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The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education is often continually looking for innovative ways of using these technologies to support and enhance student outcomes in education. Consequently, Malaysia is no exception to this and as the Ministry of Education (MOE) responsible to for the success of the use of information and communication technology. Malaysia strives to meet its government's Vision 2020, educational reform across all educational sectors has become imperative. ICT will play an integral role in the educational reform process and teacher education programs are no exception to this. This paper will report collaborative capacity building the project between urban student and rural student in Malaysia. This paper will compare with the effectiveness using the web 2.0 in teaching areas.
Malaysia implemented the first computer system in 1966. Since then, the Government has introduced various initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption and diffusion of ICT to improve capacities in every field of business, industry, education and life in general. These measures include the enhancement of education and training programmed provision of an environment conducive to the development of ICT, provision of incentives for computerization and automation, and the creation of venture capital funds. Currently, Malaysia is making every effort to steer the economy towards a knowledge-based one. On July 2001, the Deputy Prime Minister announced that Malaysia's K-Economy Master Plan was in the final stages of formulation.
Malaysia also has a long-term vision, usually referred to as "Vision 2020" which calls for sustained, productivity-driven growth, which will be achievable only with a technologically literate, critically thinking workforce prepared to participate fully in the global economy of the 21st century. At the same time, Malaysia's National Philosophy of Education calls for "developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious."
In order to support the country's ICT master plan and in line with the countries drive to fulfill Vision 2020, the education system has to be transformed. The catalyst for this transformation will be ICT-enabled Smart Schools. Other ICT-related projects involve the training of teachers, school administrators and other school staff. Innovative projects like the use of electronic books and e-learning are also being piloted to ensure their feasibility before any roll-out to all the schools in the country. Non-governmental agencies are also very much involved in the drive to introduce ICT into schools.
This paper will see how effectiveness ICT in education compares between with two types of school. First types, is rural school and second types is urban school. Section 2.0 will describe about Malaysian Education Philosophy. Next is a Section 3.0 Malaysian Primary School. After that, we proceed with Section 4.0 is about ICT in Education. Section 5.0 will describe what the Web 2.0 is. We go trough in Section 6.0 which part of the SECI model it supports to Web 2.0. In this section we have declared what model supported. Section 7.0, describe about how Web 2.0 can help expand access to education. Next is a section 8.0 how applying Web 2.0 in the Malaysia Primary School. Then we see contrast in Section 9.0 Contrast the use of Web 2.0 among rural school to urban school and finally Section 10.0 concludes this paper.
Malaysian Education Philosophy
Education in Malaysia is on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large.
3.0 Malaysian Primary School
Based on MOE, children in Malaysia begin their formal education as pupils in Primary Schools at the age of seven (7). They will continue where they left off in preschool. They will continue to enhance the 3Rs: reading, writing and arithmetic.
Pupils are introduced to other subjects which will later be taught throughout their schooling life like science, physical education and Islamic Studies and Morality. Age of Pupils will be in Primary School for six years (Year 1 -Year 6).
At the end of Year six, they will sit for their first national evaluation exam. The Primary School Evaluation Test (known as UPSR in Malay).
Pupils will be tested on:-
reading, writing and comprehension of English and Malay Language
primary science concept and skills
4.0 ICT in Education.
The Ministry of Education sees ICT as a means, not an end in itself. As such, all efforts are concentrated on developing new media as tools in the service of richer curricula, enhanced pedagogies, more effective organizational structures in schools, stronger links between schools and society, and the empowerment of disenfranchised learners. The Ministry believes that properly designed and implemented computing and communications have the potential to revolutionize education and improve learning as profoundly as information technology .Technology is not seen as a "vitamin" ,but it seen as whose mere presence in schools can catalyze better educational outcomes. Technology is also not seen as simply another subject in the curriculum, suited primarily for teaching students to use tools they may encounter as adults.
