The Usage Of Information And Communication Technologies Education Essay

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ABSTRACT

The universities expenditure on computer infrastructure has increased dramatically for the last five years, as the institutions attempts to blend ICTs into all aspects of teaching and learning. And with the revolution in ICTs connectivity, accessibility, software and hardware availability is no longer an major issue. As universities are investing huge amount in integrating ICT into academics and the study aims to understand the students and teachers perspectives on the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as teaching-learning tools in higher education. The study aims to gain a better understanding of the role technologies play in supporting teaching-learning activities and insight into what students and teacher perceive to be the benefits and limitations of using technologies in higher education. The study focuses on the changes in student's communication pattern with the advent of ICTs.

A survey was conducted using a stratified sampling technique and a structured questionnaire was employed to collect data from five hundred students of Anna University across all disciplines. To understand the teacher's perception of ICTs an in-depth interview has been conducted among fifty teachers from Anna University.

The study reveals that the students are able to receive large content in different formats from various sources and these content fulfil the individual needs of the students. Networking and interaction among teachers and students helps to clear the doubts round the clock. The technological breakthrough encourages the students to come out of their inhabitation and is motivated to participate in subject based discussions. This transforms the University campus from the static to collaborative and progressive institution.

INTRODUCTION

Integration of ICT in Higher education:

The turn towards the computer based teaching-learning over the past 20 years is assumed to have revolutionized and revitalized the higher education sector. Thus, stark ultimatums continue to be made by education technologists that universities must either 'transform or die' in the face of technological progress (Bates, 2004).

Higher education is undergoing a paradigm shift by integrating technology to impart education. The ICT-driven changes have left concepts like distance and time totally redundant. What is needed now is the right kind of frameworks for different modes of learning and it is essential that changes anticipated over the next decade or two be taken into consideration. The estimated worth of ICT in India is Rs 4,00,000 crore and is growing at 20 per cent annually. "By the year 2020, almost 25 per cent of India's economy will be accounted by ICT alone (Bhatkar, 2011).

While universities have begun to realize that the adoption and integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) has become a competitive necessity, they have also begun to realize that there is still much to learn about how to strategically position ICT to ensure the greatest positive effect on university success. (Romaniello, Rey, Carlos, & Medlin, 2010). Impact of ICT cannot be directly measured and can only be measured by examining its indirect effects on the process of teaching and learning. Universities need to consider how technology-based instructional programs are mounted to ensure that students use the Internet efficaciously as a learning tool for various authentic learning activities such as conducting research on a given topic or finding relevant information for an assignment. The Internet can provide the following three basic types of tools in the educational domain: Tools for inquiry, Tools for communication, Tools for construction(Gudanescu, 2010).

1.2 Information communication technology revolution

Introduction write up on ICT with citations

According to the wiki books ICT is defined as "Diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. In recent years enormous interest has been shown by academicians, developers and policy makers on how computers and internet can be effectively used for education at all levels.

ICT has a significant impact in the way teachers and students communicate. Communication in the learning process provides a transfer of information between university teachers and students. e.g. e-mail communication over the Internet. Such a natural way of communication is verbal (face to face) or non-verbal where there is an absence of personal contact of consignor with the percipient changes the natural model of communication between teachers and students. The Internet has been interfering with the course of the educational process at universities because the contemporary generation of students is considering the Internet to be a fully natural means of communication not only between themselves but also with their teachers. This means of communication is characterized by significant positives (especially for external study), but also negative aspects pre-described by the time aspect and especially by not handling the rules of such way of communication by students. It is for these reasons that the contribution is dedicated to the Internet communication at two levels: university teachers and students, the positive and negative aspects, which obviously complicate the educational process.(Zeleňáková, Pavolová, & Bakalár, 2012)

1.3 ICT integration At Anna University:

Anna University has taken several initiatives to enhance education both by being the content provider and by providing the technical infrastructure. Digital learning is offered to the students in various formats like CD, access to e journals and books through the intranet, audio-video lectures programmes are offered free on the web. Video Conference / Video-on-demand facility enable the students / faculty to participate in lectures delivered in any campus.

Anna University has recently introduced Wi-Fi (wireless internet connection) for the students and staff which made internet access possible anywhere, anytime in the campus. This has lead to a dramatic increase in students' use of ubiquitous technologies over a period of one year. With the growing reliance on information systems and increasing rapidity of the introduction of new technologies into learning environment, identifying the critical factors related to user acceptance of technology continues to be an important issue.

