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The theory of learning has been an area of concern to many psychologists who have wanted to know the process of learning and the development of the process from the olden days. Many of the theories' that were put forth in the previous years attempt to give an explanation of the whole of the learning process. This involves the theories of both the animals and human learn and how they acquire information. It has been observed however that, this has greatly changed over the years, so that, the ways which information and knowledge was acquired in the past is so different with the way in which learning occurs in the recent times (Pratt, 2007.p123).
Education takes various approaches depending on the level of study and the course that is being taken, this contributes to learning. In all the cases, the approach that is taken should be that that ensures the students and the teachers freely interact, the system should also provide a suitable learning environment to the student and the teachers with the best tools that they would require in teaching the students to the best of their abilities. The students should always freely interact within themselves without interference and especially racial interference that was observed to be a major stumbling block in the past years (Pratt, 2007.p124).
The environment greatly affects the learning process; the state carries a major responsibility to ensure that the learning environment is conducive. This can be done through considering that; the guidelines that are provided by the state do affect the learning of the students. If the government is focused on good education which directly affects the performance of the government be it politically or economically is an important factor in education. The policies that are put for the by the state to govern the learning and the funds that the state further provides is an important factor. The needs of the education sector are diverse and therefore require a flexible system to run them, it is not advisable to so rigidly govern the education system because of the technicality of the conditions and the environment that surround an educational system (Pratt, 2007.p124).
The state for example, can control the number of staff in the educations centers and where hey should be located, either in a central place or in different places, that is in the regional offices of the educational departments. It has been observed that the central location of officers of the ministry of education is all favorable. It provides a single and reliable location where all the issues that affect the education sector can be addressed. Further, the central location of the staff in the education sector ensures that there are enough staff at all times who help in the improvement of the education of the students in schools as the learning environment would have been improved(Pratt, 2007.p124)..
The focus for all the parents is ensuring that their children receive the best education in the school, education that may enable them to get employment in any parts of the globe. With the current competition, at times it is hard for the students to get jobs at their mother countries after their studies, it is therefore required that the kind of education that the students obtain in the schools be that which allows them to access these jobs. The parents will always require that the kind of education that is offered to their children is substantial with out actually focusing on the curriculum that is used, their major concern is that the knowledge that the students receive can enable them to compete internationally (Lesser, 2007.p 1)
The state should also ensure that they provide the adequate funds for the schools so that parents are not forced to pay allot of moneys in terms of tuition for their children. The state should further put forth legislation that allows all the people within the government to learn freely without the fear of being isolated on the basis of tribe or race or nationality. The state should ensure that there is full responsibility and accountability in the schools. It has been observed in the case that the supervision off the state is not perfect then the level of knowledge that is provided to the students is greatly affected. The state has the responsibility of ensuring that the professionals hired for the jobs are qualified to ensure that all the students gain intelligence (Parmigian, 2003. P3).
It has been observed that, special ability intelligence is in each and every person and the varied kinds of the intelligence that is unique are related to defined duties. It therefore follows that through research that this kind of intelligence helps identify the strength or weaknesses of individuals. When intelligence in people performs effectively in specified duty for which it was meant for, it translates to the person having the said function being his or her strength and where there is poor performance of the said intelligence then it means that the functions defined by the intelligence will be the individual's weakness (Parmigian, 2003. P2).
The leadership of the schools and learning institutions greatly affects the performance of the institution in the educational sector. The leadership of the school is the one that makes the final decisions about what should happen in the educational institution and how they would happen. All this should be decided for the better good of the learners. It has therefore been shown that, the leadership of institution can indirectly or directly affect the performance of an institution educational wise. How the decisions of the matters that affect the entire educational institution would greatly affect the outcome of the institution I terms of performance in the education. The decisions tat are made affect several stake holders in the school, this include the students, the teachers and the parents. It therefore follows that for a sound decision to be made; all the stake holders should be involved (Parmigian, 2003. P3).
Better education should focus on the use of the acquired knowledge in solving problems as opposed to using the knowledge to pass exams. It has been observed that in the current times, students are involved in more practical studies, this enable the students to get experience in the application of the things they have learned in school in real situations, further the examinations that are set in the educations system designed to taste whether the students understand how to apply what they learned in class to solve the real issues or not. The diversity of the problems that are faced in the current times require that the student relates the problem to the concepts that he learns in school, it is important therefore the curriculum that is designed for learning in the current times, focus more on concepts than just ideas(Lesser, 2007.p 1).
