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Various studies have explored the use of ICT in the education. In particular, researchers have examined the integrated of technology into school focusing on the ICT policy and student voice. The following review of some related literature, journal and experience of ICT in education will be discussed in this chapter
Technology in all sectors of society has seen dramatic changes and developments in the recent century. Technologies have contributed towards the creation of a new global economy and through such interconnections the world has shrunk. Tinio said that the new global economy is powered by technology, filled by information and driven by knowledge (Tinio, 2002). Information and knowledge continues to narrow the world and continues to grow rapidly. The education system has been transformed and is being transformed as new technology is introduced and imbedded within schools and universities. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) use has spread around the world. Countries have started to revise their education policies to integrate or adopted the new ICT's in education. International organizations have also started to promote ICT use in many developing countries.
In the 21st Century, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are seen to be instrumental in the developing of countries, particularly those in the developing world. As did the enabling technologies of the past, ICTs will allow nations to achieve development goals faster and more efficiently. ICTs enable development in at least three key ways. First, they enhance access to and creation and sharing of knowledge. Second, ICTs effectively speed up the production process and facilitate financial transactions throughout the economy while reducing costs. Third, ICTs connect individuals, groups, enterprises, communities and governments faster and more cost-effectively. (Lallana, 2004, p.9)
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) recognizes the importance of information and Communications technology (ICT) to improve education and foster development in the Asia-Pacific region and in 2002, the ADB approved a policy encouraging ICT and learning with technologies tools to improve quality of education in remote areas and among disadvantaged communities in the Developing Member Countries (DMCs).
Experiences of ICT in Developing Countries
2. 1.1. Master plan of ICT in education
As Hakarainen et al (2000) point out that ICT is a transformative tool and its full integration into school systems is necessary to prepare students for the information society. Most developed and many developing countries have introduced computer technology into education through their existing programs.
To achieved country's development in both economic and society. Some developing countries are designing and integrating ICT into their education policy and established the master plan in promoting ICT in the country.
Thailand invested in an equitable information infrastructure to empower human ability and to enhance life quality, build man power with technology and invest for good governance (Farrel, G., Wachholz, C.,& Balawati, T., 2003).
In Malaysia, The ministry of Education sees that ICT is very crucial tool to improve learning, to enhance pedagogies, to lead to more effective organizational structures in schools and produce stronger links between schools and society and
to empower learners. The ministry set up vision for ICT in education focuses on three major areas to provide ICT to all students in order to reduce the digital gap between school, use ICT as tool in teaching and learning and increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of the management system (Farrel, G., Wachholz, C.,& Balawati, T., 2003)..
Vietnam is the member of Asean country. In 1993, Vietnam recognized the important of ICT for teaching all subjects . The ministry of education and training published the master plan in 2001 by allowing teacher could apply information technology in the subject teaching.
In the master plan of Vietnam aims to develop ICT infrastructure for education and training consist of ( computer network, computer room in school in order to provide access resource for teaching and learning activities and educational management), to develop the ICT human resource for education sector with quality training, use ICT as a tool to promote innovative thinking and lifelong learning through use of educational software and to build effective curriculum with teaching method and student evaluation system (Farrel, G., Wachholz, C.,& Balawati, T., 2003).
Myanmar is also a party to the ASEAN member. The government of Myanmar established the Myanmar Education Research Bureau responsible for include ICT for non -formal education into national plan by setting up clear objective to increase education opportunities through the use of ICT in school and community learning center (CLC) , increase the production of teaching material for school and retraining teacher for effective use of ICT (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
People's Democratic Republic of Lao with Several government agencies are involved in the development of information and communication technology (ICT) policies. The Ministry of Education (MOE) has developed a three-phase master plan for IT development in education focusing on the establishment of a ministerial intranet system with links to provincial offices and the National University of Laos (NUOL); Integrated the ICT content into the secondary and tertiary curriculum and promote distance learning and e-learning through ICT (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
While processing the policy, these countries commonly experience some constraints. The constraints are different depending on the country situation.
2. 1.2. Policy Constraints
In Lao country, the process of promote ICT in Lao government does not going well. There numerous constraint on the use of ICT with the country especially education sector and government agencies. Lacking of a co-ordinate ICT master plan, Government have struggle to developed ICT plan and projects but the group practitioner have not assigned responsibility clearly and prioritizing the government' ICT needs (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
In Myanmar still emerged numerous problems. According to UNDP 2003 Human Development index, Myanmar is one among the poorest development countries in the world. While obtaining sanction from the International community, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is roughly US$ 1.027. Compared to financial expenditure on military, education is low spending which cause the ICT faced obstacle (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
ICT infrastructure Constraint
Moreover, the awareness of the benefit of ICT are not clear understood in Laos especially use of internet and email and little incentive to improve the ICT planning and access in public (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
Similar to other developing countries, Vietnam ICT infrastructure shows some problem. Lack and slow of ICT infrastructure also facing the problem. Telecommunications infrastructure does not provide high speed information access especial for outside urban area. The insufficient for ICT related laws. Course content and professional training is in the poor standard and no improvement because of lacking learning material in local language. Infrastructure expansion, the internet subscriber still remains limited and most of the providers are stated owned company. The connection is too high for most household (Farrel, G., Wachholz, C.,& Balawati, T., 2003).
