Viet nam war

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The Viet Nam war was a battle between North and South Viet Nam, with the help of some of the Americans that were called into battle. This war was the long that the American had taken place in. The Viet Nam war, a series of conflicts, was a devastating war that Viet Nam and American had ever token place in. These are important objectives that happened in the war.

The Viet Nam war started in 1957. Viet Nan is a small country in Southeast Asia. It was divided into the Communist Democratic Republic of Viet Nam and non - Communist Democratic Republic of Viet Nam (North and South). North Viet Nam wanted to reunite the country but the South didn't let them. In the end north won and Viet Nam was reunited.

The Viet Nam was only the second stage of the fighting in Viet Nam. The first phase began in 1946. The Vietnamese fought the French for control over Viet Nam. Viet Nam was part of the French colonial empire in Indochina. The United States help the French by sending over military supplies, but the Vietnamese still overcame them. As this stage came to a finish, Viet Nam split into two, North and South Viet Nam.

The Indochina war started in1946. France gained control of Indochina. Japan had taken Indochina during most of World War II. When Japan had been defeated, Ho Chi Minh and his Vietminh declared Viet Nam to be independent. France had still wanted to win over their former rule over Indochina. War broke out between France and Vietminh. It finally ended in 1954. France and the Vietminh finally signed a peace treaty in July of 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland.

After 1954, Ho strengthened the rule of his Communist government North Viet Nam. He suppressed non-Communist political parties. He passed land reforms and made legal equality between men and women. Ho hoped the elections would provide him with the means to peacefully reunify the country under his government. These elections never occurred. The United States moved to make the division of Viet Nam permanent by helping leaders in South Viet Nam.

Ngo Dinh Diem became president of South Viet Nam in 1955. Diem overcame all political groups in his effort to strengthen his government. But his government never achieved widespread popularity, especially in rural areas, where his administration did little to ease the hard life of the peasants. Diem became increasingly unpopular in 1956, when he ended local elections and appointed his own officials down to the village level, where self-government was an ancient and honored tradition. Even though North Viet Nam had hoped to achieve its goals without having to fight against the United States or the South Vietnamese. In 1959 U.S. advisers rushed to aid South Viet Nam by sea. While this was going on North Viet Nam was developing a supply route to invade South Viet Nam through Laos and Cambodia. This route became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. As two U.S. advisers came to aid South Viet Nam, they were killed in battle. This was the first American casualties soon to happen during this war.

In May 1963, problems broke out among the Buddhists in South Viet Nam's major cities. The Buddhists complained that the government restricted their religious practices. Buddhist leaders complained that the government denied their religious practices. They accused Diem of discrimination. They accused Diem of like Catholics with land and offices over the local Buddhists. They government try to stop the protest with mass arrests. This was all lead by Diem's brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. Ngo was the one who had ordered the raids against Buddhist temples. Some Buddhist monks set themselves on fire as a form of protest. This protest started great concerns in the United States. When Kennedy gave Diem advice, he ignored it, so Kennedy started to support a group of South Vietnamese generals who were against Diem's policies. On Nov. 1, 1963, the generals won over the Diem government. Diem and Ngo were murdered.

The fall of the Diem government set off a period of political disorder in South Viet Nam. New governments rapidly succeeded one another. During this period, North Viet Nam stepped up its supply of war materials and began to send units of its own army into the south. By late 1964, the Viet Cong controlled up to 75 percent of South Viet Nam's population. (Gilbert)

The Viet Nam war soon became an international war. United States army rose from 60,000 to about 543,000 in 1969. They joined South Vietnamese troops, also with troops from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. ("Conflict")

The two sides developed strategies to take advantage of their strengths. The United States did not try to conquer North Viet Nam. Instead, they hope that with the firepower it would force the enemy to stop fighting. United States relied mainly on the bombing of North Viet Nam. They also used the "search and destroy" ground missions in South Viet Nam to achieve their aim.

Helicopters transported troops in the Viet Nam war. The United States used giant B-52 bombers as well as smaller planes for the main air strikes against the enemy. Pilots used these helicopters to seek out Viet Cong troops. The helicopters were also used to carry the wounded to hospitals and to bring supplies to troops in the field. (O'Nan)

As the war dragged on, it divided many Americans into two groups, hawks and doves. The hawks supported the nation's fight against Communism, but they didn't like Johnson's policy of slow, gradual troop increases and urged a decisive defeat of North Viet Nam. The doves opposed U.S. involvement and held mass protests. Many doves believed that U.S. security was not at risk. Others charged that the nation was supporting corrupt, undemocratic, and unpopular governments in South Viet Nam. (O'Nan)

The growing costs of the war, however, probably did more to arouse public uneasiness in the United States than the antiwar movement did. By late 1967, increased casualties and Johnson's request for new taxes helped produce a sharp drop in public support for the war.

North Viet Nam and Viet Cong started to attack military bases and major cites of South Viet Nam. The fighting was serious in Saigon and Hue. This stage began the day before Tet. Tet is the Vietnamese New Year celebration. They hoped that this would destroy U.S. armies and cause South Viet Nam to lose all the hope they had. They also wanted to be able to set up peace negotiations with North Viet Nam leaders.

The peace negotiations failed to achieve an agreement, and more Americans became impatient wanting the war to end. In 1970, Nixon ordered U.S. and South Vietnamese troops to clear out military supply centers that North Vietnam had set up in Cambodia. Large stocks of weapons were taking back. This delayed many major enemy attacks.

On March 1972, North Viet Nam started to invade South Viet Nam. Nixon started bombing again, and using airpower against them. He ordered placing explosives in the harbor of Haiphong. This is North Viet Nam's major port for importing military supplies.

On March 29, 1973, the last U.S. ground forces left Viet Nam, but the peace talks soon broke down, and the war resumed. Congress then voted to not let anymore U.S. troops to be involved. So Americans did not returned to the war. In mid - 1973, Congress began to stop military aids to South Viet Nam. In late 1974, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong attacked Northeast of Saigon and won an easy victory. North Vietnamese forced South Vietnamese troops into a retreat to the Central Highlands. Thousands of civilians died of starvation or got caught in gunfire. This retreat is known as the Convoy of Tears.

The result of the war caused many effects to Southeast Asia and United States. There were also casualties and destruction. About 58,000 American military personal died in the war, and about 300,000 were wounded. South Viet Nam had about 224,000 people killed and 1 million injured. North Viet Nam and Viet Cong had about 1 million dead and 600,000 wounded. Big amounts of civilians in North and South Vietnam had also died.

The Viet Nam war caused the United States to spend about $200 billion. This was the first foreign war the U.S. had participated in. This failure hurt the pride of many Americans and left painful memories. This affected about 2,600,000 men and women who had served in the war, and their families. Most veterans adjusted to civilian life, but others faced difficulties in making adjustments in American society.

So as many more wars go on, they will end in the same way, with many people dead and those who can't adjust with American society. This is what war does to us and many more to come.

Works Cited

"Conflict." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Think Quest. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://library.thinkquest.org/22059/conflict/>.

Gilbert, Marc Jason. "Vietnam War." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.

Gilbert, Marc Jason. "Tet Offensive." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.

Gilbert, Marc Jason. "Viet Cong." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.

O'Nan, Stewart. Vietnam reader the definitive collection of American fiction and nonfiction on the war. New York: Anchor Books, 1998. Print.

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