Unhealthful Eating Patterns and Overall School Performance

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A total of 2,222 elementary school children participated in this research study. Participants who had complete data on demographics, diet, and lifestyle and overall school performance was included in the analyses. The study sample was selected using multi staged clustered sampling. The study was aimed at children aged 6-through 13-years old. The study was located primarily within 359 townships and various other locations in Taiwan. These were divided by ethnicity, geographical location and population density. This resulted in a total of 104 schools throughout Taiwan. A total of twenty four students were randomly selected from each school to provide a sample size of 2,496 students. A total of 2,222 participants remained after excluding those with missing data. The study included 1,187 students from grades One to three and 1,035 students from grades-fourto -six. All of the participants were given consent by one of the parents.

4. Research Method: How was the study conducted? For this section, look at the article's abstract and the section on Methods/Procedures in particular to identify which of the following method(s) was/were used by the author(s) and succinctly describe the method(s) in this section of the document. (Note, your section heading is Research Method and not the types of research bolded in the section below.) If the article is not a research study, use N?A here. This is the only section that N?A may be used in this assignment.

• Qualitative Research - Consists of interview notes, descriptive observations in your journal

notes, document and artifact samples collected throughout your study.

- Historical Research - focus on studying events of the past.

• Quantitative Research - Data typically consists of numerical values that are analyzed

statistically.

- Experimental Research - Research in which the researcher manipulates an independent

variable.

- Correlational Research - The researcher studies the relationship between one or more

quantitative independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables.

- Single Subject- Collect data on one subject at a time. Study the changes in a behavior after a

treatment or intervention.

• Mixed Research: Research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative research.

• Survey Research: A form of non-experimental research in which questionnaires or interviews

are used to gather information and the goal is to understand the characteristics of a population.

• Descriptive Research: To provide an accurate description or picture of the status or

characteristics of a situation or phenomenon. The focus is on describing the variables that exist in

a given situation and sometimes on how to describe the relationships that exist among those

variables.

In order to conduct this research study on the association between unhealthy eating patterns unfavorable overall school performance a nutrition and health survey in Taiwan elementary school children during 2001-2002 was conducted by using a complex sampling design. The study sample was selected using multi staged clustered sampling. The study was aimed at children aged 6- through13-years old. the study primarily included 359 townships and various other locations in Taiwan. These were divided by ethnicity, geographical location and population density. This resulted in a total of 104 schools throughout Taiwan. A total of twenty four students were randomly selected from each school to provide a sample size of 2,496 students. A total of 2,222 participants remained after excluding those with missing data. The study included 1,187 students from grades one to three and 1,035 students from grades-oneto-six. All of the participants were given consent by one

parent. The study conducted was approved by reviewers from the Department of Health in Taiwan.

5. Article Summary: (What is the article about?):

This article analyzes a health survey given in 2001-2002 that was conducted in elementary schools throughout Taiwan. The study was approved by the Department of Health in Taiwan. Children's overall school performance was assessed by taking into consideration demographics, socioeconomic background, frequency of food intake, food preferences and statistical analysis. A total of 2,222 elementary school children who had complete data on demographics, diet, and lifestyle and overall school performance participated. Also research on the relationship between nutrition and school performance was carried out in four major areas. These included the importance of breakfast, the effects of insufficient food intake, the relationship between anemia, iron supplementation and learning, and the effects of iodine or zinc supplements in children that are nutrient deficient.

The results of the study indicate that children who do not eat breakfast have lower grades in mathematics, shorter attention spans and poor school attendance particularly in those who are malnourished. The study also demonstrates that malnutrition and insufficient daily intake of meat, fish, eggs and dairy products or long term starvation is positively associated with problems in IQ, academic performance, attendance, concentration span, hyperactivity and aggression. Children with iron deficiencies or anemia had poor academic performance particularly in mathematics. If they were given iron supplements there IQ and cognitive abilities increased. Though, giving vitamins and minerals to children without nutritional deficiencies had no effect on their academic performance. Alternatively, children that were deficient in iodine or zinc that were given supplements also improved.

Differences in characteristics were compared and unfavorable overall school performance was associated with unhealthful eating patterns that included high intake of low quality foods such as sweets and fried foods and low intake of dairy products. Also better performance was associated with high nutrient foods such as fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and eggs. Kids with poor eating patterns were considered more at

risk for poor performance at school. The study shows that children that do not do well in school were more likely to eat sweets and fried foods and were less likely to eat foods rich in protein, vitamins and minerals.

6. Results/Outcomes: Summarize the statistical findings then identify the strengths and

limitations of the study. While strengths and limitations are most typically discussed in the Discussion section of articles, you might find it noted elsewhere as well. This section is important for a critical review of all articles.

• Did it work?

• What happened?

• Were there any problems identified

• What did the researchers think?

• How can you improve upon the limitations to move forward with your work?

• Discuss the sources usefulness to your research and its implications for classroom teaching.