However, the catching up the ICT for education in Thailand, numerous obstacle and problem have arisen including accessibility and affordability of telecommunication infrastructure, high central access, access ICT from remote areas, lack of course ware and ICT tools and finally lack of awareness of ICT especially ICT literate teacher. (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C. Balawati, T, 2003).
Similarity, Internet access and the awareness of ICT is limited. According to UNDP human Development program, country has approximately ten thousands internet user among 50 million populations. On the hand, government has fully control on email account, website and restrict on local internet substitute. According to an e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment conducted in 2001, Myanmar ranked ninth out of the 10 ASEAN countries in terms of e-infrastructure, e-society, e-commerce and e-government. As such, it was classified as an "emerging" readiness country, characterized by the need to build basic ICT infrastructure ( (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
Many major factors happened to inhibit the growth of ICT use in Malaysian education. The low of ICT structure in schools especially between rural and urban area to access the course ware, online management tool and technical support was the obstacle in operate the smart school project. The cost of internet access which include of hardware, knowledge and experience of using internet are limited. (Farrel, G., Wachholz, C.,& Balawati, T., 2003).
Human Resource Constraint
Human resource is also a problem for Vietnam to develop ICT in education. The low of practicing come from a lack of awareness and understanding among the government official. Furthermore, development and adoption of ICT have fully established with lacking of guideline. In addition, there are insufficient experienced, quality ICT personnel especially at managerial level. (Quaynh.T.N, 2007)
Human resource is also important for helping to develop country, as an experienced in developed country and rich country. Loa is the least- developed country among the ASEAN member so the lack of knowledge based ICT; lack of necessary expertise in developing ICT infrastructure is the problem in promotes ICT in the country. Lack of local ICT training and man power on ICT because most ICT specialist who have received the training abroad did not work in government body (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
Lack of course ware finally lack of awareness of ICT especially ICT literate teacher in Thailand because of short courses have not much impact, but peer training is effective; Lack of sustainable and systematic professional development; Need for realistic objectives in training programs (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C. Balawati, T, 2003).
Limited access to and awareness of ICT is another constraint in promote ICT in Myanmar. According to the non-governmental organization Reporters Without Borders, Myanmar is one of the countries most shut off from the Internet. According to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Human Development Indicators (2003), the country has less than 10,000 Internet users out of a population of 50 million (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C., & PREL, 2003).
In Malaysia, Lack in use of ICT in classroom, lack of teacher's integrated ICT Skills. The low of ICT structure in schools especially between rural and urban area to access the course ware, online management tool and technical support was the obstacle in operate the smart school project (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C. Balawati, T, 2003).
Financial Resource Constraint
A financial constraint is the big issues for Lao government. We can be imaging the Lao country. Refer to UNDP 2003 human development index. Lao is the one of the least -developed country in the world, Gross domestic product (GDP) is approximately US$1,620 and roughly 39% of population living in poverty. So, ICT tools and computer equipment can afford for education project but it can practice slowly rely on donor assistance. In 1997, 38 percent national budget comes from donor aid (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C. Balawati, T, 2003).
Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, ranked 131st out of 175 countries in the UNDP 2003 Human Development Index. Gross Domestic product (GDP) per capita in Myanmar is roughly US$ 1,027. While international isolation and donor country sanctions restrict the government of Myanmar's access to foreign aid, the government's main spending priority is its military. Public expenditure on the military is roughly five times greater than spending on education (Farrel, G. Wachholz, C. Balawati, T, 2003).
Student experiences with ICT
Gender in ICT
In addition to these issues, there are the issues of gender representation in the power and decision-making arenas of ICTs, of privacy and security as it impacts gender, of gender representation in the ICT industry and labor force.