1.4 Barriers in effective adoption of ICT in Universities:

The organizational culture of traditional higher education institutions is still defined largely by the role of the faculty. The proclivity of the average faculty member to invest in new pedagogies is undermined by two characteristics of traditional academic culture: the dearth of incentives to promote innovation in teaching excellence and the isolation in which most pedagogical decisions are made. In fact, faculty members have almost absolute autonomy over decisions regarding instructional quality within the classroom, leading one observer to refer to higher education as "one of the last centers of craft-based production" (Taylor 1998). That model will remain sustainable at some, but not all, traditional institutions. Those driven by external forces to make the most pronounced changes will find their success closely linked to their ability to sustain job satisfaction among their faculty members.

1.5 Need for the study:

Despite huge efforts to position computer technology as a central tenet of university education, the fact that many students and faculty make only limited formal academic use of ICT during their teaching and learning is less discussed by educational technologists. Belying the notion of the 'cyber-campus', the actual formal use of new technologies in undergraduate and graduate studies remains inconsistent and highly variable from course to course and institution to institution (Breen et al. 2001; Marriott et al. 2004). Classroom uses of potentially powerful information technologies are seen to often take the reduced form of 'mindless activities' that do little to alter the expectations, assumptions, and practices of higher education teaching (Moule 2003).

Regardless of the benefits of ICT supported education, it is seen that ICT supported education has not been promoted at a desired level in the education process. Among the reasons stated are the concerns that students interest in subject will decrease and students get distracted due limited number of computers. On the part of teachers they have not get the required training to use ICT effectively for teaching learning and are reported not to find sufficient time to be able to use computers, due to the lack of technical support and intensity of the curriculum. Above mentioned are some of the issues that are barriers in effective implementation of ICT in education.

2. Previous Research

Millennial, Electronic Natives, the Net Generation, many names have been used to describe the new generation of college students, whom experts have identified as being distinctly different from the previous generations in terms of their technological abilities, teamwork skills and openness to participatory pedagogies. However there is general agreement that younger students do not have the same attributes as their older counterparts, scholars and commentators still offer divergent assessments of this contrast. Such contrasting accounts suggest that even if younger students have greater levels of comfort or proficiency with new technologies, it is still debatable whether such traits necessarily entail more open, progressive, or positive perspectives of the educational process.

ICT is transforming all aspects of society-from education to civic involvement, employment to leisure. Some authors are optimistic and argue that ICTs can lower costs, provide users with more information, make markets more efficient, and improve public service. Some go further and argue that ICTs can make societies healthier, wealthier and more democratic. While others are more sceptical about the adoptability of ICT in higher education.

Any child born since the beginning of this century is growing up in a digital world. Those born at the start of the century, already in the middle years of primary school, have been dubbed the "Net generation" or, more descriptively, "digital natives" (Prensky, 2001).

Oblinger and Oblinger's (2005) describe the characteristics of the 'net generation' - students born after 1980 - suggesting that these students fundamentally differ from previous generations in the way they process information and communicate (and hence learn). They argue that these students are comfortable with technologies and suggest that the ways in which they learn is task orientated and experiential. These learners prefer to receive information quickly, are adept at processing information and multi-tasking, and using multiple/multi-modal communication channels to access information and communicate with friends and tutors.

However, Kennedy et al. (2006) concur with Sharpe et al.'s (2005) view that there is a dearth of studies looking specifically at student use of technologies, arguing that more empirical research is needed to support the claims made about the net generation. They conducted a study looking at students' use of emerging technologies, focusing on how students were using these to communicate, publish and share information. Their initial findings point to extensive use of technology by students; they argue that this has considerable implications for institutional policy and practice.

Kirkwood and Price (2005) reported on data from the Open University spanning five years on students' attitudes to and experiences of technologies. They found that there was a dramatic increase in students' access to and use of ICT over the five-year period. Their meta-analysis revealed that there were differences in student access to, experience of and attitude towards technologies across subject disciplines. Taken together these studies suggest that technologies are fundamentally impacting on the ways in which students learn, but that more in-depth research is needed to understand the nuances of how students are using technologies to support their learning. Studies that focus at a more fine-grained level of analysis of students' use of technology are also important in the context of our research. De Laat (2006) studied emergent student roles and engagement with e-learning activities and found that students are actively involved in coordinating and regulating personal and shared learning activities. The findings showed that students at various stages of their course developed particular learning strategies and facilitation skills to support their online learning.

