Thermal Power Plants For Electricity Education Essay

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Along with other parts of this country economy, the petroleum industry was privatized and liberalized in the 1990s which resulted in a sharp boost in prices and investment.

Several oil companies are prospecting in or near this country Western Rift Valley where surface oil seeps have occurred. In June 2006 discoveries at three fields were announced which have combined reserves of 100-300 million barrels. This significant find, but compared to the known reserves of Nigeria (35 billion barrels) and Angola (5 billion barrels). 30 million barrels are deemed ready for extraction is started from 2009/10, which would result in an estimated 12,000+ barrels a day. While this is comparable to this country national consumption, there is not available all the oil-based products that Uganda needs. So, the country is project to export some oil products while continuing to import others. The refinery building is provide some national capacity to process the extracted oil is also under way.


This country, In 2002 governmental Energy Policy notes the country's favorable situation regarding solar energy:

This country is endowed with plenty of sunshine giving solar radiation of about 4-5 kWh/m2/day. This type of insolation is quite favorable for all solar technology applications. Solar energy applications in this country include solar photovoltaic (PV), water heating, cooling and crop drying.

PV systems are generally required for applications where decent power needs exist mainly in areas that are not served by the grid. They provide power for lighting, telecommunications, vaccine and blood refrigeration, and for playing radio and television in such areas. This technology has also proven to be very successful in providing energy services to very inaccessible areas such as on islands and mountainous areas where the national grid cannot be expected to extend its services in the foreseeable future.

Government is implementation a solar PV pilot project through a financing mechanism that makes it possible for both PV consumers and vendors to obtain credit from banks for solar rural electrification now. The solar water application heating is still very limited.

In this country Electricity Regulatory Authority reported in 2008 that, "the Ugandan government is promoting solar photo-voltaic systems in homes and solar water heating in both homes and commercial enterprises in order to decrees on the evening peak load demand for grid electricity. A proposed 50MW solar- thermal project is under study at Namugoga, Wakiso District."

Despite these recent efforts, solar remains a very minor part of this country actual energy balance.


This country made a large leap advance in education in 1997, when the government published its Universal Primary Education scheme with the goal of making education free for everyone. As thousands more children started school, there was real sense of hope that at last everyone would have a chance to take on in learning in a structured way. They think that literacy would be available to everyone, but the challenges to a totally free education in this country are many and there are still fees associated with education It must be borne by the families. The situation of those who had not had a chance to get hold of literacy was even starker. In 1997 they added up to 37% of this country population, about seven million adults and children. Female illiteracy stands at 49 %. It is higher in war affected regions such as Northern Uganda. This is what LABE works to change - to see a literate environment develop in which everyone participates, to enable people to take charge of their own learning and development.To see parents encouraging children in the education.

But the story of LABE did not start in 1997. Before now in 1989 a group of people at Makerere University launched a volunteer scheme to promote literacy. In 1995 this had evolved into a registered national non - governmental organization (NGO) working in partnership with national, local and international NGOs, government departments and local communities.

However, LABE does not run literacy programme or teaching literacy classes. It offers a facilitate role, it trains groups and teams of community based educators to start and manage classes in the community. LABE develops technic and materials for learning and teaching. Through a national network of like-minded NGOs, LABE advocates for literacy and seeks to power of government policy. In 2002 LABE received international recognition by winning the Noma prize, one of the UNESCO International Literacy Prizes, for outstanding work in literacy.

The system of education in this country has a structure of :

1) 7 years of primary education.

2) 6 years of secondary education (divided into 4 years of lower secondary.

3) 2 years of upper secondary school).

4) 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education.

The present system has existed since the early 1960s.

Primary education

In 1999 there were 6 million childrens receiving primary education, as compared to only 2 million in 1986. Numbers received a increase in 1997 when free primary education was made available for four children per family. Only some of primary school graduates go on to take any form of secondary education. This is dependent upon them passing their Primary Leaving Examinations (PLE).

Secondary education

Lower secondary consists of 4 years of schooling in the end of which students Ordinary-level exams (O-level) in at least 8 subjects. Upper secondary consists of 2 years of schooling in the end of which students sit Advanced-level exams (A-level) in at least 3 subjects.