Getting gender issues into ICT policy
The above section delineates the major gender issues that affect women's access to and use of ICTs overall. In addition to these general issues that permeate every aspect of ICT, there are the specific issues that arise in policy frameworks. Clearly, there is no general framework for an ICT policy, nor should there be. Policies have to be formulated within national contexts and reflect those contexts as well as the focus that policy makers choose. Thus there is a tremendous variation in the content of national ICT policies. Rowlands (1996) points out that ICT policies can be categorized into three major categories: infrastructural, vertical and horizontal policies (Hafkin, 2002)
Since science and technology are domains historically ascribed to males, women and girls tend to find technology intimidating and alienating. We tend to see the ICT sector as a realm of society that is unfriendly and dominated by men. We associate technology with men and assume that its production, application and maintenance are areas that fall more easily into the male domain. In these ways we ourselves sometimes play an unconscious role in reproducing the gendered nature of our society and the ICT sector at large. These internal barriers to participating in the ICT sector must also be overcome (AIS-WIG, 1999).
Despite significant shifts towards greater gender parity, girls continue to face sharp discrimination in access to schooling. In eleven countries, seven of which are in sub- Saharan Africa, girls have 20% less chance of starting school than boys. Countries with a GPI below 0.80 are unlikely to achieve the 2005 goal. Chad, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, the Niger and Pakistan are the
poorest performers in terms of girls' access to school, with a GPI of 0.75 or below. In fourteen countries the index ranged from 0.80 to 0.90, most being in sub-Saharan Africa but also including India, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Sudan. Nations with the highest disparities (GPI below 0.80) tend to be the most disadvantaged in economic terms, often with a per capita
income of less than one dollar a day (UNESCO, 2003).
Technology is very important in education and future job. The knowledge of ICT is particularly import for both male and female student to develop skills that will help them lifelong learning and prepare them to work in the technology society. (Bain,D.& Rice.M, 2007)
Gender issues can be considered with reference to different kinds of data sets. At the simplest level one can consider the absolute figures and the absolute difference between the numbers of male and female illiterates, pupils, students, and teachers.
Gender plays a large part in the socialization processes of families, communities, the media, the law, institutional cultures and policy formulation. Gender stereotypes limit or restrict how girls and boys, women and men live their daily lives, including identifying roles of mothers and fathers and husbands and wives. Childrearing, household tasks such as food preparation and consumption, as well as work outside the home are also gendered.
As quoted from Hafkin and Taggart (2001) argue, "The single most important factor in improving the ability of girls and women in developing countries to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by information technology is more education, at all levels from literacy through scientific and technological education." (Huyer, 2003, p.1).
ICT service is not equal to their male counterparts and their access is arrested by their educational backwardness, economic hardship, and lack of time necessary for technological adoption. Women cannot buy or use ICT devices or services as like a as men because of lack necessary money.
Medium instruction in technology especially English language barriers to access ICT tools because of large of woman are lack of formal education. The language of the technologies are the major barriers for female in the use of network and technology (Hafkin and Taggat,2001).
Gender is a factor in every aspect of formal, non-formal and informal education, and has an impact on all participants: learners, teachers and administrators (Green, L., 2003).
Student seem to be motivate by working with ICT at school(Becta,2006;Ruthen, Hennessy,&Brindley,2004).
Gender differences in students' appreciation of the educational use of ICT parallels the research that continues to show student differences in computer attitudes, Although the gender gap in the use of and knowledge about ICT has diminished (Cooper,2006)
Girl's attitudes are particularly found to be less positive when confidence working with technology and the the role of ICT in students' future plans are at stake (Conley & Comber,2003;Volman, van Eck, Heemskerk, & Kuiper,2005).
Girld responsed less positively than boys on items aimed at measuring computer attitude in general, whereas they report enthusiastically about application for word processing and drawing (Volman & Van Eck, 2001).
Boys play computer games more often than girls (Cassell,2002)
The use of ICTs in African schools takes place against the social backdrop pithily described above. The concept of the "digital divide" has been useful in articulating highly skewed access to new information and communication technologies particularly in the developing world, and it has helped devise action plans to promote digital opportunity, digital inclusion and bridging the digital divide (Isaacs, 2002).
The main barriers to ICT access in general relate to the small number of
computers relative to the large numbers of teachers and students per school, the high cost of Internet access and the dearth of technical skills to assist with trouble shooting an maintenance when computers break down (Isaacs, 2002).
Notably girls are further limited from school computer labs in some countries in the context of this general limitation in access. A study commissioned by World Links for Development found that in reality it is harder for girls to access computer labs, particularly in Uganda and Ghana especially after school hours (Isaacs, 2002).
Furthermore, there remains a dearth of local content particularly on the Internet for use by learners and teachers who communicate in their local languages and policy frameworks particularly in education to provide an enabling environment for the effective educational use of ICTs are virtually non-existent at this stage (Isaacs, 2002).
(Galbraith & Haine, 1998; Pedretti, Mayer-smith, & Woodrow, 1998) argured that the voices of students, those most affected by technology implementation, must be heard. According to Galbraith and Haines (1998), not all students were confident in the use of technology, nor were many convinced of the benefit of technology-based instruction.
