The Teachers Do Concerning On Teaching Learning Materials Education Essay

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CHAPTER 1

ESOL or English for Speakers of Other Languages program is teaching English program that used by Jakarta International School special for his English as a Second Language (ESL) student. This program goal is helping ESL students to meet the requirement of academically proficiency, that is Basic Interpersonal Communicative skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language proficient (CALP).

The curriculum of ESOL program follows the regular classroom curriculum so that when ESOL students come back to their regular classroom, they can follow the lesson and able to avoid the conflicts or difficulties that always occur in their regular classroom when they are facing some important subjects such as in math, science, social studies and language and arts.

In keeping with the description, ESOL program has an important role in improving communication skills of ESL students, so that they can write and speak English like native.

As a matter of facts, a number of ESL students who have no experience with English able to avoid the problems in social interaction and in following the lesson after they joined the program for 6 months and the progress starting to show on the first 3 months. They can communicate with teachers or friends and following the instructions.

A learner needs basic social (survival) language skills before he/she can think in that language in an academic setting so that they can survive in their new school.

ESOL program has been adopted become one of the special program in Jakarta International School since 1992 before JIS used English for ESL. Statement related to ESOL program as special program for ESL can be quoted as follows:

"In order to prepare LEP students to successfully acquire the English language, we need to base our instructional decisions on sound, research-validated practices that respect the individual; promote linguistic and academic excellence; and build upon the students' language, culture, previous knowledge, experiences, skills, and talents. Ignoring what LEP students bring with them would be detrimental to their educational growth and development." (Gallnick & Chinn, 1990).

Allen, Frohlich, and Spada (1984:223) state that their concept of communicative feature has been derived from current theories of communicative competence, from the literature on communicative language teaching, and from a review of recent research into first and second language acquisition. The observational categories are designed (a) to capture significant features of verbal interaction in L2 classroom, and (b) to provide a means of comparing some aspects of classroom discourse with natural language as it is used outside the classroom.

Research Questions

Based on the background above, the research questions in this study are:

How is ESOL program applied to ESL students at JIS?

How does ESOL program work in helping ESL students at JIS to meet the school requirement of academic language proficiency?

What are the activities that the teachers do in the program?

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on describing the use of ESOL program at JIS PIE, so that they can survive in their social interaction and in academic tests. The activities that the teachers do concerning on teaching learning materials and activities that can improve students language skills.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to describe how ESOL program is applied at JIS and also this program works in improving communication skills of ESL student. It related to the teachers-students' activities, concerning on teaching learning materials and activities.

Significance of the Study

The result of the study may hopefully give the pictures of teachers-students interactions and activities that actually happen in ESOL program that related to the improvement of communication skills of ESL at JIS PIE. Thus, English Department of Jakarta University (UNJ) can take an appropriate way in developing teaching English for ESL in order to improve ESL students' English skills especially communication skills.

CHAPTER 1I

LITERATURE REVIEW

To provide the basic theory of the research related to English for Speaker of Other Languages (ESOL) program, this chapter discusses ESOL in general, ESOL program at JIS PIE, communication skills (BICS and CALP) of ESL and the use of ESOL program that related to the improvement of communication skills.

Studies on ESOL Program

ESOL is an acronym for English for Speaker of Other Languages or "English as a Second Language (ESL) is used to identify the teaching of English language Arts to students whose first language is other than English while Limited English Proficient (LEP) is the term used to identify students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills to fully function in a school setting without ESOL instruction modification. A LEP student is not fluent in all communicative skills a rear of English speaking, listening, writing, or reading and cannot compete with peers in an English-Only academic setting.

ESOL program started in the beginning 1961 when the great influx of children from Cuba and continue to the LULAC et al. v. State Board of Education Consent Decree (1990) is that LEP students will receive adequate and appropriate instruction to enable them to pass the required graduation examination and meet other requirements for a diploma. The program instruction includes both access to Language Arts instruction through the use of ESOL strategies and instruction in the basic subject matter areas of mathematics, science, social studies, and computer literacy. Lee Roberts to Charles Reed, (1991) said each high school credit in basic ESOL fulfills an English high school graduation requirement. Therefore, students who successfully complete Basic ESOL courses should "receive equivalent credit when applying for entry into state universities".

