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This review of the relevant literature surveys the two primary variables within the study. It focuses on factors that shape teachers readiness and integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The review of literature divided into ... sections: first section.
Chapter 2 is based upon a detailed review of a variety of sources and databases. Recommendation from my supervisors and Becta's network groups provided a number of valuable resources. Keyword searchers were conducted in electronic databases, such as, Springer and British Journal of Educational Technology, using a combination of the following terms: technology readiness, technology integration, using technology, technology users, barriers, enabling factors, pedagogical knowledge, and professional development. The bibliographies in these references and other similar works led to websites, books, conference presentations and dissertations not often found with database searchers. Occasionally, Google and Google scholar were used to cross-reference and locate reviews. Additional, the bibliographies of the references were mined to help locate the original works and many Internet sources.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) pervades modern society to the extent that many countries now regard the mastery of ICT as a core element of basic education. ICT is more than just another subject for students to study; ICT has the potential to be a valuable tool in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning (DfES, 2003). This is the why ICT considered very important and before go directly into other issues, I think, first we need to understand what is ICT?
Definition of ICT
The end of the 1980s, the term 'computers' was replaced by 'IT' (information Technology) that indicating a shift from computing technology to the capacity to store and retrieve information (Pelgrum and Law, 2003). This was followed by the introduction of the term 'ICT' (Information and Communication Technology) around 1992 (ibid).
Kumar (2008) defines information and communication technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that contains any communication device and application such as computer, television, radio, network hardware and software, videoconferencing, and distance learning.
According to the government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2009), ICT is an umbrella term that integration of information and digital communication tools as well as telecommunications infrastructure. It includes a variety of application and technologies such as radio, television, cellular communications, computer, computer hardware and software, graphic design, to name a few. Lever-Duffy et al. (2005) claim that some 'educators may take narrower view' and are likely to 'confine educational technology [/ICT] primarily to computers, computer peripherals and related software used for teaching and learning' (pp. 4,5).
In this review, the term ICT assigns as any computer based and communication technologies networked and stand alone, including both hardware and software, which can be used as teaching, learning and information resources.
Impact of ICT on teaching and learning
The rationale of the use of ICT is based on whether using technologies have a positive impact on the learning and learners and teachers and teaching (Newhouse, 2002). Many governments want to know about the return on investment in ICT whether it has positive impact (Pilkington, 2008). A number of recent studies begin to provide evidence of the return on investment. I will now review the impact of ICT on learning and learners/students and teachers and teaching. Most of these research carried out in the United Kingdom (UK) where has undertaken extensive research in the field of ICT impact.
Impact on learning and learners
There are quantitative and qualitative based studies on impact of ICT on students and their learning. The quantitative based studies tried to establish a causal link between use of ICT and students' outcomes based on analysing the statistical data whereas qualitative based studies tried to gather opinions of teachers, students and parents.
Regarding to impact of ICT on student performance in subject matters areas several studies have undertaken. Some studies have suggested that use of ICT have impact on learners' attainment. The study of Harrison et al., (2003) which is one of the most comprehensive study (ImpaCT2 project) into the impact of ICT on educational attainment based on evidence gathered from 60 schools in England, analysed the relationship between the pupils' performance in National Test and GCSEs in English, Maths and Science. This study found evidence of a statistically significant positive relationship between ICT and higher achievement, particularly, there is a positive relationship in National Tests for English at Key Stage 2 (age 11), in National Tests for science at Key Stage 3 (age 14) and in GCSE exams for science and design and technology at Key Stage 4 (age 16). However, as it is seen there was no consistent advantage for higher ICT use in all key stages (2, 3 and 4). Authors of the study suggest that the reason could be lack of 'constructive alignment between assessment and learning and effective teaching' (Pilkington, 2008, p.1006). Pen-and-paper test was not represented the impact of ICT on students' learning, because other variables or factors such as quality of teaching are needed to consider as well to find out the real impact of ICT on education, as Harison et al. (2002) and Pilkington (2008) specify that the factor of quality of teaching with or without technology is the most likely to impact on learning. Therefore, this reveals one of the problems with large-scale surveys and quantitative reporting that is if students in key stage 2 get good result in English but not in key stage 3 or if one school has similar levels of ICT use as another, but has achieved extensively different mean gain scores (Harison et al., 2002) so it is difficult to tell why this was the case. Thus, more qualitative approach (such as case studies) with rich contextual data are needed as also the authors of impaCT2 study concluded.
