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The most common transition for families is their child's entry to school. The emotions that every parent experience as they watch their child grow and enter school programs are magnified when their child has a disability (Johnson, 2001). One of the first education transitions for most children with disabilities is from an early intervention (EI) program to a preschool program that includes early childhood special education (ECSE).
For some children, the special services provided from the early intervention programs are enough to transition them into early childhood programs. Other children require the supports and services to continue throughout their placement in early childhood special education programs. Planning for the transition from early intervention programs to preschool is important to insure that appropriate special education services and supports are furnished (Dunst & Bruder, 2002). This process may create additional challenges when the children and their families are from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) groups.
As demographic changes in the United States have brought the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse children with disabilities to the forefront in education, school districts and local community agencies work to address this student population. Though early childhood programs and early intervention programs have been employed to service these children, students' families and school administration often disagree on the types and the intensity of the programs to be provided. Culturally based perceptions about education and special education are frequently the source of differences in opinion between schools and families (Cheatham & Santos, 2005).
Background of the Study
A child's development during the first few years of life is critical. While the majority of children achieve developmental targets as expected, some children develop more slowly due to mental, physical or ecological factors. Research suggests that the provision of comprehensive services to an infant or toddler who exhibits developmental delay and his family may have a positive impact on the child's progress (Karoly, L., Kilburn, R., & Cannon, J., 2005.).
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the federal law that guides the provision of early intervention services. The law contains two separate parts which stipulate the provision of services to children with disabilities based upon age. IDEA Part C specifies the provision of services for infants and toddlers from birth through 2 years, while IDEA Part B Section 619 addresses the provision of services for preschool children from 3 to 5 years (IDEA, 2004).
IDEA Part C was established to ensure that infants and toddlers, from birth to age 3, with disabilities or at risk of developing a disability, and their families receive appropriate early intervention services. Part C focuses on, among other things, enhancing the development of infants and toddlers with disabilities as well as to improving the capacity of the family to meet the child's needs and reduce educational costs by minimizing the need for special education when the child is older. Part B, in contrast, requires that services, to the extent possible, be provided in educational settings, such as regular classrooms. Part B aims to ensure that children with disabilities have access to a free appropriate public education.
In contrast to Part B, which is led by state education departments, each state determines the agency to oversee Part C. The designated agency in 16 of the states is the health department, the departments of education in 11 of the states, and other departments, including a combination health and human services departments, in the remaining 23 states. In Illinois, services to children in EI programs are overseen by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS). Families access EI services through a local Child and Family Connections (CFC) offices where they are assigned a Service Coordinator. Individual service providers and agency providers, who have provider agreements with Illinois DHS EI programs, are used to provide direct services to children and supports to families. Speech therapy and developmental therapy, which addresses a child's individual deficits in meeting identified developmental milestones, are the services most frequently provided to children (IDHS, 2010).
In the past decade, the United States has seen an increase in the numbers of children requiring special education services. This increase is also observed in the programs which address the needs of infants and toddlers served under Part C of IDEA under the early intervention umbrella. Over the past five years, Illinois has seen an increase in the number of referrals and services provided to children from birth to 3. As indicated by Illinois DHS data in Table 1, there was an increase in the expenditures and the in the number of children receiving services under IDEA Part C in Illinois from 2005 to 2009. In 2009, services were provided to 18,883 infants and toddlers under the age of 3. This was an increase of 14.4% from the 16,647 infants and toddlers provided services in 2005 (IDHS, 2010).
DHS Early Intervention Program Data 2005-2009
(Numbers in 000's)
Source: Illinois Department of Human Services, Bureau of Early Intervention, 2010
The Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) is the agency charged with overseeing the provision of services to children with identified disabilities including those in preschool programs serving 3 to 5 year old children. ISBE's data for 2005 to 2009 also reveals an increase in the number of students receiving special education services. In addition, it also shows that the number of students with disabilities who speak languages other than English has increased by 100.8% between 2005 and 2009. While the majority of those students are Spanish speakers, there has also been an increase in the percentage of students who speak other languages. In 2005, there were 30 identified languages or dialects spoken in Illinois by students with disabilities. By 2009, the data revealed that 101 languages or dialects were identified as being spoken by students with disabilities. In addition, 1663 students were identified as speaking the 30 languages or dialects identified in 2005. In 2009 the 101 languages and dialects were being spoken by 3151 students.