Sweeping predictions are often riveting, but most change processes play out in nuanced and incremental ways. While change in higher education expedited by technology is a safe bet for the future, it is equally certain that technology adoption will proceed unevenly across the higher education landscape and be driven by a wide range of factors. Shifting demographic, market, political, and other forces will require many colleges and universities to redefine their institutional cultures and missions.

In an exploratory study that examined attitudes and usage of ICT among undergraduate management students in Barbados Glenda Gay, et al (2006) observed that the students were generally favourable towards ICT. Males were more inclined to incorporate ICT in web based instruction compared to other teaching activities. Older students were more interested in using ICT only as a supplement to teaching activities. They suggest that university administrators need to address the gender and age differences regarding ICT usage as well as develop strategies to maintain positive student attitudes and high usage of ICT.

Our emphasis on digital ICT tools and applications in education mirrors profound structural changes occurring worldwide in communications and information industries. The ability to digitize analog signals and transmit them over telecommunications networks is resulting in the restructuring of the radio, telephone, television, publishing, entertainment, and computer industries into new multimedia industries that create digital products combining voice, video, text, graphics, images, and animations, and deliver these signals electronically (Bane, Bradley, & Collins, 1995).

Indeed, the formal use of computer technologies in many areas of higher education could best be described as sporadic, uneven, and often 'low level' (in stark contrast to the often imaginative and informal uses that students and faculty make of technologies like mobile telephony and other personal digital devices). This situation has prompted some commentators to dismiss ICT in higher education as nothing more than a 'service' area of curriculum and pedagogy which many students and faculty are reluctant to engage with in an active or sustained manner (Reffell &Whitworth 2002).

While rethinking the place of technology Peter goodyear states "A significant part of the dynamics of innovation in the field of education has been technology push. As each emerging technology comes onto the radar of education, a mix of old and new enthusiasts spend their time finding problems that can be addressed by the new solutions. This is a healthy aspect of the processes of identifying the educational affordances of a new tool or artefact, but it does encourage an unhelpful mind-set: one in which the new drives out the old, continuity of professional experience is undermined, and technological carts come before educational horses."

Students are ultimately the main beneficiaries of the push to capitalize on ICT to improve the access to and quality of higher education. Students in the 21st century are ICT natives who welcome the introduction of technologies in their learning process. They may even demand the universities to modernize their systems and teaching practices to keep up with workplace requirements. The anywhere, anytime mode of learning and the networked communities harmonize very well with young people's lifestyles and the communication media of their time and age. All e-learning courses will have to be designed to match their learning styles and needs. (UNESCO, 2011).

A study on students and university teachers querying who mutually benefit from the Internet communication in the learning process point to lack of a generally acceptable level of the Internet communication. It indicates that on the one hand, students complain about the rather long time for responses to their e-mails from teachers as well as the reluctance of university teachers to participate in online communications. University teachers to a greater extent criticize the quality of the Internet communication with students but their demands are not declared clearly enough or are not declared at all. Both educators and students need to be trained to use ICT to increase the overall quality of education and the effectiveness of the communication between teachers and students(Zeleňáková, Pavolová, & Bakalár, 2012).

Bennett and Bennett (2003), who studied the impacts of perceived characteristics of instructional technology on faculty members' willingness to integrate it in their teaching, found out that the most important factor which impedes the use of technology in higher education is not the lack of technological facilities or financial funds, but faculty members' reluctance and their disbelief in the use of technology.

Medlin (2001) studied different variables and identified the factors which are likely to affect teachers' decisions on making use of electronic technologies throughout the teaching process and found out that the personal motivation is an important factor which forces faculty members to improve their teaching methods and contribute to the learning of students by technological means.

Jenny Waycott , Sue Bennett , Gregor Kennedy , Barney Dalgarno , Kathleen Gray (2009) in their study that investigated Australian university staff and students' perceptions and use of current and emerging technologies both in their daily lives and in teaching and learning contexts says that "For staff, the key limitations of using technologies in higher education were: increases to their workloads; usability/technical issues; the loss of face-to-face interaction.

3. OBJECTIVES

To know the Teacher's attitude and usage of ICT for teaching learning.

To know the student's attitude and usage of ICT for teaching learning.

To identify the gaps in the effective usage of ICT among the teachers and students.

