The Uses And Gratification Theory Education Essay

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In the past, people around the world used a variety of different ways to communicate and keep in touch with each other. However, the growing of internet technology has redefined the ways of human communication and interaction. Modern communication technologies such as mobile phone, instant messaging, email, social network established the communication network around the world. Social Networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Myspace and Blogspot has been the topic of discussion among the society (Pasek, 2009).

In this context, Facebook can be briefly defined as a social networking site that provide the users an online platform to create profiles, generate and share information and content, and having interaction with other contacts (Boyd and Ellison, 2007). Since the establishing of Facebook on 2004, it has attracted millions of users and many of whom have integrated it into their daily practices (Kazeniac, 2009). According to Facebook Statistics (2012), there are over 955 million active users on Facebook that spend an average more than 6 hours on the site compare as there are only 300 million active users in 2009. The rapid change of the Facebook has shown the increasing in development and popularity in the past few years.

For instance, Facebook has become a new phenomenon and trend that leading extensively popularity from all generations of people (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). According to Rouis (2012), the social site like Facebook has become an addiction for many and it has brought significant impact to their relationships, jobs, and normal daily life. It allows the users to continuously keep in touch with their family and friends with no geographically constrained as long as there is internet availability. Facebook has eventually brought greater social integration among people from various cultures and backgrounds. Users can update and continuous exchange the information as they interact with people from all over the world.

As initially, Facebook is created by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 for Havard's college students to communicate, share education information and socialization within the university (Calvi, 2010). The popularity of Facebook is growing rapidly in this recent year particular in the younger generation. Eventually, Facebook itself has experienced vast expansion among college youth students, with 95% of 18 and 19 years old have Facebook profiles (Smith & Caruso, 2010).

1.2 Research Problem

Today, Facebook has received overwhelmed number from all ages of people that participate in this social platform. Student's presence on Facebook has become a social debate in the society (Ellision et al., 2007). As a result in today, college students have been rated as the most active users in Facebook. The two most common discussion of Facebook usages among college students are socialization and education purposes. First, Facebook is able to offer a platform for college students' to socializing, communicate and maintain relationships with friends (Science Daily, 2011). In another aspect, Facebook has been described as effective tools when came to academic discussion. College students often used Facebook to discuss their assignments or homework. It involves sharing of their ideas among the group discussion. According to Ophus and Abbitt (2009) discuss that Facebook was most frequently used by the student when comes to communication with friends. Therefore, Facebook can consider as an effective academic learning tools if they utilize the usage of Facebook between socializing and academic purpose.

However, other exploratory studies have shown that the presence of Facebook has brings impact on an individual performances and productivity on task (Karpsinki and Duberstein, 2009). It is believes that long hours spent on Facebook is able to harmful to students' academic performances. According to Schulten (2009), students spent average of 30-40 minutes per day in surfing Facebook and make several update and visits a day. Some of the study also found out that students spend up 8 hours per day on Facebook which affected their proper daily routine (Rouis, 2012). In particular, a review shows that college students are the main Facebook users who spend long hours which has caused their parents and education institutions worried on their academic performances (Rouis, 2012). However, on the students perspective themselves argue that Facebook as a leisure activity will not affect on their academic effort (Rouis, 2012).

In order to understand the impact of Facebook usage towards the student's academic performances, this study aims to examine on the perspective of the source itself which are students. Different people may have different perceptions on the Facebook usage and their outcome. The general impression asserts that Facebook usage is able bring negative impact on students particular in their academic performances. Thus, by conducting the study on the perception of students are able to determine the relationship between Facebook usage and academic performance.


The main objective of this study is aims to investigate the perception of Malaysian College Students towards Facebook usage on their academic performance. In addition, 3 sub-objectives have constructed in order to achieve the main objectives for this study. Firstly is to examine the awareness of Malaysian college students on their Facebook usage. Second is to examine whether Malaysian college students perceived Facebook usage will affect their examination results. Lastly is to examine what are the perceived consequences of Facebook usage towards their overall academic performances.

1.4 Research Questions

The objectives of the study are aims to answer the following question: What is the perception of Malaysian College student towards Facebook usage on their academic performance?

1.5 Significance of study

This study attempts to investigate the perception of Malaysian college students towards Facebook usage on their academic performance. Although many studies have been done by the previous scholars and researchers, cultural characteristics are varying across the countries. Malaysia is a multicultural and racial country which the outcome might different compare to the other cultural context. Social Networking sites are considered as a multiple dimensions that can be studied through various perspectives. However, there has eventually only little research has been done regarding perception of Facebook usage in Malaysian college students. Therefore, this research study is aims to explore the perception of these students are the starting point on uncovering the relationship between Facebook usage and academic performance particular in Malaysia context. It also allows the future discussion on potential causes and effects of the academic performances particular related to the social networking. The study is able to provide the contribution and references for exploration and in-depth studies in the future when it comes to Facebook usage in academic performances.