The set of courses for lower secondary is currently being reviewed by the National Curriculum Development Center, and a new set of courses is expected to be rolled out in 2014 or 2015.

Three-year technical schools provide an alternative to lower secondary school. Alternatives for graduates from lower secondary school addes: 1) 2-3 year Technical institutes; 2) 2 year Primary Teacher Colleges (PTC) 3) Department Training Colleges (DTCs) 4) Upper secondary schools.

Post-secondary education

Although 60,000-70,000 students per year leave school qualified to go on to higher education, Some of them 35% (at most 25,000) are able to find places at the limited number of institutions. The mass of these go to universities both Public and private. Specifically, Makerere University in Kampala (MUK) accepts 95% of the total student population in this country universities. Rest of all is distributed among the 20 and private universities and a smaller number of non University institutions. The recognized Universities in this country include:

Government Universities

Makerere University (MUK)

Mbarara University of Science & Technology (MUST)

Kyambogo University (KYU)

Gulu University (GU)

Busitema University (BSU)

Religious-Affiliated Universities

All Saints University (ASU)

Ankole Western University (AWU)

Bugema University (BU)

Busoga University (BGU)

Islamic University in Uganda (IUIU)

Kumi University (KUMU)

LivingStone International UniversityLink

Ndejje Christian University (NDU)

Uganda Christian University (UCU)

Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)

Uganda Pentecostal University (UPU)

Private Secular Universities

Fairland University (FLU)

Kabale University (KABU)

Kampala University (KU)

Kampala International University (KIU)

Lugazi University (LZU)

Muteesa I Royal University (MRU)

Mountains of the Moon University (MMU)

Nkumba University (NU)

St. Lawrence University (SLAU)

African Bible University (ABU)

International Health Sciences University (IHSU)

Public Technical Colleges

Uganda Technical College - Lira (UTC Lira)

Uganda Technical College - Ombaci (UTC Ombaci)

Uganda Technical College - Elgon (UTC Elgon)

Private Technical Colleges

City polytechnic Institute - Kampala (CPI)

Northern Uganda

Education is important for a successful post-conflict change in Northern Uganda (see Conflict in Northern Uganda), as it helps expand peoples' abilities to break free of circles of aggression and suffering. In this country Universal Primary Education (UPE) has resulted in high enrolment rates in Northern Uganda, but education tends to be of a low quality and few children actually complete primary school. There are insufficient facilities; For e.g. out of 238 primary schools in Pader, 47 are still under trees, limited teacher accommodation is causing high rates of teacher absenteeism and in some areas the average primary school teacher to student ratio is 1:200., There is some proof to suggest completion of secondary school is necessary to provide an individual with a proper chance to escape poverty, as employment and income levels for those who completed primary schools. And also for those who did not attend at all. There region has particular difficulties as teachers are hard to find, the conflict shaped a lost generation without an sufficient education themselves and teachers from other areas are still highly concerned about security in the region. Special attention to education in the region is necessary to ensure the fragile peace does not get worse into full scale conflict once more.

This country has a population of about 28 million people. Of that figure, about 15 million are under the age of 18.

The average life expectancy is 47 years.

Lending causes of death are malaria and HIV/AIDS.

One in every 12 children has been orphaned due to the AIDS epidemic.

6.7% of the population are living with the HIV/ AIDS virus.

44% make less than $ 1 / day

78% are peasant farmers.

77% live on dirt floors.

49% rely in word of mouth for their information.

School Improvement Program:

Several of us at Educate Uganda have visited schools in the Nkokonjeru area and have seen the decrepit school buildings, insufficient classroom space, unhygienic latrines, and the severe need for educational materials. At Educate in this country they understand that simply paying for the children to attend school is not sufficient.

There are 21 schools which have orphans taking part in the program (see Sponsorship Program). They have currently analyzing each school to determine their specific needs. These needs include the most basic objectives as like school buildings, teaching materials, latrines, desks, chalkboards, better water sources and other things to make these schools a healthy and safe learning environment.