LEP students are paced in regular English-only instruction for most of the day and they receive extra instruction in English that is designed to teach English as a Second Language. One of the effective approaches is "Pullout' from their content classroom to get isolation in ESOL class for about 45 minutes. In the program classroom teacher works collaboratively with ESOL team in identifying the students needs and progress.

Studies on ESOL Program at JIS Pondok Indah Elementary

JIS ESOL program goals are to provide each student with the opportunity to acquire English through meaningful communication in a non threatening environment and to supply them with the skills needed to function satisfactorily in the mainstream classrooms. The learner of the program is ESL students that started from grade prep to grade five. They face the task of learning to communicate and function well in a language which is not their own.

ESOL classes parallel the grade level units and skills being taught in the mainstream classes. Coordination between the mainstream classroom teacher and the ESOL team in identifying the students language needs and developing an appropriate program of instruction (Levine, Ph. D, 1997). It also based on the research of August & Pease Alvarez, 1996; Collier, 1995; Nelson, 1996, which indicates that ESOL students' language acquisition is facilitated by access to grade level and challenging curriculum, access to English speaking peers, partnership between ESL and mainstream teachers; a responsive learning environment for a range of learning styles and skill levels, interactive learning opportunities; higher order thinking skills; and a high-quality English Language Arts Program.

The methodologies and approaches which are consistent with the program's philosophy and goals are:

The Natural Approach (Krashen &Terrell 1983).

This approach views language acquisition as a natural process. For basic social/conversational English, students should learn to handle simple question and answer situations and able to converse and write on topics of personal interest. As Asher (1982) notes that Total Physical Response is a method compatible with preproduction learning, using concrete materials and visuals aids are effective ways to ensure student understanding and at later stage, the students should also be exposed to basic academic vocabulary, study skills, and learning strategies appropriate to their need and ability to comprehend the language.

Cognitive Academic language Learning Approach (CALLA).

CALLA integrates language development, content instruction and explicit instruction in learning strategies. Cognitive academic language skills are integrated in a multidisciplinary approach so that students learn language structure that will help them in the mainstream classroom.

Functional Notional Approach.

This approach links language functions (e.g. thanking, explain, apologizing, evaluating) with grammatical notions (structures needed to express a particular function). The emphasis is on communicative, not grammatical competence and is used to support both social and academic language growth. A functional approach to language development is used at JIS because a functional model of language focuses on meaning. It sees a resource of sharing information, developing ideas, getting our needs and making sense of the world. At JIS there is emphasis on communication for specific purposes with particular audience in mind.

Community Language Learning Circle.

This approach stresses the importance of addressing students' individual needs and feelings. Language learning can take place in the process of the discussion so that they have opportunities to practice for dealing with their classmates and teachers. However, instead of direct correction, paraphrasing and model restatements are most often used. Direct teaching of grammar and structure may also be used when appropriate in a mini lesson format.

Inquiry- Based learning.

This approach promotes the idea that students are motivated to learn when they find an activity intrinsically interesting and engaging. It encourages students to think by questioning the purpose of their learning, making meaningful connection and drawing conclusions.

Multiple Intelligences.

The concept of multiple intelligences encourages the creation of effective learning environments through interdisciplinary studies. Learning through music or movement, creating three dimensional structures, solving problems through logic and reasoning, or understanding relationships between themselves and others, are all examples of dynamic springboards for language acquisition.

Studies on Communication Skills of ESL

Communication skill is ability to present your ides clearly in speech and writing. Widdowson (1983:57) states that the aims of language teaching courses are commonly defined in term of four skills: speaking, understand speech (listening), reading and writing. Speaking is one of the ways to communicate, express your feelings, thoughts, or opinion in oral form. Bromley (1992:282) says that speaking is an expressive language skill in which the speaker uses verbal symbols to communicate. Baker (2000; 34) states the speaking skills is a productive skills, because speaker has to provide language actively in order to communicate. Calderon (1988); Cohen (1986); Green (1991) and Kagan (1985) discuss that cooperative learning is a dynamic strategy through which students develop linguistic and academic skills simultaneously.

