Universal education and primary education

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Education and universal literacy go hand in hand and perhaps one of the most important factor of any nation's development economically, politically and socially. Education is important not only for the full development of one's personality, but also for the sustained growth of the nation. Elementary education and Primary Education in India, therefore, is the foundation on which the development of every citizen and the nation as a whole hinges.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is by far the large scale national program launched in 2001 with objective of achieving universal primary education by 2007. The program extends to all states and UTs addressing in a time bound manner has been successful. The Centre and states share funding of the programme in a 55:45 ratio. Reports indicate that the number of out of school children, which was 320 lakh in 2001-02 is down to 75.97 lakh in 2007-08.

Though there has been noticeable progress made during last 50 years to spread the education campaign, get primary or elementary education to most of its children, India apart from being committed to the current initiatives, should also focus at some of the concern areas which have been hindering our intended progress towards set goals.

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The first joint review Mission that visited eight major sample states in February, 2005, found that the programme had generated considerable interest and commitment and put elementary education on the development agenda, The political executive, governmental functionaries, departments of education, are all involved in not only implementing the

programme, but also moulding it to suit state-specific situations. Even though there have good achievements due to this program, there are quite a few aspects which need to be looked into. The following report enlists ten recommendations which would improve the efficiency of this program.

The aspects which can be looked at in this regard are in quality of education, infrastructure, comparatively high degree of drop out rates, socio-economical equations hindering participation and finally effective supervision cum tracking to ensure right utilization of funds and progress being made.

Quality of education is raising concerns especially when we look at the hit rates in successful continuation to upper primary, learners achievability, pupil to teacher ratio PTR, number of contract based teachers, teacher qualification and training of teachers. Lot left desired in all these aspects to bring in stronger focus towards quality of education imparted at primary level.

Infrastructure woes continue with many schools without proper building, lack of basic amenities like toilets, drinking water. Though at times schools have buildings they don't have sufficient number of classrooms to cater to growing enrolment numbers. At some states still schools continue to run with either single teacher Or single classroom or both. On top of this changing dynamics with advent of computers and how modern learning is getting perceived and imparted, we lack further behind.

High rates of student dropping out of schools are seen at states/regions with lower socio economic fabric. This is not the only reason though. The failure in 100% containment OR enforcing full proof system with checks and balances in place to abolish child labour has also resulted in children dropping out of schools. Though Govt and private initiatives brining in more incentives to school going children with schemes like Mid-day meal, have been successful to some extent, still the elementary education is free for all children in India has not caught up. This is evident as seen from results.

The recommendations are

Achieve 100% enrolment in primary education

Achieve XXX% primary education for all (Till 16 years)

Achieve average XXX% literacy rate in all states and 70% in particular for Bihar, Achieve teacher to student ratio (PTR) 40:1 in XXX% of total schools

Achieve X% improvement in teacher presence status in next 2 years

Achieve 100% pucca buildings for all primary schools in next 2 year

Achieve percentage of girls enrolment in primary education to XXX

GPI has been pretty good. Punjab and Chandigarh show inferior results compared to other states

Achieve retention rate of 90% at primary education level

Achieve 95% transition rate for primary to upper education

Achieve 100% enrolment in primary education

Though SSA objective was to achieve near 100% enrolment through out India, for some reasons it is not the case yet. As per DISE report in 2007-08, NRE has been achieved at 95.92%. That leaves behind ~4% ie 7.7 million children still out of reach of primary education. The questions that can come up are surely , Why it is the case as it seems? Are there enough schools? Where are these children probably who are still not enrolled in the system?

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The approach, we can use to answer these questions is by taking the population census and plot the number of schools against it. Below data gives states/UTs which relatively have lesser number of schools compared to other states/UTs given their population.