1.6 Definitions

In the following section, definition of special term has been developed in this study. It was noted that the study mainly focused on the students on the college level. Therefore in this study, the Malaysian College Student has been the defined as the students presently enrolled in any in any public or private college institutions in Malaysia.

For the purposes of this study, Facebook usage has been defined as to what extent of the engagement time and effort students invest in the Facebook. Thus, the idea covered includes the awareness of the college students on the daily time spent, channel or medium, venues and purposes in using Facebook.

Perception in here refers as the view and the opinion of the respondents on the issues. The view can be based on positive, negative or neutral outcome. The measurement for the perception will be based on 5 Likert Scale rating system.

Since one of the objectives of this study is to examine the perception of the college students towards Facebook usage on their academic performance, the academic performance is measured by the examinations or any assessment from the college. The measurement will be based on the not just the GPA but also the college assignment, participation and the attention of the students in class. However, the perception towards impact of Facebook usage may refer to the potential outcome that can be either positive or negative (Ahmed & Qazi, 2011).

1.7 Summary

This chapter outlined the background of the study area, research problem, objective, significance study and operational definition as an introductory chapter to this study. Moving on to next chapter Literature review will starts by introducing the general view of social networking sites and Facebook to provide a theoretical foundation to the following discussion. In addition in the chapter, uses and gratifications theory has been discussed in order to provide the understanding on the main objectives in this study.

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Social Networking Sites

Social networking site (SNS) is a type of web based applications that provide users to construct a profile for individual or public uses and to create a network that share connection with other users. In other words, it is a platform that allows the user to have personal interaction and establish interconnection with other users. The user is able to add the other contacts and view other user's contacts and information reciprocally (Boyd & Ellison, 2008, p. 211).

In fact, social networking sites began in 1997 along with the launching of The purpose is to allow the users to create profiles and connect with each other through the Friends list (Boyd & Ellison, 2008, p. 214). Social Networking sites have under rapid growth in the past few years (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Social networking sites has became a phenomenon as it has attracted millions user in recent years (Rouis, 2012).

Thus, Karspinski & Dubeistin (2007) found that the number type of social networking sites are increasing such as email, blogs, social media like Youtube and Flickr and also video conferencing like Skype. These tools have become the platform for social interaction where people can share and tell stories or information and interact among each other (Eyrich, 2008). Social networking sites allows the user discuss any topic of issues at any point of time and location.

Basically, the users are free to publish express their opinion without any restrictions. The information that has been published will be spread around the world in a matter of minutes. More and more people have chosen to socialize in the online social network compare to the others social activities (Pasek, 2009). Thus, social network as other form of mass media has eventually redefined overall human communications process. It has changes the roles one way communications traditional media such as television, radio and movies (Urista & Dong, 2008). Users are able to expose to these media as it has been provided as part of social networking sites services.

Therefore, social networking sites are so accessible and effective which many young people today use this platform to communicate and express themselves. Thus, the number of users have significantly increase particular in the younger generations.


Social networking has eventually become a new phenomenon in this modern society. This study focuses only one specific of social networking site that is Facebook. In fact, Facebook by far is one of the website that contributed SNSs into the new phenomenon in the society (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Facebook as one of the most popular SNS, grow three times more on the year 2008 compare to the past three years which from 90 to 120 million users.

Facebook is also among the most popular social networking sites due to its unique features that allow the users to customize their interface profile and content. It provides the wide diversity of tools for the users to communicate among each others. The users able to interact and exchange content, example they share video and picture, discuss subjects, chat, publish advertisement for group events, or play available applications (Safko & Brake, 2009; Westlake, 2008). Eventually, the popularity of the Facebook has developed its very own subculture (Westlake, 2008).

Facebook has gain popularity among the generation Y which are the people born after 1980 (Rois, 2012). These generations grew up in the modern technology world and usually rely it to perform their task. In fact, most of this generation possessed their own Facebook account compare to the other generation (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This generation prefer on to communicate through online based technology like Facebook rather through face to face communication.

In fact, the impact of Facebook has not only changed the way the users interact with each other but also the also the overall media consumption behaviour (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Haythronwaite (2005) explains that the Facebook not just able allow individual to makes new friend but also to enable the users to shape and develop their own identity.