In other words, student viewed technology as an enhancement to the learning process rather that a substitute for it. The (Perdiretti, Mayer-smith, & Woodrow, 1998) argued, should help diminish any fear that teacher migh have about being completely replace by technology in the classroom.
Student found technology to be very useful because of its efficiency by allowing easy way to access information for example, a female student from an urban school remarked: "learning using computers allows students to access cutting -edge research and information unavailable in textbooks and also help with comprehension" (Qing Li)
According to Linn (1999), the difference in gender attitudes and uses can be traced back to the placement and use of computers in education, where females were introduced to computers in word processiong and secretarial classes, while males use computers in advanced math classes (Linn,1999)
In schools, girls have moved from being underachievers to a situation where they now outperform boys in the majority of
subjects (Gipps & Murphy, 1994) .
Information and communication technologies could give a major boost
to the economic, political and social empowerment of women, and the
promotion of gender equality. But that potential will only be realized if the
conditions of access, policies, applications and regulatory frameworks - are
properly understood and adequately addressed by all stakeholders. Poverty,
illiteracy, lack of computer literacy and language barriers are among the
factors impeding access to the ICT infrastructure, especially in developing
countries, and these problems are particularly acute for women. But women' s
access to ICTs is constrained by factors that go beyond issues of technological
infrastructure and socio-economic environment. Socially and culturally
constructed gender roles and relationships remain a cross-cutting element in
shaping (and in this case, limiting) the capacity of women and men to
participate on equal terms in the Information Society (Primo, 2003). .
The 2000 review of the implementation of the BPFA acknowledged the increased opportunities afforded to women through the use of ICT - in knowledge sharing, networking and electronic commerce - but also noted that poverty, lack of access to telecommunications infrastructure, language barriers, computer non-literacy and illiteracy hamper women' s use of ICTs, including the Internet (Primo, 2003).
Low levels of education and illiteracy, reinforced by poverty, account
in large measure for the problems African women face in accessing and using
ICTs. About two-thirds of the world' s illiterate people are women, and a large
percentage of illiterate women are on the African continent. The low ratios of
girls in science and technology courses in Africa also reinforce the negative
dynamics that limit women' s access to decision-making positions in the ï¬elds
of science and technology.
The reasons for not optimizing the ICT tools include technical problems associated with ï¬le transmission, connections and disconnections due to poor infrastructure, high usage costs and budgetary constraints, lack of awareness of potential uses and beneï¬ts, and inadequate skills to exploit the possibilities
In addition to gender differences in computer access and confidence, research in Europ and USA have highlight differences in girls' and boys preferences concerning computer use and learning style. The overall conclusion on computer use is that whereas boys tend to like technology for its own sake and enjoy playing grame or tinkering withcomputer for fun, girls tend to want to know what information technology can do and use computer as tools to accomplish certain purpose (Derbyshire, 2002).
Preparation for their future was another important for technology integration
Student from urban stated that technology is imperative to education because it is an integral part of growing world where Rural student echoed "a lot of our world is based on technology. It is important for us to be able to work with technology on a daily basis. It prepares students who many need it in their future career."
As Zambia has reported, 'girls are socialized to become wives, mothers and care-
givers and to be submissive while boys are groomed to take up the roles of leadership and providers of society.'(p:9)
States themselves recognize this link, as Kenya has reported: 'with the introduction of cost-sharing in the education system, many girls from poor families are increasingly dropping out of school due to lack of available funds.' (p12)
Forcing girls to attend schools which may endanger their health or their life is an abomination of the right to education. Sexual abuse and physical violence against girls are particularly invidious dangers, which will undermine any effort at gender equality in and through the classroom.(p13)
As an IBE comparative study has noted 'girl students are dropping out because of excessive bullying and terrorizingâŽ¯and rape' (Ohsako, 1997, p. 36) (p13)
No such similar provision has been adopted or contemplated regarding marriage. Yet marriage is repeatedly asserted as one of the principal reasons for female desertion, or exclusion, from education (Mensch, Bruce & Greene, 1998, figure 9, p. 71). Egypt and Morocco, for example, report that female drop-out in rural areas can be attributed in significant degree to early marriage.(p16)
Treating early marriage as a human rights issue is hampered by a lack of available
data. As the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre has found: 'very little country data exists about marriages under the age of 14, even less about those below age 10' (UNICEF, 2001, p. 4). Table 1 suggests that girls appear in practice to be married earlier than boys around the world. Law is often lacking on minimum ages of marriage. Where it does exist it is often not applied (being in conflict with customary law), and where it is applied it often cements difference in treatment between men and women in the form of a lower minimum age for marriage for women (Melchiorre, 2002).(p16)