS GROUPS:
In order to understand students' perception of tablet pc usage in a better way, a focus group had been chosen randomly from various departments. In order to comprise students with a familiar experience, yet with the widest backgrounds
possible, I interviewed students from the Computer Science, stats, accounting, management courses. Five students participated from Computer science background,Five students from stats, five students from accounting and five from management background. and the group had 10 males, 10 females. We met up at university food court.
students had been assured that individual statements would not be disclosed to the course instructor. Even though the focus group was intended to be small in size, it was anticipated it would suggest some fascinating matters that could be examined more watchfully in subsequent semesters. For instance, at one point
during the focus group study, students had been asked to explain what they thought to be the best part of using Tablet pcs in class. This is a matter that was not directly addressed in the quantitative figures.
Each of the student's responds associated to 'increased interaction'.
Upon further exploration, however, it became clear that the group
was separated with respect to what they meant by 'interaction' in different ways.
Quite a few of the students appeared to be glad about the interaction they have
experienced with their instructors and their colleagues. They referred to the ability to team up with classmates and to see other students work alongside their own as being the best parts of their experience.
The rest of the group viewed interaction with the course material and the computers as the greatest thing about using the Tablet Pcs. Reliable with the rating scale data obtained in the earlier section, these students affirmed that they felt more positive because they knew they were leaving the classroom with an excellent set of notes that was consistent with the notes of their classmates.
Even though instructors may not like to hear this, the students also
much-admired the accessibility of class notes even if they were unable to
attend a class meeting. However, understanding the importance of classroom
participation and attendance, no one saw the notes as a substitution
for regular attendance. A lot of them felt more at ease, knowing that they had access to quality notes just in case they could not make it to the class.
These arguments suggests a new set of survey questions that we can test to large groups of students in an attempt to comprehend whether or not certain groups of students value the system for any other reasons.
Subsequently during the focus group study, the students were requested to spot the negative aspects of using Tablet Pcs. The most ordinary comeback was the
Concern about the distractions that the computer based classroom
affords. Students pointed out about emails, internet browsing, instant messaging and similar computer applications as common interferences in the classroom. In contrast, and in a somewhat conflicting manner, the students mentioned that the computer-based distractions did not obstruct with their learning any more than gazing out the window would hinder with learning in a traditional classroom environment.
The students recommended that the convenient and most effective
process for reduction classroom distractions despite of the presence of computers, depends on the instructor's teaching techniques. for instance, one student suggested thought that the more the teacher lectures without look for student involvement, the more challenging the distractions will be.
with a very few student comments made during the focus group its very difficult to believe it is possible to draw any conclusions from a focus group consisting of only twenty students But we can conclude that these comments and arguments suggest routes for future work.
At the end, the focus group was concluded by asking the students if they would
suggest the pen-based edition of the course to a friend over the
similar course educated in a traditional classroom. The answer was a
loud and undisputed yes!
7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
As pen-based computers in general, and tablet PC's in particular,
gain in popularity, we believe it is important to carefully explore the
proper role of these devices in the Computer Science classroom. The
evaluations presented in this paper have focused primarily on
assessment of student attitudes toward the use of the system. In the
future we would also like to assess the impact of our approach on
student learning. While we are cautious about drawing conclusions
from a five person focus group, we believe the issue of minimizing
student distractions is also worthy of future investigation, perhaps
starting with a study to measure the frequency with which students
engage in distractive behaviors when working in standard and
electronic classrooms. In the meantime, the attitudinal data presented
in this paper suggest that pen-based computers are well-received in
the Computer Science classroom, and that these devices can be used
appropriately with a wide range of students