To suggest new approaches for effective usage improve the ICT.

4. METHODology (look other articles to write)

This study explores the issues raised in these studies in more depth. In order to understand the difference in the perception of technology among students and teachers of Engineering program a sample of 500 students and 50 teachers was taken for the study. The researcher collected data using a self administered questionnaire. from a stratified random sample of 500 students from different disciplines of Engineering from Anna University. The survey was conducted during the month of December 2011.

The study involved an in depth interview with the teachers from various departments to understand their perception on usage of technology in teaching-learning process. A sample of fifty teachers has been taken for the study. Out of the fifty teacher 20 are in their early 30's and 15 are in their late 40's and 15 above 50's.(May be in results)

(How many questionnaire distributed? No. of respondents :…)

5. RESULTS & Discussion

This study has followed survey method and in-depth interview methods to gather the data. Data collected from the different methods broadly classified in four categories like teachers and students Attitude to information technology, Access to information technology, Usage of ICT and educational content, Change in communication pattern due to ICT. These provide a higher-level description of the way in which students and teachers were using technologies and their associated perceptions of technologies. The results are presented and discussed below.

Attitudes to Information Technology

Majority favourable attitudes to the use of ICT within the academic environment

Typing assignments 90%

Part of their studies 95%

Supplementing other teaching activities 72%

Emailing questions to teachers 70%

Use computers as replacements to other traditional teaching activities

Male 55%

Female 33%

Preferred using the computer as a supplement to teaching

Older students (over 22 years) 81%

Younger students (19 years and under) 19%

Social networking site as observed by many researchers

Facebook 92%

Download softwares and music 94%

Small number of students online buying of tickets - ?

1. Opinion on ICT based teaching

S. No.

Description

Yes

To an

Extent

No

1

Do you feel integrating ICT (Information Communication Technology) in education is important?

2

Does your college encourage you to buy new gadgets and accessories?

3

Do you think ICT (information communication technology) can counter the shortcoming in traditional learning?

4

Is Blended learning (using computer based teaching as a supplementary tool for teaching) beneficial?

5

Do you think technology has an impact on your daily life?

6

Have technology changes the way you communicate with your friends?

List the activities you do with the computers?

S. No.

Description

Regularly

Often

Occasionally

Never

1

Laboratory work

2

Surf internet

3

Prepare presentation

4

Do assignment

5

Play games

6

Look for match scores

7

Social media sites

8

Movies/song download

9

Search for news updates

10

Others (specify)

9. Tick the gadgets you own from the list below

S. No.

Description

Yes

No

1

Laptops

2

Desktops/personal computer

3

Mobile with net facility (GSM)

4

Mobile without net facility (GSM)

5

Ipod

6

Ipad

7

PDA

8

Pen drive

9

External hard disk

10

Others (Specify)

This study found that Engineering students were generally favourable to ICT in an academic setting. The majority (99 %) of the sample expressed favourable attitudes to the use of ICT within the academic environment. Computer ownership is high and students have become accustomed to being able to electronically access information. The characteristics of the net generation are evident in the data. Also there is evidence from the data that there is a shift from passive to more interactive aspects of learning.

Technology is at the heart of all aspects of their lives as majority(87%) of the students own more than 5 gadgets namly mobile phone, laptop, desktop, pendrive, mp3. However, students were resistant to the use of computers as full replacement of the regular, traditional teaching experience. This finding suggests students' strong preference for both forms of the academic experience (i.e., interaction with the teacher and interaction with information technology). Furthermore, Frizler (1995) asserts that although computers can never substitute teachers, computers can "provide excellent and fairly inexpensive supplementary materials to enhance classroom instruction" (Bataineh and Baniabdelrahman, 2005).

Particularly, students were more inclined to use computers for: typing assignments (90%), part of their studies (95%), supplementing other teaching activities (72%), and emailing questions to teachers (70).

With respect to gender, no significant gender differences were found indicating that both males and females generally had a preference for the use of information technology but the gadgets owned by male students (more than 5) were comparatively more than the female students and the time spent with technology were higher among the male students. However, males (55%), to a significant degree, generally preferred to use computers as replacements to other traditional teaching activities, compared to females (33%).

Concerning comparisons using age, no significant differences were found. However, a significant age difference was found for using the computer as a supplement to other teaching activities. Older students (over 22 years) (81%) preferred using the computer as a supplement to teaching, compared to younger students (19 years and under).