A second UK project that explores the relationship between ICT and learner outcomes is the Test Bed project which carried out in 30 schools and colleges over a four year period 2002-2006. This evaluation project also confirms that dissemination of the technology and use may improve the performance in the tests (Underwood et al., 2006). They found that students', who are in Key Stage 3, mathematics tests in 2004 improved significantly compared to their performance between 2002 and 2003. Furthermore, DfES appointed University of Newcastle to conduct two year study on evaluating the 'Embedding ICT in the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies' pilot project (Balanskat et al., 2006). Their evaluation show that pupils' performance improved in National literacy, mathematics and science tests compared to in other schools. The OECD (2006) study 'Are pupils ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us' further states that there is a positive relationship between students' high level of use of ICT and their performance in PISA mathemantics (Balanskat et al., 2006). Indeed, overall, these studies do not prove a direct link between the use of ICT and students' performance. However, these studies undoubtedly show that there can be a positive impact using ICT.
These studies focused on the measured impact of ICT in terms of students' attainment. However, some studies focus on perceived impact of ICT. These are: 'e-learning Nordic 2006' which focusing on the impact of ICT on education in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark based on 8000 participants (students, teachers, headmasters and parents) from 224 primary and secondary school (Ramboll Management, 2006); 'Ernist ICT Schoolportraits' which was a large scale ICT monitoring programme to describe and analyse schools that use ICT applications effectively (European Schoolnet, 2004); and 'ICT Education Monitor: Eight years of ICT in schools' which analyses the developments of ICT in Dutch schools in the past eight years (Kassel, 2005).
According to Nordic 2006 study, teachers and parents and also students for themselves considered that ICT has a positive impact on pupils' learning (Ramboll Management, 2006). This also confirmed by European Schoolnet (2004) study. According to Nordic 2006 study, teachers consider that pupils' performance and basic skills which are calculation, reading and writing, improve with ICT (Ramboll Management, 2006). Furthermore, Kassel (2005) agreed on that educational achievements of students improve when ICT is used in the learning.
These literature look at the impact of ICT on learning and focus on students' performance and attainment. There is also impact on learners such as on their motivation, concentration and critical thinking. The following literature is confirmed that ICT has positive effects on those variables.
The wider European surveys, which carried out in 27 countries with head teachers and classroom teachers in 2006, exposes that most of European teachers notice that ICT has advantages to use in schools (Korte and Hüsing 2006). The majority of teachers (86%) declare that learners are more motivated and giving more attention to lessons when ICT are used in classroom. However, there is a significant number of teachers disagree with technology use in classroom has a pedagogical advantage (ibid). However, authors did not triangulate teachers' perception well with students' perceptions, observations or assessment data. Therefore, only perceptions of teachers are not provided enough evidence. According to ImpaCT2 (strand 3) study (Comber et al. , 2002), the common factor that teachers mentioned in their comments is motivating impact of ICT and teachers noticed that students' involvement in learning activities are increased as one of year 6 teacher & literacy co-ordinator in Westbrook 8 Primary School stated that: 'The children â€¦ are completely committed to doing that work, finishing that task ... you can certainly see the motivation. They will all want to go on the computer and the work they produce is far superior, and not just in terms of presentation â€¦ they have more time to consider the consequences of what they are (Comber et al., 2002, p.8).
The study of evaluating pilot project of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) in literacy and mathematics lessons, Higgins et al. (2005) found that teachers perceived IWBs as a tool to motivate and engage students, particularly primary pupils, and they pay more attention to lessons during lesson time. The above findings are also supported by the findings of other UK studies such as the study of Passey and Rogers (2004) on 'the Motivational Effect of ICT on Pupils' and the evaluation of ICT Test Bad project that performed by Underwood et al. in 2006 which confirm that ICT has a strong motivational effect. The e-learning Nordic 2006 study also emphasises on ICT impact on students' motivation, engagement and creativity (Ramboll Management, 2006). Furthermore, in this study they found that teachers provide various learning tasks within same classroom by using ICT to tailor programmes according to individual needs of students and then they do assignments more in their own way (ibid).
Although there is evidence on the impact of ICT on learners, how teachers use ICT within the teaching and learning process is very important factor that provides this impact on students. As Ramboll Management (2006) states that 'benefiting from ICT's potential does not just come by plugging in the computer and continuing with the same teaching styles' (p.54). The question of whether there has been a change in teaching practise will be addressed in section 4.