The ISBE's data also revealed an increase in the number of students between the ages of 3 to 5 who were identified as LEP students. During the 2005-2006 school year, The 483 identified LEP students had increased by 113.0% to 1029 by the 2009-2010 school year. Similar increases were noted for all age groups funded under Part B of IDEA. Given the increased numbers of CLD children, it is imperative that service providers understand how to best address the needs of this population and their families. Though early childhood programs and early intervention programs have been employed to service these children, students' families and school administration often disagree on the types and the intensity of the programs to be provided. Culturally based perceptions about education and special education are frequently the source of differences in opinion between schools and families (Cheatham & Santos, 2005).
Parent participation in the educational programming for students with disabilities has been legally mandated since 1975 as part of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142). Parent participation remained a fundamental principle in all of the amended versions of the law over the years including the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004(PL 108-446). Studies indicate that the even with all of the language stipulating parental involvement in IDEA, the IEP process remains a source of frustration, and confusion for parents. Parents interviewed indicated their participation was more to satisfy a requirement than it was to have a collaborative approach to the IEP development (Fish, 2006; Stoner, J. B., Bock, S. J., Thompson, J. R., Angell, M. E., Heyl, B. S., & Crowley, E. P. 2005).
The level of confusion about special education and the IEP process is often magnified when parents lack the language skills to fully comprehend the information presented during the IE meeting. The jargon and acronyms used during IEP meetings as well as the lack of diverse staff to communicate appropriately with parents often leads to a parent's lack of understanding about their child's special education issues and needs ((Thomas, Correa, & Morsink, 2000). Interviews with CLD parents about their experiences during IEP meetings revealed that parents felt that their language difference was a barrier during the meeting. Salas (2004) and Lo (2008) also indicated poor interpretation and translation services as a concern by LEP parents.
Statement of the Problem
Central to the early intervention / early childhood special education system (EI/ESCE) developed from the IDEA mandate is the effort to bolster the development of disabled infants and children while minimizing the effects of the disabilities on the children, their families, and the children's education. Though the transition between the two levels of programming provided by the EI/ESCE system should be seamless, the process for those families that are culturally and linguistically diverse may be more difficult, due to the lack of appropriate supports available.
While the transition from early intervention to early childhood education is a crucial part of the educational process for many students with disabilities, there is insufficient information about the perceptions of limited English proficient (LEP) mothers about this transition. There are two purposes of this research:
to explore how parents characterize the transition process and
to examine if parents indicate culture and/ or language as an influence on the transition process.
The study also examined whether the mothers identified barriers and/or promising strategies that were effective during the process.
Purpose of the Study
Hanson, et al (2000) noted the ample body of published research addressing the need for cross-cultural competence and best practices when working with culturally and linguistically diverse students (Hanson, Beckman, Horn, Marquart, Sandall, Grieg, & Brennan, 2000). As Cheatham and Santos (2005) assert, children come to school possessing culture-based behaviors, practices, and perspectives that may sometimes seem at odds with conventional instruction. However, a lack of information specific to meeting the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities makes the education process extremely challenging.
This study focused on the responses of ten mothers in the suburban Chicago area whose children transitioned from an early intervention program to a preschool program on their third birthday, within the previous twelve to twenty-four months. The participants consisted of five LEP Spanish speakers. The remaining five LEP mothers were speakers of the Gujarati, Korean and Romanian languages. The initial inquiry was of the mothers' general perceptions of the transition process. Interview responses also examined to compare perceptions between LEP parents with different degrees of access to linguistically qualified personnel. The level of access was defined in terms of the information and services available to LEP parents and families in native language. This included the availability of native language educational and related service staff as well as the provision of information in native language, and the use of native language interpreters when necessary.
The central question of the study was whether the cultural and linguistic diversity of the parents impacted the overall transition process. The study was designed to answer three primary questions:
What perceptions did the mothers have of the overall transition process?
Were there differences in the level of satisfaction between any of the LEP parents?
Did the LEP mothers perceive the family's native language and/ or culture as a barrier or an advantage to the transition process?
Overview of Research Methodology
A semi-structured interview was chosen as the qualitative research design for this study since it provides detailed information of the findings that emerge and the contribution of those findings to the expansion of theory development (Mertens, 2005). Semi-structured interviews combine the flexibility of survey methods with the organization of the structured interview process. Pre-defined open-ended questions are prepared, but interviewers amend the questions and add new ones, based on the course of interview. Kvale (1996) defined unstructured interviews as interviews in which neither the question nor the answer categories are predetermined. They rely on social interaction between the researcher and informant to elicit information.