At now , we are building additional classrooms and latrines for a jungle school in Nnyermawa called St. Gyaviira. This school currently has two classrooms which educate children through the 4th grade. In addition classrooms they will be able to educate students through the 7th grade. with no the additional classrooms, children have to walk several miles through the jungle to continue their studies at a different school or just stop their education after the 4th grade.

(1) Mother Tongue Education project in Northern Uganda

(2) Instruction in Mother Tongue-The Language of Opportunity:

(3) Increasing Access to Education Prospects for Children, their Teacher and Parents

(4) In the rural areas, the medium of instruction from P1 to P4 will be the relevant local

languages; and from P5 toP8 English will be the medium of instruction.

The pertinent area language will also be teach as a subject in primary school. This apply to both rural and urban areas. (Source: Government of this country White paper on Education, 1992 pp.) The 2000 World Education Forum recognized conflict as an obstruction to the achievement of Education For All. Prolonged clash in Northern Uganda has undermined and disrupted education through obliteration of infrastructure, displacement of school communities, child abductions, and demoralization of teachers.

This project includes mother tongue education as a remedy for the current low primary school enrolment, very short retention and poor learning outcome. in spite of traditional emphasis in Africa on instruction in European language, learning in initial years in mother tongue is known to advantage the participation and performance of children and to boost parental involvement.

Broad activities

• Train teachers to use local languages successfully in the classroom

• Support writers to create educational materials in local languages

• recover children's literacy and life prospects

• power wider practice and policy

Aims and expected outcomes

This project seeks to work with 240 school communities in Northern Uganda to boost meaningful entrée to primary education for marginalized children through the development and help of mother tongue education. This will hold up the government to apply its adopted mother tongue policy. It is as long as a workable model, incorporating training, resource growth and support which it can then implement and upscale in other areas. This overall plan will contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education and gender par in six clash flat districts of Northern Uganda. Better education will ease poverty through its contribution to the accumulation of human capital, which is necessary for more incomes and continuous economic growth. Project activities duplicate the following strategies as like training teachers, broadening the literate environment from side to side provision of local language materials, boosting parental and family participation in girls' schooling, intensification local government ability to properly provide a quality education for marginalized children.

It will be shared easily in print with a large group of people through communication in original languages. This will allow non-literate poor people, especially women and girls, to boost alertness about the right to educational access and use available print information in mother tongue on their own.

By allowing girls and parents, with a focus on mothers in particular, to document their experiences in the mother tongue. The project will get better their access to education and increase awareness in the wider community of the significance of girls' education.

Scope of this program

The project covers 6 districts of Gulu, Amuru, Arua, Koboko, Yumbe and Adjumani district. The project includes 40 UPE schools in each of the district.

Learn to live

The project aims at improving parents' literacy skills and ability to participate fully in the education of their children. It adapts the family learning approach where parents are mobilized to learn jointly with their children both at school and at home. Mothers are specifically targeted (in order to address the gender gap) during adult literacy classes and also mobilizes them to participate in children - parent joint learning sessions in schools. The women especially mothers are provided with local language reading materials to use at home to improve joint learning with their children.

Mother Tongue Educational materials addressing different modules resulting from the national thematic curriculum - specifically addressing HIV/Aids content and presenting girls and boys positively are produced and used in classes and homes to decrease the child book ratio to a national desired ratio of 1:6.

LABE works with women pressure groups to assert pressure on the parents, community and local government to enact bye laws to ensure that children - especially girl children- enroll, stay and complete schools. It implements in the two districts of Gulu and Amuru both in northern Uganda.

Family Sexuality Education Project

The project's overall aim is to boost children's educational performance, retention and completion especially among the girls, during increased parents and teachers active participation in their sexual reproductive health and rights education.

The one year Oxfam Novib support pilot that was implemented in 4 schools - communities of Yumbe and Koboko districts specifically aimed at;

Improving the capacity of parents to positively communicate with their children

Sexuality and Reproductive Health issues

Equipping parents with information and skills to advocate for SRHR and rights of children

Improving the capacity of female and male senior teachers to counsel children with social challenges at school

Awareness On Children's (Especially Girls') Right To Education Campaign

It is a 1 year pilot project implemented in 10 schools -communities of Arua district with financial support from KIOS. It is important goal to create awareness on the children's right to education; provide the duty bearers to fulfill their duty and the rights holders to demand for their rights.