Chamot & O'Malley (1994) state Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) or everyday conversational language skills, differ in a number of ways from cognitive/academic texts, and literacy works, where as Developing Cognitive/Academic language Proficiency (CALP) presents a different challenge for second language learners than developing BICS.

BICS is social language. It's the language children use on the playground and in casual conversation when talking about personal experiences. Often students develop BICS fluency quite quickly and can see, on the surface, to display greater language proficiency that they actually posses. The BICS characteristics as followed:

Universal aspects of language proficiency that are normally acquired by all native speakers of any language.

Conversational language fluency; included pronunciation, grammar, basic vocabulary'

Ability to understand and speak informally with friends, parents, teachers, classmates.

Those language skills needed for everyday face-to-face communication; personal; social situations.

Contexts are not clear and generally concrete

Not demanding; not much abstract thinking; becomes almost mechanical/automatic.

May take up to two years to develop in a second language.

CALP is the more formal, academic language required to communicate about abstract or complex ideas. This is the language needed for success in the grade level curriculum content areas and the CALP characteristics as followed:

Those language skills associated with literacy and cognitive development.

Success with exams and academic tasks.

Language skills required to go beyond ordinary social communication.

Language skills needed for reasoning, problem solving, or other cognitive processes required for academic achievement in subject matter/included those academic skills needed to understand and express abstract concepts in the classroom such as literacy, problem solving, test-taking, reasoning, debate, opinion.

Cognitively demanding, de contextualized.

May take 5-7 years to develop in a second language.

CALP developed in a first language contributes to the development of CALP in a second language.

Cummins (1979) has conceptualized this in terms of the language use (from context-embedded to context-reduced) and of the terms of the degree of cognitive involvement required for communication (from cognitively undemanding to cognitively demanding):

Cummings (1981), Curtain and Pesola (1988, 1994)

Degree of Difficulty

Examples of Activities

A

(less language dependent; cognitively undemanding)

Demonstrations

Illustrations

Following directions

P.E., music, art

Face-to-face conversation

Simple games

B

(more language dependent; cognitively undemanding)

Telephone conversation

written notes

Oral or written directions for skills already learned

C

(less language dependent; cognitively demanding)

Manipulative-based math activities

Science experiments

Social studies projects (mapping)

D

(more language dependent; cognitively demanding)

Content area explanations without diagrams or examples

Mathematic word problems without illustrations

Explanation of new concepts

Standardized testing

The use of ESOL program that related to the improvement of communication skills of ESL students at JIS PIE campus.

Nunan (1999) state communication is a collaborative achievement in which the speakers negotiate meaning in order to achieve their goals. Therefore, a speaker's communicative success will be partly determined by the skills of the other person. In improving communication skills of ESL students, ESOL program works collaboratively with classroom the teachers. The activities in ESOL program is following the lesson or topic that presents in the classroom, but in ESOL program discuss or stress more about the wording. However the ESOL program role more to bridge the ESL students into English. Krashen (1985) state students acquire language when they are engage in an activity in which they do not feel pressured. Gallnick & Chinn (1990) discussed how to make LEP students successfully acquire the English language. They need to base their instructional decision on sound, research-validated practices that respect the individual; promote linguistic and academic excellence; and build upon the students' language, culture, previous knowledge, experiences, skills, and talents.