Impact on teacher and teaching strategies
ICT has been introduced into schools during the last decade, particularly in developed countries like UK. The required pre-conditions for ICT impact are infrastructure and importantly the quality of ICT use in the teaching and learning process (Balanskat, 2006). These are essential in impacting on learning outcomes and other variables related with learners.
Most of the studies show that teachers' enthusiasm is increased for the use of ICT. The study of ITU (2004), which held in Norway between years 1999-2003, reveals that the participant teachers have more positive attitudes towards technology use. The other study that confirms this, is carried out in the UK by British Educational and Communication Technology Agency (Becta) in 2003. Becta evaluated the first year of initiative of the Laptops for Teachers (LfT) which launched by the Department for Education and Skills in 2002, aimed to increase teachers' access to computers. The study found that teachers' positive attitudes and confidence increased by using their own laptop computers (Becta, 2003).
The teachers who took part in the IWBs project, which performed by Higgins et al. (2005), were persuaded that using technology in lessons was improving teaching and learning. However, we do not very clear about whether the transformation of technology in teaching process is effective and purposeful practice (Higgins et al., 2005). Higgins et al. (2005) specify that for the use of IWBs to be justified 'it must be used in ways which promote more effective learning above and beyond that which is possible when teaching with other kinds of projection technology or with ordinary whiteboards' (p.8).
Using technology also increased efficiency in planning and preparation of teachers' work due to a more collaborative strategy between teachers (Blanskat et al., 2006). There are different opinions on efficiency among teachers (ibid). Teachers believe that there is not enough time (or lack of time) to integrate ICT into teaching (ibid). Conversely, some studies like ICT Test Bed project shows that teachers can be saved their time, if they use ICT for their medium or long term planning which is reduce their workload (Underwood et al., 2006). This make obvious that there is a need to show teachers how could be ICT saved their time, if ICTs are used efficiently.
Although e-learning Nordic study's results suggest that teachers are very positive about technology in general and they believe using ICT do not waste of their time once they get over a certain threshold, the most of teachers in the study not reporting an impact of ICT and they find that their teaching time is wasted as a result of ICT in school (Balanskat, 2006). However, ITU (2004) states that technology provides differentiated learning which means students can work more independently. Thus, teachers have more time to prepare their lessons according to students need (ITU, 2004).
Another impact of ICT on teachers is that ICT provides cooperation between teachers and they share curriculum plans with their colleagues so this save their preparation of lesson plans (Higgins et al., 2005). The same result found by Harrison et al. (2002) and Comber et al. (2002) that the use of ICT make lessons plan preparation more effective and efficient then they save their time.
Most of studies on ICT impact on teaching state that there is no infrastructure problem particularly in developed countries but more training are needed to support innovative pedagogy (Underwood, 2006). In addition, teachers are more enthusiastic to use ICT then before and they realised that they can save their time through experienced use of ICT. There is not any research which shows pedagogical gains that directly influence students' learning (Balanskat et al., 2006).
Although I focus in this dissertation is almost entirely on teaching and learning, the use of technology impacts administrative and management service functions as well.
Before look at impact of ICT in schools, first schools need to be ready and can integrate ICT in education. For that reason, in this study, I will look how Northern Cypriot teachers are ready to use technology in their teaching. Readiness is important issue in Northern Cyprus at the moment whereas in the UK, readiness is almost overcame by schools and the problem of access shift to integration of technology into teaching and learning (Pilkington, 2008).
The term technology readiness describes the behaviour process behind the adoption of technological products and services (Parasuraman and Colby, 2001) and infrastructure. Technology readiness can be broken up into two: infrastructure readiness of schools and ICT readiness of teachers where it is all about their acceptance of technology (Seng and Choo, 2008).
Physical and Technological Infrastructure
Adequate physical and technological infrastructure is a necessary condition for effective ICT integration ().
