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The Part B is a critical reflection about my observation. Surround Piaget and Vygotsky's(1934) theories understanding with critical reflection centre on the theory of constructivism influence in non-learning section. I will describe the theories how influence much of in playground to make children's self-esteem development, and those theories how positive and negative to children. In this critical reflection, I can deepen understand the psychology knowledge and education theory are the headstone of the education strategy.
Piaget (1980) is a well-know pioneer of on cognitive development theory who created four distinct stage of cognitive developmental in children that described how children's ways of thinking developed as they interacted with environment surround of them. He contributes the theory of constructivism has been adopted by wide-world as major strategy in central teaching. He was different with other theorists who focused on studies children's cognitive aspect of occurrence in distinct, measurable, and observable stages. This theory is influenced by much of the non-formal learning sector that created enormously influence in domain of children education.
The self-esteem is a domain of development in children's of concept of themselves. It is built on individual and real unique thinking that encompass self's beliefs to relate with self experience. With the growth of age, children try to adapt themselves with environment around them. Lisa's, in my observation is 5 years ole. According to Piaget's theory of fore stage, Lisa is in proportional stage, her prominent characteristics are representing objects with images in simple ways. She's self-esteem is often sway with 'ego', she has no concrete self-esteem yet to esteem self and make diction, play, happy and image is her all life. Her brain, psychology and physical development is expecting to mature. Lisa's social cognitive and experience is limited, in this way, the parenting style to her will be significant influence. Piaget and Vygozsky both emphasized the social environment integration is children cognitive development obligator factor.
Ego and self-esteem has different definition. The ego, generally express ones ask. If a person have unhealthy ego, for example, "I am master, I am use to critical of others' and 'I must resent other people', it is not a simple self-confidence, and it is harmful propensity, self-central pride, and self-worthiness. This is a biggest hurdle to working with others social communities. To distinguish the ego correctly with keeping health self-esteem that is adult nurture strategy.
Human development is on love, help children are help ourselves. Children's self-esteem comes from a nature resource that is parents' love and understanding, it is a perpetual process of learning and cognitive development, in lifelong. I think that without love and understanding, the self-esteem function will miss out or lopsided development.
The one of the Piaget's theories is concreter cognitive which called "Concrete operational" stage. This stage is crucial stage for middle child hood children. They become thinking logically about objects and events; esteem themselves more involving social factor that more concerned with self value in social relationship. But their psychology is development new level.
In concrete-operational stage, middle childhood children start to think conceptually and abstractly, and to create logical structures and explain his or her life experiences. In my observation, I noted Lisa play a meaningful make-believe game to improve the relationship with Peter that encouraged and guiding by mother. She pretends putting a sweet in to Peter pocket to complete game. In fact, she just enjoys the pleasure and imaging believes that fit her age characteristic. This make-believe game is naturally arisen her self-esteem cognize and cognitive development. She was successes; she got more self-confident from problem solving ability.
For keeping children's health self-esteem development, parents need awareness that taking warmth and good commutation attitude to nurture child is positive patenting style, it can rise children's self-esteem development, if not the self-esteem will be dropped down while children growing.
In concrete-operational stage, sometimes we heard often that a child says: ' I am a man.' and parents says: 'Oh, you a man ' as praising. This is an affection of sample. Even the meaning is positivity but it stimulates over children self-confident with self-esteem that could be lead to adolescent egocentrism. These occurred at perception, memory, imagination, thinking, reasoning intellect, etc. while they growing.
The theory of the Constructivism
Piaget's theory of constructivism impacts learning curriculum becoming central of teaching method in most of school. In modern time, a teacher connects with the adjoining atmosphere play in student education. For example, teachers hold fundamental concepts or role in her mind, plays when it comes to build cognitive structures in object; that is same Peter's mother, she asked her children playing a imaging game and she involved in as a part of role, until her children build up new cognitive construct, she give compliment to confirm their behavior.
During children the solving-problem ability had raised, their psychology has been improved as well, following is intelligent gain and cognitive developed. Some of psychologists like J.Vygotsky (1896-1934) and J. Bruner (1915- ), they emphasis the constructivism of concept on part played by children's learning and language acquiring which proved the theory of constructivism's positive effects.
Otherwise, I think of the most of significant view in the theory of constructivism is interaction. People in the playground or classroom, teacher and learner or parent with child, they haven't be awarded of the new cognitive development and psychology development is acting by dyadic interaction which motivated transformation to get varies change. Piaget studied and funded the theory of constructivism that great influence education in the world.
Piaget's theory of constructivism reformed traditional education. Contrast to old teaching method, strategy and theory in traditional education, teachers used to make a curriculum plan with experience and blend in her personality thoughts to enhance students' learning and conceptual growth. There is no interaction between teacher and learner in classroom. The teacher is justice that likes ex-teaching system in China before the country reform and openness in 1978. Students have asked to abide by school discipline. One of the items was: "Shouldn't be talk in class"; "If anyone has question dismissed the class". I f not, the student will be punishing by hard ruler. I remember one of my teachers always said in lass: "you must stand up like a pine, sit up like a stand-clock". So, under the traditional teaching method, the students were much less critical thinning, in fact, motivation and d desire for knowledge have been suppressed caused by fear.
Vygotsky (1934) had different concepts to Piaget at the theory of cognitive development. Vygotsky emphasized interact with social play engaged with social cognitive development; Piaget sparkplug universal stages and content of development. But even they have different notion, they still have similar common viewpoints that is children's cognitive development comes from the both at motivation of internal and external interacting to unity and development.
Pretend play is a inspiriting the imagination and thinking skills. In different life stage, children have their own self-esteem and cognitive abilities. Peter plays make-believe game which involves with concrete mental sense fundamental role to development of cognition; Lisa is difference. The psychological characters let them attentively to image a virtual world and along with the universal stage forward to next cognitive filed. Lisa is younger than Peter 2 year. She's cognitive ability staying on preoperational stage. She has limited concepts of quantity and logical thinking. She gains some positive and negative behaviour and emotional manages relationship but she still cannot conversation with others logically. She play pretend game surround with pleasure. They need their mother support and guide to improve behaviours and cognitive abilities. "We can say that imagination in adolescents and schoolchildren is play without action" (Vygotsky ).
Pretending play and make-believe game is most of children loved action that assists children's mastery of language and mentality, developing social cognitive and gradually mature intelligence forwarding transition to next stage.. "One of the basic psychological structures determining the child's relationship to reality is radically altered". (Vygotsky, 1894 - 1934).
This assignment is an observation and critical reflection. From this active, I have further understood that children's cognitive and intelligence development depend on psychologies, physical and environments changing, To educate children/students well that is a process of study to learn comprehensive knowledge with lifelong. There are some major viewpoints in my mind are: I think, Vvgotsky's notion at children psychology evolution deepener and easy carry out; Self esteem is an engine to develop cognitive development but needed encourage and guided; Parenting style is main role effect children comprehensive development even I didn't described much in my assignment; I mentioned theorists that they have similar foster strategies and cognitive note, the different and argue caused by their professional fields.