State/UT

Total Schools

Population as on 2006

%school ratio

Primary Only

Upper Primary to Primary ratio

A&NIslands

359

419

1.167130919

199

0.445682451

AndhraPradesh

100449

80,712

0.80351223

65352

0.349401189

ArunachalPradesh

4547

1169

0.257092589

3677

0.191334946

Assam

66727

28,665

0.429586224

50655

0.24086202

Bihar

67874

90,752

1.337065739

49868

0.265285676

Chandigarh

176

1,103

6.267045455

28

0.840909091

Chhattisgarh

49708

22,594

0.454534481

32780

0.340548805

D&NHaveli

304

266

0.875

177

0.417763158

Daman&Diu

98

216

2.204081633

51

0.479591837

Delhi

4742

16,021

3.378532265

2454

0.482496837

Goa

1503

1,492

0.992681304

1013

0.326014637

Gujarat

39039

54,979

1.408309639

12775

0.672763134

Haryana

17743

23,314

1.313982979

9503

0.464408499

HimachalPradesh

17197

6,455

0.375356167

11515

0.330406466

Jammu&Kashmir

20789

10,941

0.526287941

11782

0.433257973

Jharkhand

41944

29,299

0.698526607

28802

0.313322525

Karnataka

56441

56,258

0.996757676

28871

0.48847469

Kerala

12426

33,265

2.677048125

6704

0.460486078

Lakshadweep

37

72

1.945945946

16

0.567567568

MadhyaPradesh

129000

66,390

0.514651163

90092

0.301612403

Maharashtra

87280

104,804

1.200779102

40960

0.530705775

Manipur

4011

2,308

0.575417602

2564

0.360757916

Meghalaya

10572

2,470

0.23363602

7867

0.255864548

Mizoram

2783

946

0.339920949

1512

0.456701401

Nagaland

2523

2,119

0.839873167

1591

0.369401506

Orissa

59435

38,887

0.654277782

34286

0.423134517

Puducherry

703

1,098

1.561877667

306

0.564722617

Punjab

20026

26,059

1.301258364

13409

0.330420453

Rajasthan

103303

62,276

0.602847933

57332

0.445011278

Sikkim

1150

576

0.500869565

804

0.300869565

TamilNadu

53307

65,135

1.221884555

34835

0.346521095

Tripura

3901

3,407

0.873365804

2154

0.447833889

UttarPradesh

180058

183,282

1.017905342

128111

0.288501483

Uttarakhand

20610

9,219

0.447307132

14665

0.288452208

WestBengal

70010

85,216

1.217197543

58957

0.157877446

AllStates

1250775

1112184

0.889195899

805667

0.355865763

*Data on actual population to be covered for primary education is assumed to be proportional to total population

Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and West Bengal need more attention.

Next question on how we enable enrolment at upper primary to sustain required continuity in upper primary to achieve overall UEE? The parts shaded in brown will help answer this question which shows ratio of upper primary schools to primary schools for a given state/UT.

Improvement of existing Infrastructure

Infrastructure woes continue to play their part in hindering the progress of schemes like SSA, intend to achieve. Major problems seen are lack of 'pucca' buildings for schools, basic amenities like drinking water, play ground, electricity etc.

As Government continues to be largest provider covering up-to nearly 95% of total primary education, we still find overall 40% of schools having buildings of their own. That implies majority of schools still continue to run in make shift arrangements involving buildings which are primarily meant for some other purpose like panchayat meetings, buildings on rent, tents, etc. The funds need to be diverted to states like Bihar, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Manipur where we have alarmingly more than 30% school buildings being 'kuchha' and need immediate attention for improvements.

After having covered basic infrastructure which includes dedicated buildings to run schools, we need to look at whether all of these schools have sufficient number of classrooms to make it conducive environment for education. Below table gives overall view with data on permanent buildings, number of classrooms and where we need to focus in order to bring in improvement in the present scenario