To summarise, Facebook is a leading social networking sites that provides a wide diversity of features for to users and create their own content and communicate to their friends. Facebook is therefore seen as a new phenomenon in the society. The discussion of Facebook will contribute to the following literature review.

The Uses and Gratification Theory

Sheldon (2007) defined this theory as different people use the media for different purposes. It is usually affected by individual goals, need and desire. In other word, the people used media for their own benefits. This theory provides us an underlying psychological communication perspective on how the individuals use mass media to fulfil their needs and desire.

Katz et al. (1974) explained that five assumptions of the uses and gratifications theory. In fact, under the first assumption of this theory describes that media users are active and goal oriented. The purpose of using media is to fulfil their need (E. Rossi, 2002). In the context, Facebook is discussed as the individuals' motives to socialize with others. Facebook is able to satisfy the individuals' interpersonal communication through the features available in the platforms (Sheldon, 2008). It was also noted that Facebook is able to links the users to those who share the same interests with them and thus to foster relationship with others (Ellison, 2007).

In the past, people have used a face to face communication and also one way communication mass media such as television, radio and movies to fulfil their different type of needs and desires. Sheldon (2008) explained the social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace and Blogger are used simultaneously by the individuals to fulfill their social needs on entertainment, information and diversion. Social networking sites are able to combine variety of these needs in on central location. The developments of social networking sites have provided the individuals to satisfy their cognitive and affective needs. Thus, social networking sites have became a popular ways to bring satisfaction in term of needs and desires for an individual.

Facebook usage on college student

The previous section basically described the roles and functions of social networking sites and Facebook. Then, the further discussion has been included to understand the uses of gratification in these new phenomenons. This section will provide insight of the Facebook usage on the college students.

Modern technology communication has bought the social network such as Facebook to become one of the most important tools to connect and share information to friends. Approximately 50% the users in Facebook are basically the population from the generation Y which the ages range between 18 and 34 years (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Hepburn (2011) found that 48% of people age ranges between 18 to 34 check their Facebook right after the wake up in the morning while 28% check in before go to bed. The number of users in Facebook have been increasing very quickly particular among the undergraduate students age range between 18 -24, which are higher than any other age group (Eldon, 2011). These populations tend to spend a lot of time in the social media and log on to the site every day amounted to nearly double than any other type of media.

In fact, the development of this 24/7 accessible technologies allow the students to hang around in Facebook (Fodeman and Monroe, 2009). Therefore, the excessive of Facebook usage has become a habit for the students that able to bring impact particularly on their academic performance as well as their quality of life. College students have eventually becoming the largest user base in Facebook (Boyd & Ellison, 2008, p. 214). The previous point has been supported by Smith & Caruson (2010) who study found that 95% of 18 and 19 years old college students have their own Facebook profiles.

Therefore, the two main Facebook usages are hedonic usage which able to resulted utilitarian motives and the second merely for leisure purposes (Rouis, 2012). The Facebook usage usually involved people from different ages interact and communicate. They use Facebook to share video, picture, discussion and chatting with each others. The younger generation particular students have spent up more than 8 hours per day on Facebook. These days, students spend their time more on online socializing network like Facebook compare to other socializing activities. Kutjath (2011) explains that college students tend express themselves in Facebook by gaining greater integration with their friend, access to new friends and involves in exchanging of information and knowledge.

However, Rouis (2012) found that students are well concerns about the impact of Facebook to their life. They consider their time spend on Facebook is important because it enable them to provide them entertainment and socializes with each others. Facebook have also become a platform for them to rest so that they can perform better on the other important task.

This literature sought to understand the engagement and the purposes of college students in Facebook usage. Thus, the next section will examine on the relationship of Facebook usage on the academic perspectives.

Facebook usage in academic performance

Academic performances provides as a mean to assess the impact of social and external attributes or environment that related to student's academic task and achievement. There are a lot of attributes that contributes to the academic performances of the students, and one of the examples is the Facebook usage (Rois, 2012).

In contrast, Facebook as part of the student's leisure activity is able to improve their social life. However, it has also been known as a threat on student's academic grades. It is predicted that heavy usage on Facebook able to caused students to less allocate their time on homework preparation (Hofer, 2007). In addition, mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or laptops are used to surf on Facebook during classroom session that able indirectly distract their attention to the lecture.

