As we mentioned about the technology, internet is one of the most used tools worldwide. So, marketers use web sites to promote the brand, sending branding e-cards, jokes, creating branded games and sending it to the friends which in turn deliver their message to others helping the brand to get across. In marketing this type of process or advertising is called as "Viral Marketing" that heavily relies on word of mouth.
The way forward for the marketers are the new technological innovations as OFCOM says. Also, OFCOM banned the ads which are advertising the food with high level of fat, salt and sugar before the watershed hour. Of course, it is very necessary that those kind of promotional activities need to be increased in the future, mostly due to the restrictions that placed on firms and companies. Otherwise, the parents will be stressed more by this ads.
2.6 Literature Review Conclusion
In Literature Review section we stated a discussion about the socialisation skills that kids acquire while becoming the consumers. That gave to you information about the different kinds of parental styles that reflect on whether a kid makes any purchase request or not. At the end of the Literature Review, the section provided you with the insight to and further discussed the tactics which are used by marketers to advertise their goods, products and provided you with concept of future promotions.
The following section will inform you about the base of the research which will be carried out by the author delivering outline of the methodology which will be adopted. In turn, the findings will help with the outlined objectives in chapter one in applying the methodology.
The chapter two, gave information and discussed the available literature, on the marketing subject ranging to children and the methods which are used by marketers to convince the parents across the children. This also gave sociological and psychological understanding of the different kinds of parental styles that are able to affect the kids' behaviours relating purchase requests. But this chapter's purpose is to provide the reader with information behind why different research types will be chosen by the author. The researcher will evaluate the all chosen methods with in-depth, providing with the benefits and restrictions of their usage along the dissertation. The reliability and validity of the types of methods that used will be fully scrutinised.
3.2 Research Approach
The research approach that was used in my dissertation will be both deductive and inductive. The quantitative research will be concluded by applying deductive approach while the qualitative data will be completed by using inductive approach.
The inductive research will be done via the conduction of the observations in generating the relationships and behaviours of child and parent while doing shopping in different kinds of stores and markets.
The deductive research method is going to be used while undertaking questionnaires, and the qualitative data including the lately researched information published by the UK government and OFCOM. According to Malhotra et al (2003) ("Marketing Research - an Applied Approach") qualitative data can be defined as "non numerical data or data that have not been quantified" whereas quantitative is "numerical data or data that have been quantified".
3.3 Primary Research
Primary research needs the findings for the main data that comes from the researcher. That is used to address to the particular problem. The sort of methods that used to comply the research solely depends on the author. Generally the costs of conducting primary research can be fairly expensive according to (Malhotra et al (2003) "Marketing Research - An Applied Approach").
Questionnaires are consist of both descriptive and explanatory research. The explanatory research will help the author to analyse and try to make clear the connections between variables and the descriptive research will help to provide the opinions and attitudes of the respondents. The questionnaires will be both interview administered and self administered questionnaires. According to Malhotra et al (2003) ("Marketing Research - An Applied Approach") self administered questionnaires are completed by the respondents themselves. Those questionnaires will be conducted via the delivery and collection of them, after getting permission from the director. Those will be delivered at:
School number 291
The questionnaires will be conducted by the interviewer and will be filled one by one by the interviewer himself based on the answer of the respondent.
Due to the following reasons only two methods were chosen mainly:
âž¤ Because of the time limit faced with the dissertation submission and stressed by Malhotra et al (2003) ("Marketing Research - An Applied Approach") various locations of delivery and collection of questionnaires requires more time for the collection of data.
âž¤Obviously not all of the respondents are going to fill the questionnaire, the author will include the friends and the family as well.
The self conducted questionnaires will be delivered to the kids at the school classroom, and further will be passed to their parents or guardians to fill the form and return it back. The age range is considered to be between five to eleven. In total 15 questions will be distributed to the children from each age group. There will be nearly one hundred children and also those questionnaires will be distributed to 20 families and friends.
The cover letter will be attached to the self conducted questionnaires that will give the information such as for what reason that questionnaires has been distributed and for measuring what results will be used. The letter will guarantee the parents, the data that provided will be completely confidential and private. On the other hand, for getting more trust from the parents, envelopes that will be delivered will remain absolutely anonymous while processed back to their school teacher.
The questionnaire that will be distributed will be compiled of 3 different questioning methods styles.
