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World is moving towards specialization where every organization tries to gain maximum output from its resources. The three basic resources organizational resources are human, physical and financial resources. Human resource is the center of organizational resources and motivating employees has become a common practice as many researches have been carried out in this regard. Organizations around the globe focus on motivating employees as they have realized that highly motivated employees have high organizational commitment and result in high level of productivity and profitability. Employee motivation is basically the highest degree of energy, dedication, and creativity that an employee brings to their job and put utmost effort to bring organization closer to its goals and objectives. Motivation in an organization is inversely related to turnover, absenteeism rate and positively related to organizational commitment, job satisfaction, higher level of profitability and productivity. According to a research carried by George P.Baker in 1998 it was found that employee motivation is a critical factor affecting organizational behavior but is among the least researched factor. Employee motivation can be enhanced by internal incentive plans such as human resource management policies which particularly focus on compensation structure and plans.
The concept of employee motivation has been around as long as there have been employees and employers. The earlier theories date back to 1930's. B.F Skinner reinforcement theories and Henry Murlay theories were published during this era. 1950's proves to be a fruitful period in the development of motivational theories and concepts. Four specific theories were formulated during this time Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory, Douglas McGregor X & Y theory, Frederick Herzberg two-factor theory and David McClelland's theory of needs. Maslow hierarchy of needs received maximum criticism but is still consulted before establishing motivational techniques in different organizations. 1960's was the era where earlier theories were criticized and more emphases was paid on employee motivation and theories like Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom in 1964 and goal setting theory by Edwin in 1968 came up. These theories further stressed on topics of employee motivation and urged individuals to research on it and organizations to implement them for better productivity and profitability. Cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, self-efficacy theory and equity theory and others focused on motivating the employees, stress that employees have power to make an organization rise or fall. All the studies and theories mentioned worked on employee motivation in an organization but little work has been done on education sector worldwide.
All reaches carried out with respect to employee motivation have been structured, established and implemented mostly by the developed countries while very few developing countries have participated in it. Employee motivation is important in all organizations and especially in academic sector. Education is a field where employee motivation deserves an utmost attention as this sector plays an important role in shaping up the minds of the country and apart from other factors affects the literacy rate prevalent in the country. All levels of education are important but universities prove to be the centre of higher education where teachers play a vital role.
Studies carried out with respect to employee motivation in education sector have mostly been done by developed world while very few researches have been conducted by developing countries. Aycan et al (2000) terms Pakistan as 'under-researched' country in field of human resource management practices and especially in the education sector. Pakistan is a country which is full of resources but since these resources are not being fully and properly utilized they lead to inefficiencies and lower levels of productivity in all sectors of Pakistan. Educated sector plays a vital role in the growth of any country. Literacy rate in Pakistan is very low and apart from other factors, teacher's lower level of motivation and commitment can be considered a major reason for lower rate of literacy. Teacher's motivation is an area which has been highly neglected and needs special attention especially at this point in time where Pakistan is going through numerous difficulties of economic and political instability. I believe that only educated and dedicated individuals can lead Pakistan out of such difficult situation. Hence, it is very important to pay utmost attention to this sector and in order to enhance the quality of education received by students especially at university level. High quality of lectures can only be delivered if teachers are motivated enough to carry out the task.
Pakistan saw a boom in its service industry in recent era, where new banks, catering businesses and schools/colleges and universities opened up. Lot of private universities opened up in Pakistan and especially in Punjab. Despite the presence of good private institutes till date not a single Pakistani university is ranked among top universities of the world. Hence, a thorough research is required in this field. The purpose of the research paper is to highlight the problem that is caused due to lack of motivation in teachers and their impact on lower quality lectures being delivered to students. The research being carried out list several factors that as an impact on university teacher's motivational level positively or negatively. The research aims to identify the key motivational factors affecting teacher's motivational levels among top two private universities of Pakistan. The research is being carried out on understanding the motivational level of university faculty members of Lahore University of management sciences and Lahore school of economics, the two leading business schools in Punjab. It is being carried out in these two universities particularly because private universities focus on motivational techniques as they compete to get more students enrollments and highly qualified graduates who make the market value of the university. Private universities are renowned for making best compensation plans as they promote quality education in the community.
The main aim of research is to identify the key motivational factors effecting teacher's motivational levels amongst two leading business school in Pakistan. Working on teacher's motivational level is very important, as highly motivated teachers tend to stay for longer period of time, give better work performance, and have lesser absenteeism rate and results in higher quality of teaching. On the other hand teachers who are not highly motivated to work are likely to put less effort in their work and this would in turn negatively affect student learning and achievement and would affect the standard and quality of education in the institution. Furthermore, this research aims to provide a guideline to education policy makers in various Pakistani universities to make such policies which would enable them to not only retain top level faculty and also boost the morale and standard of teacher's education quality on the whole.
The five variables discussed in the research are basically "compensation", "freedom and flexibility of designing a course", "student quality, behavior and response", "relationship with co-wrokers" and "supervision and performance evaluation". The research aims to find the co-relation between these factors and "employee motivation". It studies impact of these dependent variables on the independent variable. These dependent variables were carefully selected after consulting literature. A highly qualified teaching staff is the foundation of a successful university. Educational process at universities especially is centric to daily interactions between teachers and students, as students learn what teachers teach them. Hence, attracting and retaining highly qualified teachers is vital for success of universities. A major factor in developing a high quality university faculty is to understand the factors affecting teaching quality. This research aims to find the impact of employee motivation on teaching quality of teachers. Most of the time, teachers are motivated to teach because of their interest in particular field, as they want more academics to explore that field and when these students show positive response, behavior and have higher achievements teachers get more motivated to teach them. Teachers who are highly satisfied with their jobs have strong influence on students learning. Researchers carried out in this regard argue that teachers who are not well supported by their administration as in who don't get positive performance evaluation by administration or students are less motivated to bring out their best while delivering lectures in class. This will affect student's achievement and quality of education they gain.
Recent rise in private sector has also increased demand for high quality teacher, and universities are constantly searching for highly qualified and talent teachers and are willing to offer and pay them a very attractive compensation packages. This has caused difficulty in retaining the top level employee and universities now will have to struggle to make sure that they provide an excellent working environment which would help them retain their old academic faculty and at the same time attract new one.
As stated earlier, teachers who are highly motivated are more committed to their institution and this leads to higher productivity and profitability both for universities as well as teachers. Hence, stressing the point that employee motivation is an important factor for any institute and should be given proper attention to. The research discusses various factors effecting University teachers motivational level as the main objective of this research paper is to facilitate the policy makers and management of universities to make policies and compensation plans which motivates teachers. It should be given utmost attention as as motivated teacher's leads to higher organization commitment of teachers which would in turn lead to higher motivation level and result in higher quality of education and higher students achievements.