Individual usage on the social networking sites like Facebook hold the same similarity to other kind of computer based network. According to Kalpidou, Costin & Morris (2007), SNSs like Facebook and Myspace has been diffused to teenager's life and play a major role on their academic performances. As we indicated in the previous discussion, the two main approaches of Facebook usage are basically utilitarian motives and leisure purposes. If the Facebook usage is just pure utilitarian motives, it can bring impact positive to the individual academic performances (Burton & Straub, 2006). On the other side, leisure purposes on Facebook will cause the students to access to this network from different channels and devices along the day. Therefore, the student's daily routine will appears conflict between their study motives which their cognitive load has been submerged and could not concentrate on their academic task.

By considering Facebook usage as a leisure purposes that will affect students' academic performance, Madge (2009) found that Facebook is used primarily for social reasons and academic-related purposes. Pempek et al. (2009) argued that the purpose of Facebook usage among college students is to communicating with friends while discussion for assignment or homework was the least. Younger generation especially students spent up to 8 hours per day surfing on Facebook daily. Therefore, it increased the level of information flow management in student engagement more than in their homework (Rouis, 2012). In other word, Facebook had caused student engage in constant interactions and socialization in the platform while deflecting their attention from their academic work which prohibit them from concentrating on their academic task.

On the other side, 70% of the college students perceived that Facebook would not affect their grades except for heavy usage users (Kaspernski and Duberstein, 2009). Heavy usage may affect on their daily routine and caused Facebook addiction. Thus, Facebook usage in academic has been discussed in this section. The next section will concluded the argument and perspective by previous study of Facebook usage on positive and negative outcome of Facebook usage in academic performances. One of the most common techniques of measuring the academic performances is analyse the student's goals (Valle et al., 2009). Assumptions have been made that Facebook usage as a leisure activity to the students will affect their overall academic results. In this context, the main approaches of analyzing the academic performances is by the meant of focused on the examination and assignment grades of the students.

Positive impact of Facebook usage on academic performances

The impact usually depends on the different uses and gratification on Facebook among the college students. Social networking sites like Facebook are highly based on the individual uses and it has the potential to increase the student effectiveness in academic (Brady & Smith, 2010). Pasek (2009) argued that there is no proof that Facebook usage is affecting the academic performances of the tertiary education students. Hoffman (2009) explains that the positive attributes of Facebook are able to enhance the learning environment of the students, as well as bringing motivation to individuals.

Junco (2011) identified the same argument that Facebook contribute to the positive impact of academic performance. Facebook served as a platform or forum for the college students to share, discuss, and update information that is related to their academic task. Brady (2010) explains that exchanging information through Facebook is highly effective compare to face-face communication. The social networking site like Facebook, Youtube and Twitter are able to bring positive effect on cognitive and social skills. Mahadi & Ubadidulla (2012) found that it can enhance the language of the students in the process of social interaction and feedback.

Negative impact of Facebook usage on academic performances

However, several studies have found a negative relationship between Facebook usage and student's academic performances. Exposure to Facebook have the tendency to bring overall negative effect on students' academic performances (Park et al., 2009). According to Boogart (2004) and Kirschner & Duberstein (2009) highlight that Facebook is able to bring negative implications such as lowered GPAs when it comes to heavy usage. Facebook is able to cause distraction effect to an individual. It is able to distract the students to visit Facebook profiles when they are doing their work. In fact, students might go online to look for assignment information and end up interacting on Facebook (Rouis, 2012). As a result, students appear to experience degraded on their academic performances.

As consequences, Facebook usage may jeopardize the students' academic performance. According to Ohio State University (2009) argued that there is a relationship exists between Facebook usage and academic performance. The study shows that those students that used Facebook frequently tend to have the lower Grade Point Average (GPA) than those who seldom use Facebook. It is because most of the heavy Facebook user often having problem on the time management on their study compare with the light Facebook user. Madge et al. (2009) came to the conclusion Facebook for social purposes are able to wasted the time to academic study by viewing as potential negative effect to the students.

In fact, Roblyer et al. (2010) challenges Facebook role as an educational tool which the study found out that Facebook use among faculty and students for instructional purposes is limited and that popular in academic world. Furthermore, Hargittai (2010) has done the study on negative impact of Facebook usage toward students' academic performance. Research shows Facebook will cause students to lost their interest and concentration on their homework or assignment. As a consequence, its end up with undone or low quality of work. In addition, Jackson (2008) explains that negative impact on academic performance also affect by interference by Facebook uses like multitasking. Students are unable to perform efficiently on multitasking even not matter how good they are. The study also shows that significant results which students like to use Facebook for chatting and gaming the same time when doing assignments. Jacobsen and Forste (2011) described that Facebook as part of electronic media is negatively associated with academic grades. The Facebook is able distract students on using handphone, laptop in class or while doing academic task.