Questions from A Category will be used; In this category respondents will be asked to tick only one category. Based on these questions will help us to understand and study the behaviours and attitudes of the people that the author seeks to delve into.
Questions from B Category will be used; In this questionnaire respondents will be asked in order of the importance to place a number. By the help of this category author will be able to find the importance of choices of the respondents.
The last category questions C Category will be used; This questionnaire will allow the respondents to choose the answers which are relevant to them. In general, all of the questions will be comprised of totally closed responses. Questionnaires are easy and quick to respond and involve minimum writing. The author will benefit from this method and will easily and effectively analyse the data.
14 questions will be included in the questionnaire. However, very long questionnaires could bear to be a chore and of course lack of interest on behalf of the respondents, thus, it can lead to the lose of the honest opinions of them. Obviously, the author's short questionnaire does not assure that the answers of the respondents will be honestly. The writer will use wording as simplified as possible within the questionnaire in order to avoid the embarrassment and misunderstanding of the questions.
In general, author has chosen the questionnaires and they are fortunately effortless and inexpensive to get the required research. Nevertheless, the self conducted style of getting required research may include not all of the respondents to deliver back the questionnaires, which could result as a smaller short sample. One copy of that questionnaire can be viewed in the appendix section.
In descriptive research observation techniques are used. It involves the recording of the behaviours of people (Malhotra et al (2003) "Marketing Research - An Applied Approach").
In order to understand the relationship between child and parent in a shopping scenario the author will take the role of a "complete observer" Saunders et al (2007) ("Research Methods for Business Students") defines this as an observer not revealing the purpose of the activity that is being observed. However Malhotra et al (2003) "Marketing Research - An Applied Approach") pg 242 defines this as being "disguised observation".
The main benefit of the complete or disguised observation is, that the respondents are acting naturally. Because if the people are aware that they are being followed or observed for an unclear reason, they are instantly trying to change the way they are acting.
The observation will remain as natural as possible meaning that behaviours will be observed as they take place Malhotra et al (2003) ("Marketing Research - An Applied Approach").
All the information gathered from the participants will be carried by means of primary observation method that concentrates on taking notes of the data that author has watched at that time and what occurred. This observations are intended to take place at the weekends as weekdays children are attending classes. Those observations will be accomplished in two different kinds of stores:
Bazar Store Toys 4 All Kids
These two different kinds of stores will help to define whether requests for the purchases differ from each other depending on the store type which is going to be used to generate the common findings. There could be some limitations, which may include the answers of different members of the family rather than the parents. On the other hand, the age of the respondents will remain unknown because of the chosen observation type. And also, the author probably will have the uncertain idea of the kid in regards to speech, height and some other characteristics.
3.4 Sampling Method
According Saunders et al (2007) ("Research Methods for Business Students") sampling techniques are used to offer a variety of methods that enable the author to limit the amount of data needed to gather, by collecting data from a sub group.
The author intended to use both convenience sampling and the purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is known as judgemental sampling. For small sample size purposive sample is best suitable method. But the information gathered from this type of the sample can not be used as a statistic of the population due to its small size. Convenience sampling that makes use of the convenient methods is the researcher's opinion to determine whom he is going to interview. That is corresponding to the respondent - interviewer while the purposive sampling could be set to the self conducted questionnaires. That type of the sampling will be beneficial for the research process.
3.5 Secondary Research
This requires the use of secondary data, which is generally pre-existing for purposes in general and this problem aside (Malhotra et al, 2003). The secondary research will contain the published external secondary resources that will comprise of free reports, mainly conducted by OFCOM. And other materials will be added from computerized databases as well as academic journals that will be accessed through the world wide web sites. The information that will be gathered from the databases will include Blackwell synergy, ABI inform and Emerald. Also, for collecting more data from the journals use of Google Scholar can be helpful during the further research. In collecting of the relevant information text books will further help the researcher and this will include: Gunter B et al (2004) ("Children as consumers - A psychological analysis of the young people's market").
The main advantage of the secondary information is that we can very easily gather it. However, there are some disadvantages of the secondary research. One of them is the validity of the information collected. The other issue is the time of the research. It could be outdated and no more useful for the present research.
The third chapter informed the reader about the research methods picked by the author in order to meet the objective. It gave information about the research approach which the writer took. In conducting the research, explanations describing the methods were given and the approaches in that they will be carried out. Furthermore, we explored those methods supplying the pros and cons of them, the kinds of the research selected outlining the aim, advantages and disadvantages. The next chapter aspires to concentrate on the data analysis and the presentation from the surveys.
4. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
In the previous chapter the author discussed the methods of methodology which will be used that gave comprehensive reasoning as for what reasons different methods will be used. The chapter four will concentrate on the findings that got by means of the empirical research of qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher will analyse and discuss it with the connection of previous chapter, which is literature review. By combining the aims and objective which were given in the beginning of the dissertation, will support in compiling the systematic analysis and evaluation of them in turn.
4.2 Sample size breakdown
As it is discussed in the third chapter, we managed to hand out the one hundred twenty five questionnaires including school children parents, some families and friends , but in return we have got only one hundred answers from the respondents. The respondent kinds' a breakdown table is given below in terms of the age range. 51 females and 49 males consist of the respondent's kids. Here is the table:
Number of the respondents
1 - 4
5 - 8
9 - 11
Fig 10: Number of the respondents from different age groups.
4.3 Factors affecting nagging and pestering
As we analyzed in the third chapter, while becoming consumers, consumer socialization plays a primary role in the shaping of the kids. They acquire variety of skills during their childhood period. According to (John, 1999) children from the ages of seven to eleven are at the right age in terms of acquiring skills.
From the data that we obtained it was apparent to mention that parents regarded pestering a prevalent element among the children and how that altered from the age groups. The results of the questionnaires showed that, almost Â¼ part of the children's parents (27%) within the five to eight age group declared that pestering and nagging was a massive factor in defining the purchase requests, followed by the parents from nine to eleven age group parents which is 12% and finally followed by 6% of the parents from one to four year old group children telling that, this is a huge factor in making purchase requests.
However this carried out research does not follow the findings of (Valkenburg, P et al, (2001) "The development of a child into a consumer"). The collected findings show that the kids who are under the 5 demonstrate high rate of pestering and nagging, that apparently does not match with the main research which accomplished instead kids aged between five to eight showing high rates of pestering and nagging. But this is very dependable on the sample chosen by Valkenburg, P et al, (2001) ("The development of a child into a consumer") and the criterias that were set in order to analyse the findings.
Fig 12: Above given graph shows the main factors causing the affect on the purchase requests, separated into different age groups.Image_24
Fig 13: Proportion of the figures given in Fig 12.
Fig 14: Key to Fig 12.
Parents of the kids aged between nine to eleven showed the reduced pestering and nagging. (Fig 15: Relationship between pocket money and pestering subdivided into groups.) It apparently displays that 12% of the children aged from nine to eleven are getting huge amount ot the pocket money, nearly 34% in proportion to the other age groups. As a result, these children are pestering their parents less than the other kids. But the children aged from five to eight are also getting pocket money, with the percentage of 23%. According to Robertson et al, (2003) children with pocket money can outmanoeuvre his/ her parents if they have access to pocket money avoiding the nagging process and conflict. This is clear in the main research conducted by the writer.
Fig 15: Above given graph shows the relationship between pocket money and pestering subdivided into groups.Image_4
Fig 16: Proportion of the figures given in Fig 15.
Fig 17: Key to Fig 14
The findings that matched also helped the author to reveal if the kids who have siblings are pestering less or more. The graphs given below have been separated due to the age groups, alongside siblings. The given graph below refers to kids aged from one to four years. ( Fig 18: relationship between pocket money and the pestering). The kids belonging to this age group who have the siblings with the same age of them pestered by only one percent (1%), kids aged from five to eight years pestered three percent (3%), while in the age group of nine to eleven years kids pestered only four percent (4%) who had siblings. This can be explained with reference to Valkenburg, P et al, (2001) ("The development of a child into a consumer") children under the age of two have not quite acquired the skills in regards of pestering their parents, meaning that they have less influence over their brothers or sisters.
Fig 18: Above given graph shows the relationship between pocket money and pestering subdivided into groups ( 1-4 ages)
Fig 19: Proportions of the figures given in Fig 18 (1-4 years).
FIg 20: Key to Fig 18
The kids who have the brothers and sisters aged between five to eight displayed higher rates of pestering tendencies. This is noticeable especially among the kids aged between nine and eleven with the percentage of 5%. This result is the same with the kids aged from one to four. But only 3% of the kids aged from five to eight pestered their parents. ( Fig 21:The relationship between pocket money and pestering subdivided into groups (5 to 8 years).