This project works to make sure that 900 parents (65% women) 40 teachers and 10 school communities are aware of the aggression committed against Children especially girls, at school, home and the community. These communities are supported to encourage the Children's (especially the girl-child) right to education through the growth of Education ordinances, radio campaigns, trainings and sensitizations and women force group local response to VAC initiative. The project also include engages local school policy makers such as School Management Committees from the point out schools in one Sub County to increase awareness on the children's right for the better learning environment both at school and at home.

The project is work in partnership with increasing Voices - using the VAC materials to strongly advocate next to VAC both within and without the school environment

Project activities aim is to providing information to advocate for children's right to education and a good learning environment, sensitization on children's rights to education and a good learning environment and obligations of education duty bearers (head teachers, School Management Committees, teachers, education officers as well as parents)

Learning For Life (Labe - Wch - Echo Bravo)

It is improving educational performance among children, retain skills, and facilitate children and girls to stay put in school.

To apply these broad goals, LABE partnered with War Child Holland and Echo Bravo to implement three interrelated sub-projects. LABE is implementing family-based education programming to recover school performance and retention rates by the training parent educators and teachers in family learning techniques and pedagogical teaching methods, as well as mobilizing parents for adult literacy classes and to hold up children's educational activities.

In this conflict Child offers psychological hold up to youth, while Echo Bravo has apply catch-up education and skills training courses to support community members who cannot resume formal primary education.

Learning for Life is being applied in 25 schools inside five sub-counties of: Bobi, Paicho in Gulu and Koch Goma, Alero, Lamogi in Amuru districts with support from Oxfam Novib

Courses, Semesters, & Diplomas:

It's takes three years to become a bachelors degree at any East African university, Makerere University and Mbarara University are no chances. Degrees in medicine and veterinary science take five years to complete, and engineering needs four years to complete. Academic years begin October 1 and end on June 30, or August 30 for four term courses. In the first year of study each student must take and pass three subjects before being permission to advance to their second year of coursework. Lectures, discussions, and laboratories are supplemented with tutorials and library studies, research, and practical training. Undergraduate students have facilities for relaxation, sports facilities, chaplaincies, health care, and opportunities to participate in student government and social clubs. First degrees are obtainable in fields such as medicine, law, dentistry, veterinary science, agriculture, engineering, commerce, statistics, social work, forestry, philosophy, political science, anthropology, sociology, geography, literature, public administration, economics, music, dance, drama, fine art, physics, chemistry, biology, zoology, environmental studies, mathematics, and computer science, as well as languages (English, French, German, Russian, Swahili, Luganda, and Lingala).

Students can get either a degree, such as a bachelor's degree, master's degree, or Ph.D., or a diploma or certificate. Certificate courses are including adult education and library science. It takes one year to complete. Two-year diploma courses are providing in library science, music, dance, and drama. The Islamic University suggest bachelor's degrees in Islamic studies, education, and medicine. Mbarara University of Science and Technology awards degrees in development studies, education, medicine, and applied science. The Institute of Teacher Education at Kyambogo awards diplomas in education to teachers who complete a two-year course. In this country so many institutes are award either certificates or diplomas depending upon the duration of coursework.

Postgraduate & Professional Training:

Most master's degree candidates must meet residency necessities, take required courses, and write a master's these is based upon original research. Doctoral degree programs are also have residency and less coursework requirements, as well as a paper based upon original research. Students must satisfy their internal review committees and external examiners that they have mastered their subject. The M.D. and/or Ch.M. degree is awarded after completing one year of study ahead of the bachelor's of science degree, and the doctorate of literature (D. Lit.) and D.Sc. are awarded after publication of work. For this country fees for tuition, research, and accommodations are free. Foreign students are required to pay annual tuition and fees, and also pay for research and dissertation, as well as accommodation costs separately

Food technology

On this favorable occasion, the School of Food Technology, Nutrition & Bioengineering, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Makerere University salutes and congratulates King Harald, Queen Sonja, Her Excellency the Ambassador and the whole people of Norway on marking their Constitutional Day.