(Refrain from using the person first pronoun in your document; instead, use "as an educator…,"

"as a future educator…," "this researcher…," "this examiner…,"

• Why is this article important in the field of education and in future teaching? Do you expect this

article to be helpful as you develop your topic of interest for your research or classroom application? Why or why not?

The results of this survey demonstrate that there is a close correlation between unhealthy eating patterns and overall school performance. Unfavorable performance was more common among boys than girls and among the higher grades as opposed to the lower grades. Also unfavorable overall school performance was prevalent in the mountain areas of Taiwan compared to other locations. The study showed that there was no significant difference in height, weight and body mass among children and overall school performance. The research study also found a significant association between children's overall school performance and their family environment. Children were less likely to have unfavorable overall school performance if there parents were Chinese as opposed to Taiwanese; they had higher levels of education; or were from a higher socioeconomic background. This study also found that poor overall school performance in Taiwan elementary school children can be explained by their unhealthy eating patterns. Unhealthy eating patterns can be characterized by a high intake of low quality foods such as sweets, fried foods and low intake of dairy products. Also better performance was associated with high nutrient foods such as fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and eggs. Kids with poor eating patterns were considered a higher risk for poor performance at school. The study demonstrates that children that do not do well in school were more likely to eat

sweets and fried foods and were less likely to eat foods rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. The study also demonstrates a negative relationship between the intake of low quality foods and fruits and vegetables. The higher the intake is of low quality foods the lower the intake is of fruits and vegetables. This indicates some definite overlap and it is likely that unhealthy eating patterns affect the in take of proteins, vitamins and minerals.

Although this study maintains that there is a relationship between dietary pattern and overall performance according to the evaluator, it is difficult to establish a relationship between eating patterns and overall performance. The evaluator maintains that additional research is required to establish this. However, it is suggested that there is an association between how children select foods and the frequency in selecting these foods. This indicates that liking and disliking low quality or high quality foods can affect how children select foods. In turn, this determines their nutritional level and school performance (Cheng, Fu, Pan, & Tu, 2007).

To summarize, this study reinforces the importance of a healthy and balanced diet. A balanced diet is crucial in maintaining physical health and emotional well being. As a future educator, it is important to promote a healthy and balanced diet. It is essential to encourage colleagues to stress the importance of a balanced diet. As educators we need to make nutrition a part of the elementary school curriculum and include it in our teaching methodology. It is essential to promote the four major food groups outlined in the Canada's Food Guide and incorporate them into lesson plans. It is important to encourage collaboration within the classroom and to share ideas and perspectives. Have students compare foods that they have consumed in the past day to determine what food groups they are missing in their diets, the importance of them and the value of a balanced diet. It is essential to educate both students and parents as to what constitutes good

nutrition and make efforts to instill good eating habits that will continue through to adolescence. Even though the evaluator of this article maintains that there is not a definite correlation between eating patterns and unfavorable school performance, it is important to note that there is a close enough relationship worthy of investigating.

Annotated BibliographY 2

Research in Education Module 6

Rose Galati

Medaille College

Research in Education ECI 510

Prof. Enzinna

July 10, 2009

Article 2

1. Article Reference: (in APA format and within 5 years):

Tapper, K, Murphy, S, Lynch, R, Clark, R, Moore, G, & Moore, L

(2008).Development of a scale to measure 9-11-year-olds'

attitudes towards breakfast. European Journal of Clinical

Nutrition, 62, 511-518.

Objective/Purpose: What was the author(s) stated objective(s) or purpose(s) for writing the article and/or for completing the research?

The purpose of this study is to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.

3. Target Population Participant Number: How many people participated (sample

size/population) in this research? Describe the population by providing demographic

variables including (but not limited to: class, gender, grade, race, religion, socioeconomic

status - based on parental education or free lunches)

A total of 2495 children in grades five and six that were aged 9 to 11 years old participated in this study. A total of 199 children participated in the pilot testing and 2382 of these children participated in the main study.

4. Research Method: How was the study conducted? For this section, look at the article's abstract and the section on Methods/Procedures in particular to identify which of the following method(s) was/were used by the author(s) and succinctly describe the method(s) in this section of the document. (Note, your section heading is Research Method and not the types of research bolded in the section below.) If the article is not a research study, use N?A here. This is the only section that N?A may be used in this assignment.

• Qualitative Research - Consists of interview notes, descriptive observations in your journal

notes, document and artifact samples collected throughout your study.

- Historical Research - focus on studying events of the past.

• Quantitative Research - Data typically consists of numerical values that are analyzed

statistically.

- Experimental Research - Research in which the researcher manipulates an independent

variable.

- Correlational Research - The researcher studies the relationship between one or more

quantitative independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables.

- Single Subject- Collect data on one subject at a time. Study the changes in a behavior after a

treatment or intervention.

• Mixed Research: Research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative research.

• Survey Research: A form of non-experimental research in which questionnaires or interviews

are used to gather information and the goal is to understand the characteristics of a population.