Students use technologies in their everyday interactions with family and friends are different from their preferences for technology use in formal learning settings. For many a student's instant messaging and (90%) social networking remain within the scope of their private lives. Their preferred social networking site as observed by many researchers remained to be face book (92%). Apart from chatting over face book they also used internet to download software's and music (94%). Small number of students (17 %) said they do online buying of tickets, book and gadgets.

A complete table needed and some graphs

Information seeking and handling

Students are adept at finding and manipulating relevant information and synthesising across different information sources and use a variety of communication tools to support their learning needs. Students used the web extensively to extend their understanding of concepts and supplement course material. Search engines and information sites such as Wikipedia were frequently mentioned. Several reported that searching with Google was their first action when trying to get information for an assignment. Some of the students have reported that they have not found relevant information and had to use alternative sources of paper- based information.

A number of students highlighted that a key benefit of technologies was the opportunities technologies provide in terms of accessibility. Despite the many favourable comments about technologies there were still some usability issues. Students were critical of badly designed websites and software which appeared 'old fashioned'. They stated finding browsing through over-structured websites, with poorly designed navigation frustrating, as they are used to the (deceptively) simple and apparently effective interface of search engines.

Specialised subject-based sites were frequently cited. Printed textbooks were considered by some to be outdated and difficult to digest but were still used by many as key resources.

A complete table needed and some graphs

. Purpose of internet usage:

Purpose of using ICT

S. No.

Description

Yes

No

1

Doubt clarifications

2

To listen to Lectures

3

Research purposes

4

Syllabus based access

5

Evaluate yourself

6

Interaction with experts

7

To prepare for examinations

8

To get depth knowledge in the area of interest

9

For project works

10

To seek job opportunities

11

To seek details about higher studies

Change in communication pattern

Use of communication technologies to support their studies was extensive. Many students reported using mobile phones frequently to phone and text each other, to discuss issues related to their learning, and particularly for assignment queries. They expressed positive feelings about the communication technologies they used, though some found the frequent interruptions which arose as a consequence of this constant communication disruptive to study.

Email was used universally and was the main channel for communication with tutors. Almost all our communications with the university are through email. They use email to communicate with everyone, especially lecturers; arranging meetings, asking questions about work and queries over assignments, etc. Some preferred to use text messages and instant messaging with peers, utilising the additional functionality available with the latter for sharing files and organising meetings.

Instant messenger, free to use, easy of use to speak to people with fast response, ability to share files across it, ability to work on group projects with it, and ability to video conference. Students expected and generally received quick responses to their emails and appreciated the flexibility this provided.

Low cost communication technologies such as Skype (software which allows students to call people for free or at a low cost via the internet), MSN chat and email were considered invaluable forms of communication and were being used in a variety of different ways (student-student, student-friends/family, student-department/ university or tutor). Skype was mentioned by some of the students as a cheap, easy way to keep in touch with friends and family. For some students text messaging and the mobile phone, although popular, were regarded as more expensive options. Information retrieval from the web was primarily for text-based materials, but students also reported searching for images (to include in presentations).

A complete table needed and some graphs

. Mode of Study materials circulated by your teachers

S. No.

Description

Regularly

Often

Occasionally

Never

1

Photocopy

2

E-mail

3

Books (print)

4

Pen drive

5

Mobile

6

Others (specify)

Teachers perception of Technology

Most of the teacher who were in their early 30s had some access to computer in their higher education and have gone about updating their knowledge as they felt teaching with the technology is very effective. They use power point slides for their class and give online references to the students. Many teachers felt that with the help of technology information collection and storage has simplified. They also encourage students to do online submission and connected to students through groups and social networking sites.

Many of the teachers who are in their late 40 have not received any formal training in computer and have learned computer on job. They said they felt lot of difficulty in the beginning but as they started using it, it has simplified and enhanced their teaching. Most of the teachers still prefer books and are more comfortable reading books that the e books. Almost all teachers are comfortable with smart class rooms and are using lot of multimedia to make their teaching interesting and informative.

Many of the teachers have also expressed their opinion that incorporating ICT in teaching is time consuming and needs access to lot of infrastructure. They want the institution to recognise teachers to use ICT and provide the necessary infrastructure so that others who are non users of ICT will be motivated.

A complete table needed and some graphs

26. What do you think is the main hindrance for integration of ICT (information communication technology) in teaching-learning process?