State/UT

All

% Pucca Buildings

Average number of class rooms

Overall single class room

Condition of class rooms - Need Major repair

A&NIslands

359

67

7.9

2.51

11

AndhraPradesh

100449

50

2.9

24.25

6

ArunachalPradesh

4547

44

3

29.67

19

Assam

66727

58

2.1

56.67

37

Bihar

67874

61

2.7

5.83

18

Chandigarh

176

98

23.8

0

0.5

Chhattisgarh

49708

79

2.7

4.64

9

D&NHaveli

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304

61

3.7

4.28

2

Daman&Diu

98

96

6.2

1.02

0.6

Delhi

4742

74

17.8

0.04

4

Goa

1503

97

2.8

16.17

3

Gujarat

39039

89

5.2

2.76

4

Haryana

17743

98

4.7

2.28

3

HimachalPradesh

17197

76

3.2

6.17

9

Jammu&Kashmir

20789

82

3.3

9.07

11

Jharkhand

41944

68

2.5

2.63

11

Karnataka

56441

97

4

8.98

5

Kerala

12426

73

11

0.45

5

Lakshadweep

37

56

12.6

0

18

MadhyaPradesh

129000

91

3

3.64

4

Maharashtra

87280

88

4.3

5.52

4

Manipur

4011

45

4.5

1.67

28

Meghalaya

10572

75

2.6

21.25

24

Mizoram

2783

79

3.9

1.22

22

Nagaland

2523

75

5.5

0.24

18

Orissa

59435

40

3.5

5.23

26

Puducherry

703

77

9

1.85

1

Punjab

20026

97

4.3

2.91

5

Rajasthan

103303

93

3.7

3.69

7

Sikkim

1150

52

7

1.91

15

TamilNadu

53307

70

4.7

0

4

Tripura

3901

62

5.7

0.7

12

UttarPradesh

180058

96

3.9

0.56

3

Uttarakhand

20610

95

3.1

2.5

9

WestBengal

70010

64

4.2

6.3

22

AllStates

1250775

75

5.57142857

6.7602857

10.86

Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar need to focus on construction of new school buildings, more number of class rooms and fix the current school buildings in need of major repair.

Though over the last 5 years number of schools have increased nearly XXX%, we still need to address lack of basic amenities in some of these schools. Below table gives data on the provisioning facilities like drinking water, toilets, availability of electricity, play ground and books for reference in states and UTs in india in 2008.

State/UT

Drinking water

Common toilet

Girls toliet

Electricity

Play ground

Book bank

A&NIslands

97.79

84.4

73.82

89.42

54.32

62.67

AndhraPradesh

87.69

61.27

46.75

36.71

57.78

65.16

ArunachalPradesh

64.19

21.73

11.9

15.92

24.5

15.2

Assam

65.61

26.33

10.54

7.42

44.05

20.44

Bihar

80.41

48.52

21.62

3.02

29

28.51

Chandigarh

100

38.07

94.89

100

93.75

44.89

Chhattisgarh

86.47

37.63

19.95

19.6

37.53

46.06

D&NHaveli

94.85

32.24

25.33

69.41

25.66

72.04

Daman&Diu

92.41

80.61

61.22

93.88

52.04

78.57

Delhi

99.43

90.45

74.15

98.63

79.29

59.49

Goa

95.51

54.96

45.38

94.74

44.98

21.42

Gujarat

85.03

70.65

65.26

80.46

70.35

40.18

Haryana

96.93

94.09

87.32

95.42

82.82

86.77

HimachalPradesh

92.21

48.01

38.62

56.84

61.58

41.03

Jammu&Kashmir

70.77

37.81

21.99

19.82

42.21

46.46

Jharkhand

69.85

34.71

20.71

6.51

25.45

41.98

Karnataka

76.65

70.41

47.16

69.32

54.74

79

Kerala

98.05

84.11

78.99

88.72

69.72

84.4

Lakshadweep

100

75.68

62.16

100

24.32

56.76

MadhyaPradesh

90.66

71.62

46.98

20.5

56.24

41.47

Maharashtra

82.99

75.09

60.02

70.76

69.46

86.33

Manipur

73.51

51.28

18.03

20.59

53.5

17.48

Meghalaya

52.94

30.72

10.2

13.21

29.78

19.52

Mizoram

79.9

77.25

23.5

29.43

8.62

5.61

Nagaland

69.8

77.17

37.02

29.85

49.35

21.8

Orissa

86.28

50.86

28.04

18.39

28.27

19.94

Puducherry

98.64

69.99

86.2

96.3

58.46

15.22

Punjab

97.53

88.38

86.09

85.72

67.51

37.55

Rajasthan

85.65

36.09

79.32

26.42

46.09

52.38

Sikkim

76.55

88.7

42.26

39.39

62.78

21.91

TamilNadu

100

65.6

62.33

75.55

77.08

43.29

Tripura

76.52

69.11

22.58

11.92

60.86

13.41

UttarPradesh

97.14

91.04

82.36

16.86

65.83

51.45

Uttarakhand

85.59

84.45

52.13

28.06

55.43

51.47

WestBengal

93.42

68.95

35.13

21.1

34.53

57.18

AllStates

85.742

62.51371

47.99857

49.99686

51.368

44.20114

 

<80

<60

<40

<45

<45

<40

The states like Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, J&K and UTs need funds allocated to be vested in improving the basic amenities in schools.