The concept of ICT in education, as seen by the Ministry of Education, includes systems that enable information gathering, management, manipulation, access, and communication in various forms. The Ministry has formulated three main policies for ICT in education. The first policy is that of ICT for all students, meaning that ICT is used as an enabler to reduce the digital gap between the schools. The second policy emphasizes the role and function of ICT in education as a teaching and learning tool, as part of a subject, and as a subject by itself and the last policy emphasizes using ICT to increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of the management system.
5.0 What is the Web 2.0.
Web 2.0 encompasses a variety of different meanings that include an increased emphasis on user generated content, data and content sharing and collaborative effort, together with the use of various kinds of social software, new ways of interacting with web-based applications, and the use of the web as a platform for generating, re-purposing and consuming content (Tom& Mark,2007).
This distinction is key to understanding where the boundaries are between 'the Web', as a set of technologies, and 'Web 2.0'-the attempt to conceptualize the significance of a set of outcomes that are enabled by those Web technologies. Understanding this distinction helps us to think more clearly about the issues that are thrown up by both the technologies and the results of the technologies, and this helps us to better understand why something might be classed as 'Web 2.0' or not. In order to be able to discuss and address the Web 2.0 issues that face higher education we need to have these conceptual tools in order to identify why something might be significant and whether or not we should act on it.
6.0 Which part of the SECI model it supports to Web 2.0?
Based on SECI model (Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization) of knowledge management adapted from Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995, we can defines the Web 2.0 have a support SECI.
Socialization is the process of convert the tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge and it involve directly interactions between people. Communication is happen between 2 or more person at the same time to discuss the same or different topic. Many tools can used like telephone after answer the call and start the sharing the information and Video Conferencing through Web 2.0 is a process of tacit to tacit knowledge are happened.
Externalization is the process making the tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge to making knowledge into explicit so that it easy to understand and shared with people. Online System Education the separation of teachers and learners which distinguishes it from face-to-face education and influence of an educational organization which distinguishes it from self-study and private tutoring for examples tools is E-Learning, tacit will transform into explicit knowledge.
In Internalization individual have to understand and internalize it and involves creating own tacit knowledge. First tools, Online Forum, if someone group member have any problem they can ask from another group members to help and fix that problems. They will use their explicit knowledge into tacit for solute that problem. A relationship between student and lecturer can provided a Learning Process. Lecturer will used the learning method to describe the explicit knowledge into the simple way based on what they know to make another student understanding. Visualization can help user to understand the information easily. Through the VisualNet, with the explicit create a new map metaphor to represent the subject category and another meaning to tacit and make another person understand.
Combination is the process of transferring the explicit knowledge through documents, databases and meeting. A Knowledge Portal it created customized single gateway to a wide collection of data, information and knowledge. It also provides different kinds of personalization so that content is presented in a manner that suits the individual's role within the organization and reflects personal preferences.
Online System Education
Table 1: SECI Model (adapted from Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995))
7.0 How can Web 2.0 help expand access to education?
Web 2.0 are powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies-scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on school (Tony, 2004).Web 2.0 is easy to:
Anytime, anywhere. Web 2.0 is easy to access anytime and anywhere. Web 2.0 is ability to access in 24 hours and 7 days per week. Web 2.0 is unlimited knowledge education.
Access to remote learning resources. Teachers no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject. A variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at anytime of the day and by an unlimited number of students.
8.0 How applying Web 2.0 in the Malaysia Primary School
Under the 9th Malaysia Plan, the Education Ministry has allocated US$6.3 million for the replacement of ICT equipment andÂ infrastructure. Ministry of Education (MOE) provides this tool to enhanced education in primary school. Web 2.0 can use in the below application. Primary school students more interact and interest with the application. Using the web 2.0, assessment student will increase for each of the school especially for the rural student.
SchoolNet is one project providing infrastructure for broadband internet (bandwidth) access in all schools for the purpose of overcoming the digital divide. As of 2005, 9,285 schools have been networked.
The project was undertaken to embrace the use of internet in teaching and learning through the development of web site that provides educational resources for student, teachers and school administrator such as teaching and learning modules, software, curriculum, news, forum and collaborative program.