Perception of students towards Facebook usage

In the previous studies, there major two types of results shows on college student's perspective toward Facebook usage on academic performance. Students perceived self regulation and time management skills are important aspects to protect them from Facebook addiction (Rouis, 2012). Helou & Rahim (2011) found that majority of the students' view that Facebook have positive impact on their academic performances even they are reported that the purposes of engaged in Facebook are socialization rather than academic purposes. According to Gewertz (2007), the study Facebook usage on student's perspective is effective learning tool. It is able to improve the interaction between lecturer and students. Therefore, Facebook has particular become an effective tools for college students when come to the problem in their assignments. Brady et al. (2010) share the similar findings on the student perception on the impact of Facebook. Majority of the students are reported to have Facebook as their e-learning in their courses instead of face to face communication.


This review reflected up the research question "The perception of Malaysian College Students when comes to their Facebook usage and academic performances." Facebook as a new phenomenon in the society has gain popularity particular among the younger generation like students. Previous studies have indicated positive and negative outcome of Facebook. In positive perspective, Facebook has been view as an important educational tool to improve student performances, while in the negative perspective, Facebook is generally found to be negatively affected student grades. However, we assumed that although Facebook has been described as able to bring negative effect on academic performances, the students will still perceived Facebook as not affecting on their academic performances. Therefore, to fully understand the impact of Facebook usage towards students' academic performances, it is important to conduct a research study in perspective that based on the students itself.

Chapter 3 Methodology

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

The conceptual framework was constructed based on the areas of discussion on the literature reviewed and that will contribute to the following chapter of this study. Therefore, this chapter will present the research method and strategy that used to collect the data in this study. The chapter starts by explaining the pilot study, sampling method, and research design. The final section of this chapter will concluded the research procedure in collecting the data in this study.

3.2 Pilot Study

Pilot study has conducted in Tunku Abdul Rahman College Penang Branch Campus. The instruments have been assigned to 20 potential respondents. The data collected was used to minimize and analyze the errors in the study. However, data collected will not be included as the research finding. Through the pilot study, one additional question has been suggested by the respondent and thus it has been added to the questionnaire. Some of the questions have been reconstructed to more comprehensive in term of grammar and language. Correction has been made in the answer by providing more options to the future respondents of this survey.

3.3 Subject and Participants

The questionnaires surveys were distributed to 160 respondents and total 153 return with valid responses. Figure 4.2.1 summarizes the demographic profiles of the respondents. The respondents were 54 males and 96 females. All the respondents were undergraduate students ranging between 18 and above 25 years old. Despite of the diversity of ethnicity, majority of the respondents are Chinese and most of them are Diploma holder.

3.4 Sampling method

The population for this study was Malaysian college students. The sample was determined by purposive sampling method. A total of 160 sampling size were identified in this study from 3 different institutions. Respondent must be a Facebook user was used as the basic criteria of the purposive sampling method in this study. To ensure the quality of the data collected, the respondents will be ask in verbally whether they have own Facebook account before conducting the survey. Respondents will be informed that the data collected is strictly confidential and only for academic purposes. The information such as name, address and contact number will not be included in the survey in order to protect the respondents' privacy.

To obtain the information regarding the perception of the Malaysian college students, the institutions were narrowed to the college students in private institutions in Penang. The institutions were determined from the list of the best private college in Penang state accorded to Malaysian Quality Evaluation System (2011). The list was obtained by out of 26 private colleges in Penang, the samples will be categorized into 5, 4 and 3 stars in term of overall result based scores and the survey will be carried out only in three colleges. The chosen colleges are KDU Penang College, Han Chiang College and Equator Academy of Art as 5, 4 and 3 starts respectively. The reason to select these 3 colleges is to find out the different perspective of the students in different rating level of colleges.

3.5 Research Design

In this section, the research design is reviewed and discussed in details. The study was to investigate on the perception of Malaysian College Students toward the Facebook usage on their academic performance. In order to achieve the research objective, quantitative research has been chosen as the method to collect the data. The reason is because quantitative research is useful when used to quantify opinions, attitudes and behaviors and find out how the whole population feels about a certain issue (Suphat Sukamolson, 2002). According to Creswell (1994), quantitative research is essentially in explaining a phenomenon by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods. Therefore, to obtaining the perception and also the awareness on the Facebook usage and academic performances, quantitative research is prove to be more suitable. In this research study, questionnaire survey is used as the instrument to collect the data.