S. No.

Description

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree

No Opinion

Agree

Strongly

Agree

1

Lack of Time

2

Syllabus pressure

3

Infrastructure inability

4

Addicted to the technology

5

Not interacting face to face with people

6

Increases expenses

7

Others (please specify)

18. Main mode of communicate with students

S. No.

Description

Most often

Often

Sometimes

Rarely

Never

1

Face to face

2

Emails

3

Mobiles

4

Forums

5

Chat

6

Blog

7

Others (Specify)

Mode of Teaching

S. No.

Description

Most often

Often

Sometimes

Rarely

Never

1

Lecture

2

lecture and use Blackboard

3

Lecture and use OHP projector

4

Lecture and use LCD projector

5

E content

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

Select important points from the Results and Discussion and rewrite here

This study found that Engineering students were generally favourable to ICT in an academic setting. Older students were more favourable to computer use as a supplement to other teaching activities, compared to younger students. Students had access to computers and the Internet off campus. There also seems to be widespread usage of various forms of information technology such as Internet, WebCT and email.

Students are comfortable with technology and see it as integral part of their life. They are on the whole, sophisticated users - using different tools for different purposes, critically aware of the pros and cons. Students have specific expectations and the internet is their first port of call for information and they expect access to up-to-date/ relevant information and communication (with peers, tutors, etc.) on demand.

Teachers use of technology is promotes student learning. Teachers are not only actively incorporating ICT in teaching but are also active web content provider for the Engineering lectures. Experiences teachers are providing video based engineering lectures for various engineering courses that are transmitted via satellite to 39 affiliated Engineering colleges. Teachers are gradually converting these video lectures in the e content formats.

Based on the above findings, it is recommended that academicians and course administrators pay more attention regarding the use of ICT resources as a major component in classroom teaching. This should serve to attract greater support for ICT and e-learning among all categories of students.

References:

Farideh Hamidi, M. M. (2011). Information Technology in Education. Procedia Computer Science 3 , 369-373.

Glenda Gay, S. M. (2006). Perceptions of information and communication technology among undergraduate management students in Barbados. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT) , 9.

Gra´inne Conole, M. d. (2008). 'Disruptive technologies', 'pedagogical innovation': What's new? Findings from an in-depth study of students' use and perception of technology. Computers & Education 50 , 511-524.

Grineski, S. (1999). Questioning the Role of Technology in Higher Education:Why is this the Road Less Traveled? The Internet and Higher Education 2(1) , 45± 54.

Jef C. Verhoeven, D. H. (2010). Information and communication technologies in the life of university freshmen: An analysis of change. Computers & Education 55 , 53-66.

Jing Lei, Y. Z. (2007). Technology uses and student achievement:A longitudinal study. Computers & Education 49 , 284-296.

Kennedy, G. D. (2006). The net generation are not big users of Web 2.0 technologies: Preliminary findings. ICT: Providing Choices for Learners and Learning .

Oblinger, D. G. (2005). Educating the net generation. An Educause e-book publication, (http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf).

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon , 9(5).

Price, A. K. (2005, june). Learners and learning in the twenty-first century. Studies in higher education , 257-274.2005.

Ran Wei, L. L. (1998). Owning and using new media technology as predictors of quality of life. Telematics and Informatics 15 , 237-251.

Sharpe, R., Benfield, G., Lessner, E., & DeCicco, E. (2005). Final report: Scoping study for the pedagogy strand of the JISC learning programme, http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents /scoping%20study%20final%20report%20v4.1.doc [21/4/07].

Selwyn, N. (2003). Apart from technology: understanding people's non-use of information and communication technologies in everyday life. Technology in Society 25 , 99-116.

Selwyn, N. (2007). The use of computer technology in university teaching and learning: a critical perspective. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning , 83-94.

Bhatkar (2011), 'New learning paradigms needed', Times of India, Retrived from

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-02-22/pune/28625169_1_distance-learning-distance-education-ict).

Gudanescu, S. (2010). New educational technologies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5646-5649. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.922

Romaniello, A., Rey, U., Carlos, J., & Medlin, D. (2010). Higher education success and ICT. Bulletin of Applied Computing and Information Technology, 7(1), 109. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=6S0napW1w2kC&pgis=1

Zeleňáková, M., Pavolová, H., & Bakalár, T. (2012). Internet Communication in the Process of Education at Universities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2711-2715. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.552

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