The School of Food Technology, Nutrition and Bioengineering is conceited to be associated with the Royal Government of Norway and the Norwegian Universities and growth agencies. We take this opportunity to explain their gratitude to NORAD, NUFU, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences and the entire Norwegian people for their continued assistance and favor in developing our research, training and out reach capacity.

Giving up of the School to national human resource requires that the school has trained over 2000 graduates at BSc, MSc and PhD levels in various fields of Food Technology. Human Nutrition and Bioengineering. Their graduates continue to make positive contributions in the food industry, agricultural mechanization, agro-processing and public agencies are employed, some of their successful entrepreneurs.

The School is repackaging their training programs through strengthening and improvement of the practical, internship and entrepreneurship components to make their graduates for the challenges in their growing food sub-sector. The suggest training programs In this include:

For the Undergraduate:

B.Sc. Food Science and Technology

B.Sc. Human Nutrition and Dietetics

B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering

For the Graduate:

MSc. Applied Human Nutrition,

MSc. Food Science and Technology

PhD. Program in several areas of Food Science, Human Nutrition & Bioengineering

Short courses:

The School under their Skills Training Program for Small & Medium Enterprises (STRAP 4 SMEs) runs specific short training courses in the area of food processing, nutrition and irrigation that are custom made to meet the client's needs. At that type of program benefits youth entrepreneurs, future entrepreneurs, school leavers, students on vacation, university graduates, and additional room workers. The training under STRAP 4 SMEs program is conducted at both the University's main campus and clients' site in English though local vernaculars may be second-hand where necessary. This program has so remote trained over 130 participants in various food processing technologies.

With support from Nordic countries and Government of this country, the school continues to make growth in the area of research for development. In excess of 15 food processing technology packages have been built-up and are ready for uptake by industry. Research for development activities have also contributed to capacity building for the School through:

Staff training at PhD and MSc and constant research

Laboratory and processing infrastructure growth

Building partnerships for technology transfer and growth

The capacity of building and growth has constant to strengthen the School's training, research and outreach programs. Government-University-Private Sector Partnership in technology move & enterprise growth. In 2009 the Government bigger support to the School through commissioning the Food Technology and Business Incubation Center (FTBIC). The center is a partnership between Government of this country, Makerere University and the private sector aimed at technology exchange and promoting entrepreneurship in the food sub-sector by providing right of entry to processing facilities and technical hold to nurture young entrepreneurs and enterprises. To this finish, the Government of this country supported the FTBIC with a UShs 4.5 billion grant to expand the center into a state-of-the-art capability to stimulate and expand viable and competitive food processing enterprises in the country. The center focuses on graduate youth by means of entrepreneurial potential.


Uganda has made considerable development on its infrastructure agenda in recent years. The early and winning ICT reform detonated a vast expansion in mobile coverage and penetration resulting in a very much competitive market. Power sector restructuring has paved the way for a rapid doubling of power production capacity. This country is doing fine on the water and hygiene MDGs, and has made successful use of performance contracting to improve utility performance. Though, a number of significant challenges remain. in spite of reforms, the power sector continues to hemorrhage resources due to under-pricing and high distribution losses, while electrification rates are still very minimum. as long as adequate resources for road maintenance remains a face, and further investment is needed to raise rural connectivity and recover road safety. In this country infrastructure challenges will need sustained expenditure of around $1.4 billion per year over the next decade, strongly skewed towards capital expenditure. In this country already spends approximately $1 billion per year on infrastructure, equal to about 11 percent of GDP. A further $0.3 billion a year is lost to inefficiencies, the mass of which are associated with underbracing and allocation losses in the power sector. In this country the annual infrastructure funding gap is about $0.4 billion per year, most of which is linked with irrigation and also water and sanitation infrastructure

This country sees infrastructure spend buoying growth

* Sets to the side $85.52 million to build 700 MW dam

* Aims to trim inflation to single digits in 2012/2013

KAMPALA, April 26 (Reuters) - This country rate of economic growth is predictable to increase slightly during the next fiscal year as the country ramps up investments in transportation infrastructure, energy and education, the finance ministry said on Thursday.