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WTO, World Bank and IMF are more popular than just international institutions, but rather they are regarded by opponents as a hegemonic power center. In the education sector through the provision of the WTO General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS), trade barriers in education are eliminated. Education is becoming increasingly globalized, it is becoming a competitive product. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The roles of the IMF and World Bank to minimize government intervention, reduce government spending in education, and encourage privatization and commercialization, seemed to be the source of the presupposition of debate.
This research will explore the unifying role of the WTO, IMF and World Bank in education. This research will also identify the link between the roles of the WTO and IFIs in global education, and maintaining the neoliberal hegemony. In addition, he will address the question of how the WTO and IFIs roles in global education can maintain hégémonie.Résumé: WTO, World Bank and IMF are more popular than just international institutions, but rather that they are regarded by opponents as a hegemonic power center.
Background to the study
Education continues to be an important factor in determining where there will be a deprivation of fundamental rights. The emerging paradigm of education as a fundamental human right is often regarded as a mere rhetorical slogan. Not only is it seen as serving those who can afford to pay, but equal education is regarded as an expedient axiom for the dominant groups in society to maintain their dominant position (Poonwassie, 1992).
As regards the infringement of fundamental rights, the WTO and IFIs are considered major players among the institutions of global governance. Reduced government spending on education, and user-pays policies were the policies imposed by the WTO and IFIs (Frase and O'Sullivan, 2004; Jawara and Kwa, 2003; Peet, 2003; Samoff, 1994). The Foreign direct investment (FDI) is encouraged by the privatization. Under the auspices of the WTO, education is commercialized and privatized. Tax reform and fiscal austerity, it was supported by the IFIs, the kind of policies needed to achieve faster growth in the LDCs.
It is argued on the WTO website that free trade allows efficient access to global markets for services and information technology (WTO, 2005). In addition, he noted that trade in education services creates economies of consumption, because it will lead to lower prices, better quality and wider opportunities for Consumers (Findlay, 2001; LaRocque, 2003; Mbekeani, 2002; Sauvé, 2004). This assumption may be rooted in the idea that the liberalization of education in the market, there will be more competitive international institutions and international teachers, and this will lead to better quality education and choice wider.
From the overview above, there are four issues that must be addressed in this study. The first problem is the basic problem leading to this study is that the controversies surrounding the roles unified IFIs and the WTO in education seem endless and it seems that the solution is not conclusive. The second problem is that there were problems within the scholarly literature at large. Both opponents and supporters to defend their practices. To critics, they accuse the practice of neoliberalism used by the IFIs and the WTO, and defending the standpoint of Marxism and neo-Marxism without looking weak practices Marxist and neo-Marxist. To defenders, they defend their practices and make adjustments to the neo-liberal practice. The third problem is that there is need to address this second problem. This study therefore aims to structure and identify the problem. This study addresses the important issue for opponents and supporters so that there will be convergence to global policy formulation.
For this study the application of this study are:
- Describe past events. In this study, the historical practice of neoliberalism by the IMF, the World Bank and WTO will be represented. The establishment and maintenance of hegemony which is underlined by Marxism and Gramscism will also be represented.
- Analyze and evaluate these phenomena. The current practice of neoliberalism by the IMF, the World Bank and WTO, in education, will be evaluated in this study. The establishment and maintenance of hegemony is emphasized by the neo-Marxist and neo-Gramsci will also be analyzed and evaluated.
- Explain the causes of phenomena and relationships between current and past events. There will be an explanation of the movement's ideological liberalism to neoliberalism, Marxism to neo-Marxism and neo-Gramscism to Gramscism. The changing role of the IMF, the World Bank and WTO in education to unify the roles of international financial institutions and the WTO in education will also be explained. Thus, the link between these roles and the continuation of the neoliberal global hegemony will be identified and explained. 4. Assess the importance of phenomena. The meaning of liberalism that has influenced the practice of neoliberalism by the IFIs and the WTO will be evaluated. Theories of hegemony that is highlighted in Marxism and Gramscism influenced neo-Marxism and neo-Gramscian. Here, the meaning of Marxism and the theory of hegemony Gramscism to neo-Marxism and neo-Gramscism perspectives on neoliberal hegemony will be evaluated.