It should be noted that researches carried out in the early times indicated that learning is affected by the environment, so that those that are taught in school in the current times should further learn using the acquired knowledge from school as their basics. It was observed that, each and every aspect that is gained into the minds of animals and humans is a product of their interaction with the environment. This therefore follows to indicate that, in the case that learning process has to be constructive then the environment in which the students put to learn should be favorable for the learning process. Indeed, in the current times we see that most institutions of higher learning are providing the environment which is filled with intellectuals to ensure that in the process of interactions among the students, learning is fostered. The institutions select the top performing students only so that they may interact, share ideas easily and learn from within themselves.
Theories were put forth to suggest that learning takes [place through the repeated experience, indeed, the repetition of ideas in schools ahs been observed to be a major way of making the ideas stick in the minds of the students. For this reasons, mathematics and especially statistics has been observed to be an important learning element, through statistics, people can know the occurrence of various events and therefore can fore tell the occurrence of the same, they can know what part is fair according to the patterns laid and so on. Further repeated experience leads to the development of analytic intelligence. Analytic ability is a very important aspect of learning and therefore intelligence, a person who is intelligent solves problems, the person will easily identify a problem because of the analysis of the situations, the magnitude of the problem is then identified by the same ability. Through the analytic ability, one can design a solution to a given problem and check on the progress of the solution. Analytic ability, gained through learning helps one identify the available chances and take the best of the chances (Cross, 2004. P4)
The learning theories have always attempted to explain the ways in which learning occurs, it has been observed that in general, the surrounding environment does affect the learning process. Further, schooling enables a person to gain the knowledge and skills and that the responsibility to ensure that the learning environment is favorable to the students tan both the teachers , parents, students and the state have responsibilities to carry out.
Theory of Learning
Learning has been observed to be a process that is affected by various conditions, most importantly the environmental surrounding. It has been observed that the interaction of the human mind with the surrounding environment greatly affects his learning process, that the environment may determine the extent to which a person will learn.
However, intelligence would define a very important impact of learning. It is assumed that, learning process determines how intelligent a person may be. However, caution must be taken when defining intelligence. Not all forms of intelligence are acquired through learning process, some of the intelligence are in born but remain dormant to the point were they are stimulated by the learning process. The examinations that are done in the school can none the less be used to measure the intelligence of a person, especially mathematical intelligence. Mathematical intelligence is very important in the solving of real life problems, it therefore follows that it can be used deduce the intelligence of a person and therefore how effective the learning process is (Wolk, 2003.p 3).
It is important to understand that a research by Haward as stated by Sigelman & Rider deduced that there exist multiple intelligences. Teachers, who have the responsibility of educating students in school, have used the suggestions by Haward and the results that have been obtained are wonderful. Haward put forth suggestion that teaching should focus on a specific intelligence at a time that deeper understanding should be the educators focus and flexible curium should be used. Further he suggests that morality is a product of intelligence. This is because an intelligent person is observed to know what is write and what is wrong, all this depending on the fact that they have better judgment than the rest of the people
An educator understanding of the intelligence of the student is a very important factor. This is because by putting to consideration that the specific intelligence would define the strength and the weakness of the student, then the teacher would know where to concentrate on and where not to. It has been observed that many of the curriculums that are used in institutions are rigid and are therefore do not focus on making the stronger points of individuals stronger, they focus in all the intelligences of the learner and therefore the end results produces a person who is either average in all the intelligences including those that he would be perfect in or the person ends up becoming poor all round. It is therefore advisable that in the teaching process focus should be given to the areas where the students are best in (Lesser, 2007.p 1).
The practical ability if well understood in the learning process is essential in the solutions implementation and their successful working. The use of intelligence work in areal world context requires the application of the practical ability. The gaining and further application of the implied knowledge is a very important aspect of practical ability; this is essential knowledge that can be applied by a person in order that he becomes successful in a given environment. In most cases, this kind of knowledge is not taught. It is acquired if a person is placed in a suitable learning environment. This therefore means that, in the setting up of the learning environment, focus should be given to the kind of knowledge that can be gained without having to be taught. This is because this kind of knowledge is very important in the solving of practical problems that are usually challenging (Wolk, 2003.p 3).