This project provides computer labs and providing computer and servers to the primary school. Until 2005, assume a total of 5,037 schools are prepared a computer labs and provided 133 000 computers and 4700 server. Student can access the education website in the computing laboratory.
The Electronic Book Project
In 2001, the Ministry initiated a pilot project involving the use of the electronic book or e-book. The Ministry was interested to see how this device which stores electronic textbooks and links the user to the internet can be used to improve teaching and learning in the classroom. The Ministry was also interested to investigate the use of the e-book to replace conventional textbooks and thereby resolve the perennial problem of heavy school-bags.
9.0 Contrast the use of Web 2.0 among rural school to urban school.
In the Malaysia, not all primary school can access and provided with the web 2.0 facilities. Malaysia has 14 states including Sabah and Sarawak. Primary school can divide to categories, rural school and urban school. This categories is depends on the infrastructure, facilities, income from the one family and population. Example for the urban categories such as, IPOH, KLANG , KUALA LUMPUR , and so on. For the rural categories such as TAWAU, POST- DIPANG, and so on. The rural categories, we can declare as an interior population in Malaysia and rural categories not have a complete infrastructure , facilities and income is lower then 1000 MYR. From the categories, we can imagine how many student and how the school condition.
Urban School get all the facilities from the MOE. This is because, Urban School have a good conditions. The environment infrastructure for Urban School more development. Compare the situation in Rural School. In the Rural School, student can not feel the web 2.0 facilities provided by the MOE. We can list why the Rural School can not accept or using the Web 2.0?
First is a Bandwidth .Streaming Web 2.0 element in an online learning environment across the Internet poses a great challenge to academics. Some places outside the city, not has a good bandwidth. Its make the rural student cannot use and access the Web 2.0.There exists a big gap between the bandwidth in a city and that in a rural area. Thus, student living in cities with the fast Internet connection and a powerful multimedia technology an effective instructional medium for delivering information. On the other hand, student living in rural areas with slow Internet connection will experience a lot of problems in accessing the Web 2.0 packed online educational materials.
The second points are a High Production Cost. The cost for development and materials process is very expensive and time consuming. Especially for setup in the rural school. The cost is highest than urban school. Payment for the expert person goes to setup rural school networked is very expensive. Other than that, if the rural school not have the infrastructure like an Internet. The cost make highest than the estimate. Compare with the urban school. The production cost lower than the rural school production cost.
The third points are a Personal Learning Process. Acceptance of rural students to web 2.0 is very difficult once. Rural students are not exposed to the use of Web 2.0 technologies in school or at home. There exists the gap between city and rural student. City student more advanced in the Web 2.0. They are can explore by own self.
The fourth point is an Expert Instructor. Usually, in the rural school not have the expert instructor to teach and handle the Web 2.0 applications. Teachers who teach in the rural school also as the instructor. The teachers not have experience and expert in the using Web 2.0. If they are want take the expert instructors, rural school hire someone who specializes in Web 2.0. Compare in the city, they can get the expert instructors with the affordable payment.
The final point is a Student Acceptance. In the city student more interest and interact with the Web 2.0. This is because, student learn the importance of Web 2.0 to help students daily. Compare with the rural schools. The student feel the Web 2.0 can not help for the learning. They are like use the text book.
High Production Costs
Personal Learning Process
Figure 1.0 show the differences between the Urban School and Rural School.
From the points above, we can conclude that Urban Schools is effectiveness use Web 2.0 in the learning. Compare with the Rural School, their not very effectiveness use Web 2.0 in the learning. Using the Web 2.0 in the learning session will help to increase the examination results.
Nowadays Malaysian education is in a medium level position where it is building a better world through education and technology. MOE must concern with the rural school. The rural school must give a full attention. This is because; we can look gaps between urban schools. The urban school more effectiveness use Web 2.0 in the learning process. MOE must monitoring facilities for learning process at rural school. This is to ensure Malaysian achieve vision 2020. Web 2.0 can help student get more education knowledge.