Teachers acceptance of technology
Just having physical and technological infrastructure is not enough. Instead, teachers must first accept the use of technologies. Venkatesh et al. (2003) formulated a technology acceptance model which is called 'unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT)' by reviewing and consolidation of the constructs of eight models (Diffusion of Innovations, Technology, Acceptance Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Combined TRA & TPB, Motivational Model, PC utilisation model and the Social Cognitive Theory) that earlier research had used to explain technology usage behaviour. It aims to explain intensions [of teachers] to use a technology and subsequent usage behaviour. They theorised four constructs that are direct determinants of user acceptance and usage behaviour: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. In addition, this model also posits the role of four key moderators: gender, age, experiences and voluntariness. This model is illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p.447)
The constructs are defined as follows (Venkatesh et al. 2003, pp.447-453):
Performance expectancy: 'the degree to which an individual believes that using the system will help him or her to attain gains in job performance.'
Effort expectancy: 'the degree of ease associated with the use of the system.'
Social influence: 'the degree to which an individual perceives that important others believe he or she should use the new system.'
Facilitating conditions: 'the degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system.'
Performance expectancy was driven from a combination of five constructs from the different models including:
Perceived usefulness means the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance (e.g. using the system in my job would enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly) (Davis 1989; Davis et. al. 1989),
Extrinsic motivation means the perception that users will want to perform an, activity because it is perceived to be instrumental in achieving valued outcomes that are distinct from the activity itself, such as improved job performance, pay, or promotions (Davis et al. 1992). Extrinsic motivation is operationalized using the same items as perceived usefulness.
Job-fit means how the capabilities of a system enhance an individual's job performance e.g. use of the system can decrease the time needed for my important job responsibilities. (Thompson et al. 1991).
Relative advantage means the degree to which using an innovation is perceived as being better than using its precursor e.g. using the system enables me to accomplish tasks more quickly (Moore and Benbasat, 1991).
Outcome expectations relate to the consequences of the behaviour e.g. I will increase my effectiveness on the job etc. (Compeau Higgins 1995b; Compeau et al. 1999).
Performance expectancy is the strongest predictor of intention within each of the individual models reviewed and was found significant at all points for both voluntary and mandatory settings. Performance expectancy is moderated by gender and age (Venkatesh et al., 2003).
Effort expectancy was driven from a combination of three constructs from the existing models including:
Perceived easy of use: The degree to which a person believes that using a system would be free of effort e.g. learning to operate the system would be easy for me (Davis 1989; Davis et al., 1989).
Complexity: The degree to which a system is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use e.g. using the system takes too much time from my normal duties; working with the system is so complicated; it is difficult to understand what is going on (Thompson et al. 1991).
Ease of Use: The degree to whichusing an innovation is perceived as being difficult to use e.g. my interaction with the system is clear and understandable; I believe that it is easy to get the system to do what I want it to do (Moore and Benbasat, 1991).
The influence of effort expectancy on behavioural intention will be moderated by gender, age, and experience, 'such that the effect will be stronger for women, particularly younger women, and particularly at early stages of experience' (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p.450).
Social influence was driven a combination of three constructs from existing models including:
Subjective Norm: The person's perception that most people who are important to him think he should or should not perform the behaviour in question e.g. people who influence my behaviour think that I should use the system; people who are important to me think that I should use the system (Ajzen 1991; Davis et al. 1989; Taylor and Todd 1995a, 1995b).
Social Factors: The individual's internalization of the reference group's subjective culture, and specific interpersonal agreements that the individual has made with others, in specific social situations e.g. I use the system because of the proportion of co-workers who use the system (Thompsone t al. 1991).
Image: The degree to which use of an innovation is perceived to enhance one's image or status in one's social system e.g. people in my organization who use the system have more prestige than those who do not (Moore and Benbasat 1991).
'None of the social influence constructs are significant in voluntary con-texts; however, each becomes significant when use is mandated' (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p.452). 'The influence of social influence on behavioural intention will be moderated by gender, age, voluntariness, and experience, such that the effect will be stronger for women, particularly older women, particularly in mandatory settings in the early stages of experience' (ibid, 453).
Facilitating Conditions was driven a combination of three constructs from existing models including:
Perceived behavioural control: Reflects perceptions of internal and external constraints on behaviour and encompasses self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions e.g. I have control over using the system; I have the resources necessary to use the system; given the resources, opportunities and knowledge it takes to use the system; it would be easy for me to use the system (Ajzen 1991; Taylor and Todd 1995a, 1995b).
Facilitating Conditions: Objective factors in the environment that observers agree make an act easy to do, including the provision of computer support e.g. guidance was available to me in the selection of the system; a specific person (or group) is available for assistance with system difficulties (Thompson et al. 1991).