State/UT

Medical check-up

Pre-primary

Boundary walls

Kitchen shed

Ramp to support Disable

Computers

A&NIslands

80.5

32.87

47.63

24.45

8.64

41.23

AndhraPradesh

56.53

10.14

52.6

31.87

10.82

21.11

ArunachalPradesh

9.24

58.1

27.07

20.05

2.99

9.15

Assam

5.93

52.97

28.33

39.66

14.71

3.69

Bihar

17.77

12.97

28.08

11.1

20.59

0.58

Chandigarh

89.77

86.93

100

26.5

35.23

76.14

Chhattisgarh

83.17

19.32

41.7

41.99

29.45

8.52

D&NHaveli

57.57

3.62

42.11

37.54

2.96

5.92

Daman&Diu

77.55

23.47

88.78

19.75

12.24

36.73

Delhi

83.99

24.38

98.67

11

65.04

72.8

Goa

76.85

24.22

62.74

4.59

18.23

30.61

Gujarat

92.1

23.6

80.43

42.32

71.55

36.5

Haryana

80.37

52.14

92.8

8.95

54.2

25.29

HimachalPradesh

65.76

12.52

28.7

4.41

27.69

11.14

Jammu&Kashmir

23.09

78.12

33.58

1.81

11

12.99

Jharkhand

17.54

6.82

23.45

30.19

5.58

5.54

Karnataka

56.92

37.24

55.62

27.29

22.42

11.84

Kerala

71.01

23.75

70.59

48.62

57.95

71.2

Lakshadweep

8.11

0

40.54

51.35

75.68

81.08

MadhyaPradesh

66.82

36.79

46.23

44.39

34.16

12.36

Maharashtra

87.8

29.97

59.59

17.58

62.78

36.49

Manipur

12.84

40.86

33.03

NR

7.38

11.32

Meghalaya

13.5

71.45

17.84

6.64

5.29

6.24

Mizoram

21.63

34.1

30.69

45.02

27.6

13.94

Nagaland

21.6

84.19

75.15

38.78

6.42

19.66

Orissa

19.84

7.2

59.56

20.77

17.85

7.96

Puducherry

72.55

75.96

85.49

27.27

38.98

63.02

Punjab

54.84

18.1

91.2

5.6

40.92

30.61

Rajasthan

78.58

11.44

63.56

32.88

27.17

14.88

Sikkim

80.7

95.91

25.74

NR

6

21.91

TamilNadu

88.93

17.97

62.55

86.96

43.7

24.28

Tripura

19.28

3.36

15.77

65.3

46.73

7.9

UttarPradesh

34.66

27.06

46.62

48.33

52.5

3.3

Uttarakhand

50.13

22.37

70.91

61.11

29.34

22.64

WestBengal

36.22

9.42

41.44

64.12

53.42

4.99

AllStates

51.819714

33.409429

53.394

31.763333

29.920286

24.6731429

 

<40

<25

<40

<25

<25

<15

Improvement of quality of education

How is the quality of education?

The big question which should be answered keeping in mind the whooping budget that gets allocated to SSA initiative year-on-year. We need to find credible basis on how we can track and find out answers not just for this question alone, but for finding out improvement areas and how to improve?

To form the said credible base we have considered following criterion to quantify our analysis and make relevant recommendations. The criterions are as below

Pupil to Teacher Ratio - Quantifies attention payable to student

Single Teacher Class Rooms - Quantifies retaining focus within manageable load

GPI indicator - Quantifies spread of education equally among sexes

Availability of Teachers - Quantifies adequacy of teacher availability

Female Teacher Ratio - Quantifies effectiveness in encouraging girl child education

Qualification of Teachers - Quantifies quality of education imparted

In-service trainings for teachers - Quantifies system preparedness to enable minimal necessary teaching skills

Teachers on contract basis - Quantifies teaching as profession

Number of instructional days in a year - Quantifies amount of time spent in school

The Table below gives details on places where there are lack of teachers, where PTR ratio is high, to collectively identify where teachers need to be hired. It also indicates where focus should be more on hiring female teachers.