The questionnaires survey was designed to examine 3 major areas of evaluations: awareness of Facebook usage, perception of Facebook usage, and perceived consequences on overall academic performances (Appendix B). The respondents will receive a standardized and consistent set of questionnaires (Appendix B) that consists of 15 questions. Demographics data such as age, gender, race and education level were collected. Then the questions will move on to one of the research objective questions to find out the awareness toward their Facebook usage. The way to measure the awareness of Facebook usage is through the respondent's knowledge and level of engagement in the Facebook. 5 questions constructed in this section such as time spent on the Facebook daily, purpose of using Facebook, location and the channel that usually logon to Facebook. These questions included multiple choices responses the combination of 1 question which the respondents can choose more than an option.

The final section of the questionnaire survey focused on the perceptions of the respondent towards Facebook usage on their academic performances. The questions were designed to address on the level of attitudes towards the certain statements. The sample measures for the concept including:

Using Facebook affect my daily routine.

Using Facebook affect my examination result.

Using Facebook affect my college assignment.

Using Facebook affect my class participation.

Using Facebook affect my attention in class.

These questions drawn a line which the respondents are required to rate in terms of the degree to which it reflects their attitude towards the statement. Likert Scale rating system has been used to measure concept of the perception towards Facebook usage on their academic performances. For instance, 5-point categorical scale that ranged from strongly disagree to strongly agree was used to assess the level of intensity on the statement.

3.6 Research Procedure

The first data collection was implemented starting 18 November 2012 began at the Equator Academy of Art and moving on to KDU College and Han Chiang College. It was noted the survey was conducted inside the campus of Han Chiang College and main gate for the other two colleges. Questionnaires surveys were distributed to 160 respondents. In order word, a total of 53 questionnaires have been distributed in each college. However, only 150 respondents' answer will be chosen to generate better quality and valid results. The purpose is to eliminate those failed to respond or did not answer completely in the conducted survey.

As indicated in the previous sampling method, the respondents had been asked verbally whether they have Facebook account. Then we will only proceed on distribute the questionnaires to the respondents. In the process of data collection, explanations will be given to the respondents that have problem on answering the questionnaires. Eventually, each respondent took approximately 5 minutes to finish the questionnaire.

In Equator Academy of Art, we started to distribute a total of 53 questionnaires to the college students. Eventually, the response rate was 100%. In KDU College, the questionnaires were conducted which 48 out of 54 respondents completed the questionnaire survey. Lastly in Han Chiang College, 52 out of 54 questionnaires have been received in fully answered respond. Therefore, the overall response rate for the survey was 95% and 153 out of 160 respondents fully completed the questionnaire survey.

However, some challenges and problems have been faced in the study. The attitude of the respondent is one of the main problems faced in the data collection process. Some of the respondents are unable to complete the questionnaire by leaving blank in certain questions. There are also some error happened when the respondents tick more than one answers in the question which the instruction does not required to do so.

3.7 Conclusion

As a conclusion in this chapter, the study was conducted at three private colleges Equator of Art and Academy, Hanchiang College and KDU College in Penang state. Quantitative research questionnaire survey was used to collect the data from the college students. The sampling is determined by using purposive sampling method. Results that obtained will be further discuss and analysis in next chapter.

Chapter 4 Finding & Analysis

Chapter 4 Finding & Analysis

4.1 Introduction

This study sought to investigate the perception of Malaysian College Students towards Facebook usage on their academic performance using the quantitative research method. The instrument of questionnaires survey has been used to collect the data in three different education institutions. Data were collected in the following area: Demographic profile, Awareness of Facebook Usage and Perception of Facebook usage affect on academic performances

4.2 Demographic Profile

This section provides the information regarding the demographic profile of the survey respondents. Four questions are asked on the instrument included level of education, race, age and gender. The data presented on the Figure 4.1 is the combination results of the respondents in 3 different colleges.

Level of education






Bachelor Degree






















Above 21








Figure 4.2.1 Demographic Profile

The table above shows the demographic profile on level of education. Majority 65% respondents are Diploma holder, while 20% and 15% of the respondents are Certificate and Bachelor Degree holder respectively.

The second section of the table above shows the demographic profile on the races. Majority 71% of the respondents are Chinese, while 21% are Indian. The result also indicated that 5% and 3% of the respondents are Malay and Sikh respectively.

The following section of the table above shows the demographic profile on the age. Majority 40% respondents are 20 years old and 27% respondents are above 21 years old. The result also included 20% and 13% of the respondents belongs to 18 and 19 years old.