Compatibility: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, needs, and experiences of potential adopters e.g. using the system is compatible with all aspects of my work; using the system fits into my work style (Moore and Benbasat, 1991).
'The influence of facilitating con ditions on usage will be mode rated by age and experience,
such that the effect will be stronger for older workers, particularly with increasing experience' (Venkatesh et al., 2003, pp.454-455).
In this study, all these factors have been taken into consideration in questionnaire design and will be taken into consideration while interviewing teachers on technology use.
Integration of Technology
Placing computers and software in classroom is not enough. Discovering whether
technology 'works' is not the point. The real issue is when and under what
circumstance. Like any other tool, teachers have to come up with a strategy or pedagogy
to make it work.
(Viadero, 1997, p.16)
Money spent on school technology is waste without an equal effort to help teachers with its use
and integration into the curriculum.
(Zehr, 1997, p.24)
Technology integration does not mean that providing hardware and software technologies to schools as Viadero declared and he states that technology is valuable if teachers know how, when and in which circumstance to use technology and this will make technology work if teachers bring up with pedagogy. In the same way, Zehr states that providing technology is waste of money without professional development. Consequently, technology integration is not putting computers or other technologies in the classroom without teacher training.
Educational technology is not, and never will be, transformative on its own- it requires teachers who can integrate technology into curriculum and use it to improve student learning (Kumar et al., 2008). Thus, it is clear that computers or other technologies cannot replace teachers since teachers are the key to whether technology is used appropriately and effectively (Kumar, 2008).
In this section, first definition of integration, then pedagogical issue which is the key in integrating technology in education, models for integrating technology into teacher training program will be presented.
Definition of Integration
In the past, technology integration and computing equipment in the schools were considered equal and even today, many schools have similar mind (Swan et al., 2002). However, technology integration is not equal with available technologies in the schools.
The definition of technology integration has not been easy to define and there are variety definitions of technology integration. Seels and Richey (1994) define technology integration as 'any technology used by educators in support of the teaching and learning process' (p.5).
Pierson (2001) was working with 16 exemplary teachers and she found that teachers' personal definitions of technology integration were based upon how they actually used technologies in classroom. She provided three teachers' individual perceptions on technology integration:
Teacher1: We are going to do the computer.
Teacher2: We are going to use the computer to do an activity.
Teacher3: We are going to do an activity. (Pierson, 2001, p.419-420)
On the other hand, Morrison and Lowther (2004) provide a model, which is called 'iNtegrating Technology for inquiry: The NTeQ Model', for integrating technology into the curriculum by using as a tool rather than as an instructional delivery tool. They state that five characteristics are compromised technology integration. They are as fellows:
The teacher is technologically competent and assumes the roles of designer, manager and facilitator.
The student actively engage in the learning process, assumes the role of researcher and become technologically competent.
The computer is used as it is in the workplace, to enhance learning through the use of real-world data to solve problems.
The lesson is student-centred, problem-based an authentic and technology is an integral component.
The environment incorporates multiple resources-rich activities. (p.12)
The broader definition of technology integration is presented by the George Lucas Educational Foundation (2008). According to this foundation, technology integration is 'the use of technology resources -- computers, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, the Internet, etc. -- in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a school' (p.1). They state that technology integration is achieved when the technology is regularly used and transparent and when technology is readily accessible. The technology tools support the curricular goals and help the teachers and students effectively reach their goals.
Likewise, Roblyer (2006) concludes that technology integration is a process that starts with determining the educational needs and problems within a learning environment and continues as the teacher identifies which technological tools and which methods for implementing them are appropriate for given classroom situation. Furthermore, Olinzock, and Okojie-Boulder (2005) define technology integration as a process of 'using existing tools, equipment and materials, including the use of electronic media, for the purpose of enhancing learning' (p.67). According to them, it involves managing and coordination available recourses to facilitate learning and also involves the selection of appropriate technology based on student learning needs and teachers ability to adapt such technology to fit specific learning activities (ibid). Defining technology integration in broad spectrum helps teachers to understand the pedagogical issues to be considered 'when using technology to enhance the process of teaching and learning'
As we understand from the different definitions of technology integration, technology integration is a development process. For this study, technology integration is considered as a development process for teachers, joining content curriculum together with appropriate technology devices. For that reason, teachers need to receive training and support to confidently incorporate technologies into the curriculum.