State/UT

All

Average number of Teacher per school

% Female Teachers

PTR

% schools with PTR > 100

A&NIslands

359

10.35

57.34

15

0

AndhraPradesh

100449

5

44.88

21

0.22

ArunachalPradesh

4547

3.43

35.93

20

0.62

Assam

66727

4

30.16

24

3.9

Bihar

67874

4.84

36.5

54

11.39

Chandigarh

176

31

81.25

24

0.57

Chhattisgarh

49708

3.12

32.93

28

2.05

D&NHaveli

304

5

55.63

36

0

Daman&Diu

98

7.1

63.17

30

2.04

Delhi

4742

21

67.51

24

0.53

Goa

1503

5.18

76.51

19

0

Gujarat

39039

6

53.4

33

0.32

Haryana

17743

5.97

46.31

28

1.31

HimachalPradesh

17197

4

42.11

17

0.16

Jammu&Kashmir

20789

5.15

43.57

16

0.03

Jharkhand

41944

4

28.32

45

4.66

Karnataka

56441

4.61

53.2

30

1.93

Kerala

12426

13

71.65

22

0.06

Lakshadweep

37

14.92

40.18

20

0

MadhyaPradesh

129000

3

37.27

36

4.38

Maharashtra

87280

6.59

42.76

27

0.32

Manipur

4011

6

42.39

19

0.8

Meghalaya

10572

3.28

51.06

17

0.26

Mizoram

2783

6

42.55

14

0.32

Nagaland

2523

8.07

42.63

19

1.07

Orissa

59435

4

33.15

29

1.42

Puducherry

703

13.51

61.16

18

0.14

Punjab

20026

4

60.87

32

2.91

Rajasthan

103303

4.09

29.26

29

2.34

Sikkim

1150

7

45.08

14

0.17

TamilNadu

53307

5.94

73.87

31

0.94

Tripura

3901

8

24.78

22

0.77

UttarPradesh

180058

3.58

36.31

50

11.39

Uttarakhand

20610

3

46.2

25

1.81

WestBengal

70010

3.91

32.4

48

2.68

AllStates

1250775

7

47.494

26.742857

1.757428571

<=3

<=40

> 40

>=3

Number of teachers are comparatively less in Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.

PTR ratio is alarmingly high in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.

Assam and Madhya Pradesh are running schools in some places with extremely high PTR ration.

So, we should hire teachers in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarkhand, and West Bengal on priority.

Number of qualified teachers is equally important as number of teachers itself. Teacher's qualification plays important role in bringing uniformity to some extent in imparted education. Apart from the qualification, teachers undergoing formal training in teaching, schools advocating such trainings will add further professional edge and will help improve overall quality of education.

One more salient aspect to look into is percentage of teachers on contract basis. Higher the percentage, lower the quality since either sponsors are not committing funds to retain teachers on permanent roll OR teachers being no to serious to pursue teaching as career.

State/UT

% Teachers with Graduation

% Teacher received in-service training

Contract Teachers

A&NIslands

37

17.175

1.11

AndhraPradesh

57

37.32

15.19

ArunachalPradesh

50

7.47

17.31

Assam

32

28.49

8.03

Bihar

32

44.575

7.16

Chandigarh

38

16.815

1.49

Chhattisgarh

28

34.025

9.11

D&NHaveli

27

78.675

0.07

Daman&Diu

30

29.985

3.11

Delhi

36

28.26

2.37

Goa

38

50.805

1.28

Gujarat

16

71.58

1.04

Haryana

36

46.98

12.49

HimachalPradesh

32

54.12

16.2

Jammu&Kashmir

45

27.04

22.44

Jharkhand

42

36.615

44.57

Karnataka

20

36.45

0

Kerala

41

64.68

2.63

Lakshadweep

18

51.24

0.55

MadhyaPradesh

33

37.555

1.42

Maharashtra

35

17.305

1.09

Manipur

54

8.715

1.52

Meghalaya

22

20.76

6.36

Mizoram

34

36.02

24.66

Nagaland

36

12.26

0.94

Orissa

43

45.755

25.09

Puducherry

36

8.64

2.05

Punjab

35

56.37

1.59

Rajasthan

47

38.99

7.88

Sikkim

31

0.305

0.66

TamilNadu

32

56.94

0.66

Tripura

37

32

3

UttarPradesh

38

15.345

25.9

Uttarakhand

30

43.595

7.01

WestBengal

39

50.955

14.51

AllStates

35.34285714

35.53742857

8.299714286

 

<30

<30

>15

States like Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh need to enforce training programs and work towards conversion contractual teachers to be on permanent roll.

***********TBD..*******************.

Enrollment in single teacher schools at 6.84  (4.05 * 12,50,775)/100 = 85,553

Of which only primary = 6.84 * 805667 / 100 = 55,107

Refer to OwnData to consolidate. Nearly 85% of these schools are in 6 states.