The final section of the table shows the demographic profile on the gender. 64% of the total respondents are female while the rest 36% are male.

4.3 Awareness of Facebook Usage

This section will present the results of Awareness of Facebook usage of the respondents. All respondents were asked five questions regarding their usage on Facebook. Figure 4.2 - Figure 4.6 shows the results from these series of questions.

Figure 4.3.1 Frequency of log on to Facebook

The bar chart above shows that majority 84% respondents log on to Facebook daily. 11% of the respondents logon to Facebook 1-3 times per week. The results also indicated minority of respondents which only 4% of them log on to Facebook 1-3 times per week. However, only 1% of the respondents fall under miscellaneous because failed to provide the complete answer.

Figure 4.3.2 Location of log on to Facebook

The bar chart above shows that majority 73.30% respondents usually log on to Facebook in their home. 11.33% and 10.60% of respondents usually logon to Facebook at hostel and college respectively. The result also shows that only 4% of the respondents log on to Facebook in public places. However, 0.66% of the respondents fall under miscellaneous because failed to follow the instruction of the question.

Figure 4.3.3 Channel used to log on to Facebook

The bar chart above shows that majority 40% respondents usually log on to Facebook using the computer. The results indicated that computer is the main channel for students to log on to Facebook. 29.33% and 24% log on to Facebook through handphone and tables respectively. However, only 6.66% of respondents used laptop to logon to Facebook.

Figure 4.3.4 Daily Time Spent on Facebook

The bar chart above shows that majority 40% respondents spend 1-3 hours on Facebook daily. 17.33% and 13.33% of the respondents spend more than 6 hours and less than 1 hour on Facebook respectively. The results also indicated that 9.33% of respondents spend 4-6 hours on Facebook daily and 20% of them are not sure about their daily time spent on Facebook.

Figure 4.3.5 The purposes of using Facebook

The question allowed the respondents to choose more than one answer. Therefore, the bar chart above shows the majority respondents used Facebook for entertainment and socialization purposes which are 34.72% and 34.02% respectively. The results also indicated that 24.31% of the respondents use Facebook to seek for information and 4.17% used it as diversion. However, 2.77% of the respondents fall under miscellaneous because failed to follow the instruction of the question.

4.4 Perception of Facebook usage affect on academic performances

This section of the instrument begins to examine the respondents' perception of Facebook usage on their academic performances. Respondent were asked to address on the level of attitudes towards the certain statements. The measurement of the responses is based on the Likert Scale Rating System.


Strongly agree




Strongly disagree

a) Using Facebook affect my daily routine

24% (36)

27% (40)

27% (40)

13% (20)

9% (14)

b) Using Facebook affect my examination result











c) Using Facebook affect my college assignment











d) Using Facebook affect my class participation











e) Using Facebook affect my attention in class











Figure 4.4.1: Responses to the question on the perceptions towards Facebook usage on their academic performances rated with a 5 different intensity on Likert scale rating system

The figure above shows that 24% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement "Using Facebook affect my daily routine". 27% of them agree with the statement, 27% of them indicated neutral to the statement, while 13% of them disagree with the statement and the rest 9% of them strongly disagree with the statement.

The second figure shows that 11% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement "Using Facebook affect my examination result". 13% of them agree with the statement, 36% of them indicated neutral to the statement, while 29% of them disagree with the statement and the rest 11% of them strongly disagree with the statement.

The third figure shows that 20% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement "Using Facebook affect my college assignment". 16% of them agree with the statement, 29% of them indicated neutral to the statement, while 29% of them disagree with the statement and the rest 6 % of them strongly disagree with the statement.

The following figure shows that only 7% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement "Using facebook affect my class participation". 7% of them also agree with the statement, 28% of them indicate neutral to the statement, while 33% of them disagree with the statement and the rest 25% of them strongly disagree with the statement.

The last figure shows that 10% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement "Using Facebook affect my attention in class". Only 6% agree with the statement, 29% of them indicate neutral to the statement, while 38% of them disagree with the statement and the rest 17% of them strongly disagree with the statement.

Figure 4.4.2 Perception of Facebook will affect their overall academic performance

The bar chart above shows that majority 65.33% respondents perceived Facebook will not affect their overall academic performance. The respondents perceived themselves have good time management skills and they are not addicted to Facebook However, only 34.66% of respondents perceived Facebook will affect their overall academic performance. The respondents perceived Facebook will distract them from doing their academic tasks.