Professional Development for integration
Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into the curriculum is becoming an inseparable part of good teacher. Being prepared to adopt/integrate and use technology in classroom and knowing how that technology can support student learning must become integral skills in every teachers' repertoire (Kumar et al., 2008). Eby (1997) warns that 'technology could not support learning without teachers who know how to use it and integrate it into subject-specific area' (p.92). These skills can be learnt by taking professional development trainings and there is agreement that the meaningful use of computers [technology] in schools hinges on the professional development of teachers (Glenman and Melmed, 2000).
According to Guskey (2000), professional development refers to 'process and activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills and attitudes of educators so that they might, in turn, improve the learning of students'. Fullan (1991) expand the definition to include 'the sum of formal and informal learning experiences throughout one's career from pre-service teacher education to retirement' (p.326).
Considering the meaning of professional development in the digital age, Grant (1996) suggest a definition of professional development that includes the use of technology. Professional development goes beyond the term 'training' with its implication of learning skills and according to him it encompasses a definition that includes formal and informal means of helping teachers, not only learn new skills, but also develop new insights into pedagogy and their own practice, and explore new or advanced understanding of content and resources (Clifford, 2007). Professional development includes support for teachers to put the technology in practice and understand the use of technology to support inquiry-based learning.
John and Sutherland (2004), on the other hand, state that new and innovative forms of professional development to date has been based on the idea of 're-tooling', that is training is structured to 'argument the existing curriculum by providing specific training to groups of teachers in the mechanics of the technology'(p.105). Watson et al. (1999) further argues that what is needed is 're-forming' approach, whereby training is built on a staged process through which teachers have to pass in order to change their practice. Ertmer (2000) refers to this as 'scaffolding' teachers through the adoption and change process. Unfortunately, organisations that provide ICT training for teachers in Northern Cyprus do not conduct an evaluation of prior knowledge to inform to training and those trainings normally focus on the technical use of the ICT rather than how to integrate it into their daily practice (Adelman et al., 2002). In terms of England, Ofsted (2002) maintains, where 'training [in England] has failed to meet the needs of teachers, the use of ICT is usually underdeveloped' (p.). Therefore, it can be said that Northern Cyprus is in stage of readiness while England is in integration stage.
Pedagogical practice that underpins education should be taken into account when professional development training takes place for using ICT in the classroom and when teachers use ICT in their classroom (Beetham and Sharpe, 2007; Dalsgaard, 2006).
The major part of the problem related to technology integration is that most teachers have not addressed the pedagogical principles that will guide their use of technology for teaching and learning (Olinzock, and Okojie-Boulder, 2005).
There is not any detailed research on for technology integration, however, it is suggested that 'effort be made to link technology for instruction to all levels of pedagogical processes and activities' (ibid, p.69). They describe these pedagogical activities as follows:
Identifying learning objectives in a technology-based instruction requires teachers to select and/or adapt instructional technology to match the objectives based on the students' needs.
Presenting instruction using technology as part of the instructional process requires teachers to choose the methods that are relevant to the objectives, the technology selected, learning styles, modes and pace of learning.
Evaluating technology-based instruction requires teachers to select appropriate evaluation techniques that are relevant to the objectives, methods of instruction, and to technologies that have been used.
Designing follow-up activities using technology requires teachers to select appropriate follow-up materials that are relevant to the objectives of the instruction and technologies that are accessible to the students as well as easy to use.
Developing course enrichment materials using technology requires teachers to provide opportunity for students to explore issues related to the course materials and to provide them with the opportunity to select and analyze course enrichment materials using technology in ways that broaden their problem-solving skills.
Locating sources for additional instructional materials using technology requires teachers to use the internet and multimedia networks to develop additional learning materials and expand instructional resources aimed at broadening the knowledge and the skill gained.