Control, Track and Report progress

Improve overall tracking and peripheral support system

CRC (cluster resource centre) being the one close to ground is the first nodal agency in the entire chain to facilitate in address school needs and primary source to inspect schools and report progress data. In following states more CRC centres need to be established since currently they are less in number and also far off from action epicentre

See 'schools' work sheet . The CRC currently involves people from NGOs, State and people who are internal to the system. It is recommended that CRC should have people from Private Industries, Software Industries to occupy key roles. The companies to which the CRC representatives belong could be given good tax rebates. This would motivate private companies to nominate responsible employees into the CRC.

The frequency of the CRC report also needs to be at more frequent intervals and should be reviewed for allocation of funds. The funds allocated to various units should be based on the CRC report.

INSPECTION DATA OK

Retention, contain drop out rate

Even though the enrolment of students have increased in most states, the drop out rate continues. This needs focus and some of the recommendations are

Publicise Mid Day Meal

Are the meals provided healthy and nutritious, is there adequate drinking water in schools? Ensure that schools and students take full advantage of this scheme. To control Drop Out rates, there should be comprehensive and continuous evaluation of students throughout the year.

Civic Amenities

Whilst we lack infrastructure, housing, public parks, electricity to manage our growing population, in schools it is the lack of toilets and shortage of drinking water. Karnataka for example requires 35,000 to 50,000 toilets only for girls. Overall, 7 lakh toilets for girls are required. The highest requirement is in Bihar with 90,000, followed by Madhya Pradesh with 63,000, and Orissa 54,000. Nearly 3.4 lakh schools require drinking water in the country. The highest requirement, over 10,000 schools is in Karnataka

Publish learner's achievements

The drop out rate can be controlled very much if the achievements on the pass percentage, District Ranks, State Ranks. Provide scholarships and fees concessions for students topping in each class.

Awards for good attendance

It is recommended that awards and recognition should be given to students who attend more than 75% of the total classes.

Build close interactions with parents

The teachers and the representatives from the NGOs should arrange frequent meetings with the parents and encourage them to send the students to school continuously. One of the reason that the students are not attending school is due to Child Labour and children taking up small, odd jobs. The parents of children need to advised on how important it is for them to send the children to school.

Improving the Female literacy in India

The percentage of the female literacy in the country is 54.16% Country half of the female population is illiterate even after 60 years of independence. Sufficient initiatives to be taken to improve the women's literacy rate.

The Challenges we face currently

Gender based inequality

Social discrimination and economic exploitation

Low retention rate of girls

Low enrolment of girls in schools

Occupation of girl child in domestic are very hard.

Suggestions for improving the female literacy

In the current National scheme of incentives to girls for secondary education should be enhanced to sponsor for completion of the graduation. In the states where ratio of female literacy ratio is very low cash rewards should be announced for the girls who pass XII examinations. Government should finance the girls for completion of graduation which would lead to create job opportunities. This would help the female students to get jobs across the country.

The gender based inequality is more across the country and especially the in these states of Bihar (33.1) , Jharkhand (38.9), Uttar Pradesh (42.2), Jammu & Kashmir (43), Arunachal Pradesh (43.5), Rajasthan ( 43.9) the problem seems to be prevailing more when compared to other states. The NGO's should create awareness programs in order to eliminate the gender based inequality and spread clear crisp and strong messages both male and female are equal all aspects of life.

Even though the Indian government is taking necessary initiatives to abolish child labour, girls are not allowed to go to schools and are made to work as domestic servants in rural and as well as urban areas. This problem should be abolished by enforcing strict laws against the people who are providing domestic jobs to these children.

Government should create more job opportunities for female workers and more tax benefits , higher salaries for female employees to motivate and encourage the female literacy within the society.

Government should take strict laws in order to ensure the funds allocated for education reach where they are meant for . Checks and balances should be

enforced inorder to make sure the funds reaching the purpose of the need made for.

NGO's should educate and spread the message to the illiterate parents and ensure their children is sent for schooling regularly. The message should conveyed in all possible mechanisms either by visiting the village or using the appropriate media.

10 point agenda

Achieve 100% enrolment in primary education

Achieve XXX% primary education for all (Till 16 years)

Achieve average XXX% literacy rate in all states and 70% in particular for Bihar, blah blah…

Achieve teacher to student ratio (PTR) 40:1 in XXX% of total schools

Achieve X% improvement in teacher presence status in next 2 years

Achieve 100% pucca buildings for all primary schools in next 2 year

Achieve percentage of girls enrolment in primary education to XXX

GPI has been pretty good. Punjab and Chandigarh show inferior results compared to other states

Achieve retention rate of 90% at primary education level

Achieve 95% transition rate for primary to upper education