Chapter 5 Discussion & Conclusion

Chapter 5 Discussion & Conclusion

5.1 Summary of study

This study was conducted at three education institutions throughout the Penang states. As Facebook has become a new phenomenon that had significant impact to the life of the college students. As students use of the Facebook are increasing, so it is important for the study to understand on the impact of Facebook usage on college students. Eventually, not much research has been done on exploring on the perception of the sources itself which are the students on these issues. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the perception of Malaysian College Students towards Facebook usage on their academic performance.

Thus, one of the key aspects of this study is to highlight the college students' usage on Facebook. The majority of the students log on to the Facebook daily with over 73.30% of them accesses it from their home. It was also indicated that, students spent up to 1 to 3 hours per day. The majority of the students accesses to Facebook using the computer and laptop as it is also been consider as mobile personal computer. As expected, the students uses Facebook are for entertainment and socialization purposes.

The perceptions of the students are explored on the Facebook usage on their academic performances. Students also indicated agreement on Facebook usage will affect on their daily routine. However, the following responses remain either with neutral response or being to disagree with the statement that Facebook usage will affect their academic performances. Therefore, it is clearly that most of the students perceived that Facebook usage will not affect their examination results. The perception of students also noted that Facebook will not affect their overall academic task performances included college assignment, class participation and attention in the class. The reason is because majority of the students perceived themselves have a good time management skills. They are able to allocate their time wisely between Facebook and academic task as well as being addicted to Facebook.

5.2 Discussion

As noted in Chapter 2 Literature Review, exposure to Facebook have the tendency to bring overall negative effect on students' academic performances. This study has applied uses and gratification theory to explain the increasingly popularity of Facebook among college students. It is note Facebook has been used as tools to fulfil college student's social and entertainment needs. As a result, students appear to experience negative impact on their academic performances. Regardless, heavy usage of Facebook tends to caused for lower student's examinations grades. Facebook is able to causes distraction effect on their academic task particular on those students that highly engage in this social platform. In this context, students appear to use Facebook for entertainment and socialization purposes. The results also display that majority college students are more likely to spend 1 to 3 hour per day on Facebook. This may also related to the fact that average of the college students spent up to 8 hours per day on Facebook.

Therefore, the current study thus provides the perception of Malaysian college students toward Facebook usage on their academic performances. Considering the initial usage of the students in this platform, this study noted that Facebook has been perceived that it will not cause negative impact to their academic performances. Although Facebook has been indentify as the tools for entertainment and socialization, self regulation such as good time management is able prevent students from Facebook addiction. Thus, students are able to allocate their time wisely allocate their time on Facebook. The current study results also present that students are not the heavy users of Facebook. Thus, it might be one of the possible implications that Facebook usages are not the main reason that will affect on their academic performances. Student have also been reported that they usually log on to Facebook at their home instead of college. College students are more likely to less online to Facebook during the class. This indicated that, Facebook usage has been perceived that will not affect their participation and attention during the class.

5.3 Conclusion

This study presents the perception of college students on Facebook usage toward their academic performances. In fact, engagement on Facebook has been measured as the variables of determining the awareness of Facebook usage. The theoretical framework suggested that long time spent on Facebook will negatively affect student's academic performances. As a conclusion, the study assumptions provide notable results in Malaysian context. Despite Facebook has been described as a potential negative effect on student overall academic performances, in students' perception, Facebook will not bring any negative effect to their overall academic performances. Based on the results, self regulations such as good time management skill has been viewed as the prevention for this outcome.

5.4 Limitation of study

This section sought to list out the limitation exists in this study. First, this study is limited to students in only three colleges. Due to time and resources constraints, the study can only be conducted in the limited area. In fact, there are some demographics that become important consideration when exploring the perception of college students in this three education institutions. The majority of the respondents are the Chinese and female populations.

In addition, the study is also limited to the number of responses of the students. Only a total of 160 questionnaires have been distributed to the respondents due to the time constraints. The larger samples are required to be sufficiently representing the outcome of the whole population. Therefore, it is unreasonable to confidently generalize these results to users with different demographic or cultural contexts.

5.5 Suggestion for future research

In responses to the limitation above, the area of research should explored more specifically on with Facebook impact of Malaysia college students. The research is able to conduct in larger population sampling in the future. In addition to that, future study may also test on the perception of the general public on Facebook usage. More or less, the research area have to be conducted in larger area included the different demographic perspective. Furthermore, comparative study between Malaysian college students and other culture context can be conducted to evaluate the relationship of Facebook usage and academic performances. Lastly, qualitative research can be conduct in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding on the Facebook usage of the college students.