Burns and Joyce (1997:134) identify three sets of factors that decelerate the improvement of speaking skills of ESL students. It may be due to cultural factors that derive from learners' prior learning experiences and the expectations created by these expectations. Linguistics factors include difficulties in transferring from the learner's first languages to the sounds, rhymes, and stress pattern of English, difficulties with the native speaker pronunciation of the teacher, a lack of understanding of common grammatical patterns in English (e.g. English tenses) and how these may be different from their own language, lack of familiarity with the cultural or social knowledge required to process meaning. While psychical and affective factors include culture shock, previous negative social or political experiences, lack of motivation, anxiety or shyness in class. Bygate (1987:4) divided speaking skills into two sub skills: motor-perceptive and interaction skills. Motor-perceptive skill refers to the ability to perceive, recall, and articulate the knowledge in the correct order sounds and structure of the language. Mackey (1965:266) in Bygate (1987:5) argues that in order to be good at speaking, one has to choose the right forms and words, use them in the correct patterns, be able to sound like a native speaker and convey the right meaning. This skill can be developed through the speaking exercises such as model dialogue, pattern practice, oral drill, look and say exercises, and oral composition. While interaction skills refer to the ability to control the language production and make choices such as making decisions about communication involving what to say, how to say and develop it, how to maintain the desired relations with others, and so on.

The non-native speakers need to be aware that the language is tightly related to the culture. They have to know what is accepted and not in the target language. As stated by Robinson (1991), cited by Celce-Murcia et. Al (1995:25) in their article, that the acquisition of second language cannot be separated with the acquisition of the second culture.

Montgomery and Eisenstein (1985) supported that opportunities to practice the language in communicative situations was important for language acquisition.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research question in this study Base on the background above, the research questions in this study are:

How is ESOL program applied to ESL students at JIS?

How does ESOL program work in helping ESL students at JIS to meet the school requirement of academic language proficiency? And

What are the activities that the teachers do in the program?

In order to answer the questions above, this study was designed as a descriptive analytical study which applied interview and observation as the methods of the study.

3.1. Data Collection Methods

The data collection method involved the participant, time and place, instruments of the study, and data collection procedures.

3.1.1. Participant of the Study

After observing several times in ESOL class, it was found that two teachers use the same strategy and approach in improving communication skills of participants, while the other one only focus on reading. The subjects of these three ESOL teachers is nightly reading books, while the two teachers who taught communications skills, taught topic, word of the day, board games and analogy. These two classes are more fun than the other one.

Interview informants

The interview informants of the study were the three teachers who taught ESOL and six ESOL students from grade one that taken randomly from the three classes. Burns (2002) notes that sampling error is reduced by stratification for the sample cannot differ from the population with respect to the stratifying factors. Stratified sampling is sampling in which group within the population are each sampled randomly because population can be divided on the basis of social class membership, sex, level of intelligence or level of anxiety.

The three teachers as interview informants were also the subjects of the study in the classroom observation.

3.1.2. The Time and Place of Study

The study was conducted in ESOL classes at Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elemenetary (JIS PIE). The classroom observation was done from October 2006 to May 2007 while the interview was around January 2007 and May 2007.

The Instruments of the Study

In obtaining the data, the study used classroom observation and guided interview as the instruments of the study

Classroom Observation

Classroom observation was chosen as a means of collecting data that is to get the information and description as precisely as possible by capturing significant features of verbal interaction in ESOL classes and description of classroom activities that relate to communicative features or the use of target language. Allen, Frohlich, and Spada (1984:223) note that the observational categories are designed to capture significant features of verbal interaction in L2 classrooms, and to provide a means of comparing some aspects of classroom discourse with natural language as it is used outside the classroom.

It took place in Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elementary at Kamboja 24 and 25 modules and was done from October 2006 to May 2007. The classroom observation of the teacher 1 (ESOL1) was done from October 2006 to November 2006. For teacher 2(ESOL 2) the observation was done from January 2007 to February 2007, and teacher 3(ESOL 3) the observation was done from April 2007 to May 2007. The data recorded base on the Nunan (1993) about COLT scheme as mention below. All activities that the teachers did during the classes was recorded and noted on the observation notes (field notes)

Lightbown and Spada (1993) found that classroom data from a number of studies offer support for the view that form-focused instruction and corrective feedback provided within the context of a communicative program are more effective in promoting second language learning.

Chaudron (1988) identifies 84 different categories in the COLT (Communication Orientation of Language teaching). The COLT consists of the description of classroom activities, it consist of: the activity type, the participant organization, the content, the student modality, and materials, and it relates to communicative features such as the use of the target language, information gap, sustained speech, reaction to code or message, incorporation of preceding utterance, discourse initiation, and relative restriction to linguistic form. The aim of this scheme is to enable the observer to describe as precisely as possible.