According to Kvale (1996), interview is a tool which is used frequently to access people's experiences, perceptions, and attitudes of situations or ideas. Through interviews, descriptive data is gathered in the subject's own words so that the researcher can understand how participants view a situation or an experience. The value of this technique is that the researcher can investigate what is meaningful to the individual (Seidman, 1998).
Qualitative research is an approach that utilizes methods designed to provide an extensive description of the phenomena under study. The research also presents insight into the meaning that individuals have constructed of their world and their interpretation of it (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). Research in the this study explored how the transition from early intervention programs to early childhood special education programs was characterized and interpreted by LEP mothers. Due to the nature of the research questions and the experience under investigation, a qualitative approach was the most appropriate means to examine these mothers' responses.
This study focused on one north suburban Chicago school district involving a fairly small population of participants. Further research interviewing a greater number of parents from a variety of sites will serve to provide sufficient information to better identify the themes that emerge in this study. In addition, this study reviewed on only the perspectives of mothers. While mothers will most likely be the primary caretaker stakeholders, there may be others such as school personnel whose perceptions are not included in the study that may lend additional insight about the transition process.
Significance of the Study
The limited information about LEP children with disabilities, their parents, and their parents' perceptions of the transition period form a strong theoretical rationale for further investigation. The present study furnishes a conceptual structure to provide guidance for further research, and contribute to existing literature on current transition practices. Thus, the needs of students with disabilities and their families during the transition process will be better addressed. Finally, the study established a starting point for improving transitions and subsequent child outcomes, especially those related to cultural and linguistic diversity.
Definition of Key Terms
1. At-risk infant or toddler -An individual under 3 years of age who would be at risk of experiencing a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services were not provided to the individual. (Section 632(1), IDEA 2004).
2. Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) - Refers to students who come from a different culture and whose background includes a different language. (CITATION)
3. Developmental delay - A delay in physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development (may include children from three through nine years of age). (Illinois Administrative Code, Section 226.75)
4. Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) - Special education and related services is a state and federally mandated program for children (ages 3-5) who meet state eligibility criteria because they are experiencing developmental delays. Eligibility for children is determined by criteria that have been established by federal and state rules and regulations (Part C of IDEA).
5. Early intervention -Services to infants and toddlers, and to their families, which are designed to address the needs of each eligible child and the needs of the family related to enhancing the child's development in conformity with an individualized family service plan (Part C of IDEA).
6. Individualized Education Program (IEP) -- A written document that identifies then unique needs of the child, the special education and related services needed to meet those unique needs, annual goals and short-term objectives, how the child's progress will be assessed, the date of initiation services, and the projected duration of those services. The
IEP is used in Part B of the IDEA.
7. Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP): A written plan for providing early intervention services to eligible children/families that:
Is developed jointly by the family and appropriate qualified personnel providing early intervention services;
Is based on the multidisciplinary evaluations and assessment of the child and the assessment of the strengths and needs of the child's family, as determined by the family and as required in 34 CFR 303.322; and
Includes all services necessary to enhance the development of the child and the capacity of the family to meet the special needs of the child (DHS, 2010).
8. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) -- The federal law mandating that all children with disabilities have available to them a free, appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living.
9. Infant or toddler with a disability -- an individual under 3 years of age who needs
early intervention services because the individual is experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the areas of cognitive, physical, communication, social or emotional, and adaptive development; or has a diagnosed physical or mental condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay; and may also include, at a states discretion, at-risk infants and toddlers (Section 632(1), IDEA 2004).
10. Limited English Proficient (LEP) - A term used to describe a student who is not fully proficient in English, speaks a language other than English at home, and does not demonstrate English language skills of comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing at a level that would allow him to be placed in a mainstream class setting where only English is spoken.
11. Part B -- the part of the IDEA describing how children with disabilities aged three
through 21 shall receive a free appropriate public education.
12. Part C -- the state operated program created in 1986 for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. It is an early intervention program for children under three
years of age and (with family concurrence) their families.
13. Transition -- a process or period in which something undergoes a change and passes from one state, stage, form, or activity to another. In education it is the movement or transfer for one program or school to another.
This dissertation is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 has introduced the background information, the statement of the problem and the significance of the study. Chapter 2 reviews the literature and research relevant to the broader topics associated with early intervention, early childhood special education and the transition process. A closer look at the issues associated with culturally and linguistically diverse students is also presented. Methodology for this study is presented in Chapter 3 which details the research design, the data collection process and the data analysis process. The results of the data analysis and the overall results are presented in Chapter 4. The final chapter is a discussion of the study and its implications and applications for future studies.