The theories of learning do assert that learning process should be done in repeatedly so that the concepts stick in the minds of the learners. Teachers should therefore maintain focus on the kind of knowledge that students should gather then give close attention to it because then will the ideas stick in the minds of the learners and will therefore have be utilized in solving of the problems(Parmigian, 2003. P7).
The most important part of gaining knowledge is through experience, in the initial state the human being starts developing without any experience. That is, the mind is assumed to be blank, and the learning process should therefore begin by initiating the correct kind of experience in the minds of the learners. The experience part of knowledge is that it is never lost but remains intact as obtained in the learning process, the knowledge can only be improved through the introduction of more complex ideas. The educators in teaching the students should therefore start with the less complex ideas, they should then make sure that the students understand these ideas before advancing to more complex ideas (Wolk, 2003.p 3).
The ideas should be lined up in a consistent manner; the ideas should start from the less complex to more complex ideas. The mind set of the human being should be is such that the ideas are building up from the less complex ideas to more complex. The educator should therefore be focused to ensure that the students understand. Based on the understanding of student, the teachers should focus to ensure that the knowledge that is given to the students is principle based. The ideas that are gained through this form of teaching are usually very important because basing on the individuals intelligence, the simpler ideas can be used to build up better ideas that are used in the solving of bigger problems (Wolk, 2003.p 3).
Learning is a gradual process; it is known that the human intelligence grows with the increase in a person's age. It should therefore be approached in a way that, as a person advances in the levels of study which again means that the person grows older, then the ideas have to be slowly built from the tender age and increased gradually. The level of complex teaching that can be taken by an individual is dependent on his level of intelligence; care should therefore be taken to avoid the excessive bombarding of a person of information beyond his capability.
Learning is an interactive session between the teacher and the student. The teacher should therefore ensure that he does understands the students very well, because only when he understands the students will he know the places that they have properly understood and the areas where they have not. It is important to give much emphasize on the areas where the students tend not to understand. As stated earlier, repeated experience can foster better understanding of the students. This would mean that the teacher revisits the area in questions that students can get the concepts that they did not understand (Wolk, 2003.p 3).
The student should also understand their teacher so that they can freely ask questions and raise concerns, this way; teacher will easily know the places that he performs better and the places that he does not s that he can improve on his approach. The students easily understand when they are taught with a person that they understand to a personal level. This can be achieved through the free interaction of the students and the teachers (Pratt, 2007.p132).
Intelligence greatly affects the learning process. The schools do contribute to two major intelligences that can as well affect the other intelligences:
logical mathematical intelligence and
The linguistic intelligence.
The rest of the intelligences are important in learning and they are no necessary taught in class, they might be acquired by the environmental adaptation. The environment of the school should therefore be made better to encourage the development of all types of intelligences, once this is accomplished then will the learning process be complete (Pratt, 2007.p135).
The understanding of the human being is a gradual process but takes the form that is discussed human above; it is believed that the human being always has some form of knowledge in him but its starts developing with the introduction off basic knowledge.
At the point of taking the information, the information that is received is analyzed by the brain so that the information that is meaningful is taken in for further processing. The information that is taken in is then integrated so that the information from the various places is meaningful. The information that is integrated is the then applied for problem solving. Finally the somatic interface is the point where the solution is applied in an understandable language or sign and so on. This is the full cycle of understanding (Wolk, 2003).
Learning is an important part of life because it enables people to solve problems. Proper environment should be allowed for better learning to occur since learning is a product of the interaction between the environment and individuals.
Pratt, C, H. (2007). Teaching for social justice: effective strategies for improving the academic achievement Of African American and Latino students. New York: Guilford Press.
The paper has its focus on the effects of the racial discrimination in the learninbg process of the African Americans and the Latinos. Further it looks at the effects of the home to school environmental effects in the learning process of a student.
Parmigia, L. (2006). Making a consolidated Ashtabula-lakeside high school: politics and educational leadership in rustbelt Ohio, 1963-2006. Miami: Miami University.
The focus of the paper is on leadership of the schools and how they affect the learning process. The paper further looks out at the effects of political leadership in learning, the decision making process and how theses processes can contribute to either the success or failure of a learning system.
Wolk,S.(2003) Teaching for critical literacy in social studies. Chicago: Illinois University.
The paper focuses on the need for critical learning and the importance of it. It asserts that critical learners tolerate the ideas of other people and they also they solve the problems as opposed to the making of the problems. The students in this paper are critical radders who can read about issues and discuss them. The paper therefore explains about critical reading and the environment that is conducive for reading.