• Descriptive Research: To provide an accurate description or picture of the status or

characteristics of a situation or phenomenon. The focus is on describing the variables that exist in a given situation and sometimes on how to describe the relationships that exist among those

variables.

A study was conducted in primary schools in south, west and north Wales, UK using a pilot study and a 13 item scale. The purpose of the pilot study was to select questionnaire items and assess there reliability for testing and retesting. The questionnaire was later administered to a larger sample of children along with a dietary recall questionnaire. Subsequently a sub set of these children were then chosen randomly and asked to complete a dietary recall interview. Parents of other children in this subset were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their child's breakfast eating habits. The purpose of the scale was to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast. This scale was developed using qualitative and quantitative literature and was used to devise a list of items describing feelings and beliefs or behaviors. These items included feelings of well being, general health, concentration and behavior, energy, general importance placed on breakfast, breakfast eating behavior and social aspects of breakfast. Children were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with each statement. To increase accuracy 15 of these statements were reversed and meant that disagreeing with the item was consistent with a more positive attitude towards having breakfast. Children were also asked whether they had eaten breakfast that morning.

5. Article Summary: (What is the article about?):

This study took place in primary schools in south, west and north Wales, UK. A total of 2495 children ages 9-11 completed a questionnaire relating to their breakfast eating habits. In addition, a scale to measure children's attitudes and behaviors was also used. The questionnaire was administered twice with a seven to eight day gap in between to

examine the test reliability. The scale was composed of various items including feelings and beliefs or behaviors that reflected different areas. These areas included feelings of

well being, general health, concentration and behavior, energy, general importance placed on breakfast, breakfast eating behavior and social aspects of breakfast.

The results showed that boys displayed a more positive attitude towards breakfast than girls. Children who did not skip breakfast displayed more positive attitudes than children who skipped breakfast. Children who consumed healthier foods for breakfast such as fruit, bread, cereal and milk products displayed a more positive attitude.

Laboratory research shows that consumption of an adequate breakfast is linked to short term improvements in attention, memory, mood and motivation. These findings come from experimental studies conducted in school settings that have shown positive effects of breakfast on memory, arithmetic, verbal fluency, physical endurance, creativity and behavior. The article maintains that skipping breakfast becomes increasingly prevalent as children get older. It isestimated that 19% of 15 year olds skip breakfast. As a result, it's becoming more and more important to instill good breakfast eating habits that will continue into adolescence. Studies have shown that children's attitudes towards breakfast are predictive of their breakfast eating patterns and behavior. Eating breakfast contributes to a healthy diet and has a positive impact on the cognitive process. As a result, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate breakfast programs and initiatives.

6. Results/Outcomes: Summarize the statistical findings then identify the strengths and

limitations of the study. While strengths and limitations are most typically discussed in the

Discussion section of articles, you might find it noted elsewhere as well. This section is

important for a critical review of all articles.

• Did it work?

• What happened?

• Were there any problems identified

• What did the researchers think?

• How can you improve upon the limitations to move forward with your work?

• Discuss the sources usefulness to your research and its implications for classroom teaching.

(Refrain from using the person first pronoun in your document; instead, use "as an educator…,"

"as a future educator…," "this researcher…," "this examiner…,"

• Why is this article important in the field of education and in future teaching? Do you expect this

article to be helpful as you develop your topic of interest for your research or classroom

application? Why or why not?

The results of the study demonstrate that boys display a more positive attitude towards breakfast than girls. Children who do not skip breakfast display a more positive attitude than children who do skip breakfast. In addition, more positive attitudes towards breakfast are significantly connected to a greater number of healthier foods for breakfast and parent's perception that their child usually eats a healthy breakfast.

To summarize, eating breakfast regularly contributes to a healthy diet. It also contributes to cognitive functions and behaviors. It improves a child's concentration and emotional well being. However, it is also worthy to note that although eating breakfast contributes to a healthy diet this is the meal most frequently missed.

As a future educator, it is imperative that nutrition is discussed in the classroom and reinforced by using visual aids, videos and educational films. It is essential to educate both children and parents. Children who do not eat breakfast have difficulty concentrating in school. Teachers need to encourage children and parents to participate in breakfast programs already in place in school districts and to build on these programs by adopting good nutritional habits in their homes. As educators it is important to research programs that exist or programs that could be implemented to assist in the provision of breakfast, lunch or a snack during school hours and bring these to the attention of administrators. We need to stress the importance of a balanced diet and make

an effort to instill good eating habits in children that will continue through adolescence. It is important to encourage classroom discussions that can be facilitated by each

individual's experiences and insights. Children should be encouraged to value diversity and culture. Ask children what they ate for breakfast, have them compare it to the four major food groups and discuss alternatives according to their culture. It is critical that we encourage collaboration and the sharing of ideas and perspectives in the classroom. We must also keep in mind that learning goes beyond the classroom. Educating children on a balanced diet is only the beginning. As future educators we must provide them with the knowledge they need. In this manner, we can shape their thinking and encourage them to make the best choice for a healthy lifestyle.

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