Designing a dynamic classroom using technology requires teachers to provide a learning environment that is colourful, engaging, exciting, interactive and energetic as a way of encouraging students to venture into the world of technology and to discover knowledge for themselves. (p.70)
Constructivism pedagogy is the most popular teaching method for technology integration. The principles of constructivism pedagogy include student-centred classroom, collaboration, connecting prior knowledge with new information, developing higher order thinking skills and authentic forms of assessments. As Roblyer (2003) states constructivism evolved out of Piaget's theories on cognitive development in children and Vygotsky's concepts of instruction based on children's personal experiences and learning through collaborative and social interactions. The constructivist pedagogy stresses that new understanding occurs when a learner acquires and organises new information shaped by prior schemata (Fosnot, 1996). Student-centred classroom incorporating technology and collaborative learning activities are an integral part of the constructivist classroom. In technology-based student-centred classrooms, teachers use software and information technology to allow students to become more active learners (Dexter et al., 1999). Technology-enriched classrooms are more constructivists because they are typically student-centred and less teacher/textbooks driven (Hopson et al., 2001). Using ICT in collaborative and authentic learning environments can support a deeper understanding of content and assist students in the learning process ( Strehle et al., 2001).
The cultural factors may affect the teaching approaches/pedagogies of teachers. As this study will be carried out in two different countries, cultural differences to pedagogy need to be considered.
The dominant culture of education and teachers' beliefs are important factors that prevent the integration of ICT in the classroom. As Erumban and de Jong (2006) and Singh (2006) state, the extent to which individuals desire to use new technology is commonly influenced by such factors as culture, attitudes toward specific technologies (Bobbitt and Dabholkar, 2001; Curran et al., 2003), the level of technology anxiety exhibited by individuals (Meuter, Ostrom, Bitner, and Roundtree, 2003), and an individual's capacity and willingness to use (Walker, Lees, Hecker and Francis, 2002).
Culture shapes how people see their world and how they function within it. Culture has been defined as -the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another (Hofstede, 1980), and as -a set of values, ideas, artifacts, and other meaningful symbols that help individuals communicate, interpret, and evaluate as members of society (Engel et al., 1993). McCracken (1986) argued that the world of everyday experiences was shaped and constituted by the beliefs and assumptions of an individual's culture.
Cultural differences have been observed and reported in a number of studies to have a significant impact on decision-making and individual behaviour (Erumban and de Jong, 2006; Leo, Bennett, and Hartel, 2005; Lin and Peng, 2005; Singh, 2006). Hofstede's (1980) categorisation for educational settings can be rephrased and developed to better understand cultural factors that influence on the use of ICT in education. He originally identified four dimensions of culture which influence the way people interact and behave. They are as follows;
Small Power Distance vs. Large Power Distance :
Small Power distance is a student-centre education. In this power distance:
A teacher should respect the independence of his/her students
Teacher expects students to initiate communication
Teacher expects students to find their own paths
Students allowed to contradict or criticize teacher
Teachers are experts who transfer impersonal truths
Outside class, teachers are treated as equals
Large Power Distance is a Teacher-centred education. In this power distance:
A teacher merits the respect of his/her students
Students expect teacher to initiate communication
Students expect teacher to outline paths to follow
Teacher is never contradicted nor publicly criticized
Teachers are gurus who transfer personal wisdom
Respect for teachers is also shown outside class
Weak Uncertainty Avoidance vs. Strong Uncertainty Avoidance
In Weak Uncertainty Avoidance:
Students want to good discussions
Teachers may say 'I don't know'
Emotions should be controlled anywhere
Tolerance for differences in class
Teachers involve parents
In Strong Uncertainty Avoidance:
Students want to know right answers
Teachers are expected to have all answer
Emotions in class can be expressed
Pressures among students to conform
Teachers inform parents
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Students expect to learn how to learn
Individual students will speak up in class in response to a general invitation by the teacher
Education is a way of improving one's economic worth and self-respect based on ability and competence
Acquiring competence is more important than acquiring certificates
Students expect to learn how to do
Individual students will only speak up in class when called upon personally by the teacher
Education is a way of gaining prestige in one's social environment and of joining a higher status group
Acquiring certificates is more important than acquiring competence
Femininity vs. Masculinity
Friendly teachers most liked
Average student is norm
Teachers avoid openly praising students
Failing in school is a minor incident
In Masculinity :
Brilliant teachers admired
Best student is norm
Competition in class
Teachers openly praise good students
Failing in school is a disaster
According to Hofstede's cultural dimensions, England is in low power distance, weak uncertainty avoidance, individualist and femininity country. However, in the Hofstede's paper, there is not any information about Northern Cyprus. As I come from this country and know how teaching and learning occur in schools, I can be said that Northern Cyprus is in large power distance, strong uncertainty avoidance, collectivist and masculinity country. So, England's and Northern Cyprus' cultures are very different in teaching and learning. This will be taken into account in data analysis.