Classroom Observation Scheme:

Table 1 QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF THE COLT SCHEME

Feature

Questions

Part A: classroom Activities

1a. Activity type

2a. Participant organization

3a. Content

4a. Student modality

5a. Materials

Part B: classroom language

1b. Use target language

2b. Information gap

3b. Sustained speech

4b. Reaction to code message

5b. Incorporation of preceding utterance

6b. Discourse initiation

7b. Relative restriction of linguistic form

What is the activity type -e.g., drill, role play, dictation?

Is the teacher working with the whole class or not?

Are students working in groups or individually?

If group work, how is or organized?

Is the focus on classroom management, language (form, function, discourse, sociolinguistics), or other?

Is the range of topics broad or narrow

Who selects the topic-teacher, students, or both?

Are students involved in listening, speaking, reading, writing, or combination of these?

What types of materials are used?

How long is the text?

What is the source/purpose of the materials?

How controlled is their use?

To what extent is the target language used?

To what extent is requested information predictable in advance?

Is discourse extended or restricted to a single sentence, clause or word?

Does the interlocutor react to code or message?

Does the speaker incorporate the preceding utterance into the his or her contribution?

So learners have opportunities to initiate discourse?

Does the teacher expect a specific form, or is there no expectation of a particular linguistic form?

Nunan, D. (1993). Research Methods in Language Learning (p. 99). Cambridge University Press.

Interview

Interview was chosen as a means of collecting data that is to get more detail information about how this program works in improving their communication skills. As Johnston (1985) said, the oral interview has been used by second language acquisition researcher seeking data on stages and processes of acquisition and Ingram (1984) said that it also as a means of assessing proficiency. Brown and Rodgers (2002) describe interview is done orally face to face format on telephone or in groups and that is also the most useful for discovering what the issues are in a particular survey project or even for finding out which questions should be asked.

Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983) state the interview format could be described as reflective. To minimize the researcher's influence on what the interviewee said, but at the same time the interview followed a framework so that they covered certain key areas identified in my ongoing related research and my reading of the literature. The questions asked in the interview were designed to elicit a large sample of utterances (Spradley, 1979). Participants were encouraged to answer at length. Initial question mostly open-ended and descriptive (Spradley, 1979), such as "Can you describe the typical contribution from ESOL program for you"? And "Do you meet some problems with math and science? Do the ESOL program helps you in the class?", and "Do you meet some problems with your teacher and friends when you interacted with them or do they understand what you said and do you understand what they want?", "How do you handle that? Structural questions (Spradley, 1979), such as "Could you give me other examples of problems you have in the regular classroom.

The interview was addressed around January 2007 and May 2007 to six ESOL students and for the three ESOL teachers, interview was taken at the same day with the classroom observation that is after the classroom observation done. There were 12 questions for students and 10 for teachers included 6 items for the concepts of ESOL, 2 items for the contributions of ESOL and 2 for ESOL program that related to communication skills improvement, prepared before conducting the interview. The interview is to anticipate the possible weaknesses of questionnaire as Burns (2002) described, who purposes there is no opportunity to acquire supplementary observational data. Also, the respondents' motivation for answering the questionnaire is unknown.

Framework for Analysis of Interview Data for Teachers

Material

Questions

Concepts of ESOL

ESOL contributions

ESOL program works related to the communicative skills (BICS and CALP) improvement

What is ESOL program?

Why do they have to join the program? And how?

How the ESOL program works in identifying progress or weaknesses of the students?

What is BICS AND CALP?

How do you develop students BICS and CALP?

What material do you use for your class?

What is ESOL framework?

What is the English language proficiency standard for ESOL student?

How ESOL program helps ESL to meet academically language proficiency (BICS and CALP) Can you explain it?

How do you help them in avoiding problems in their content classroom such as:

Manipulative-based math activities?

Mathematic word problems without illustrations?

Science experiments?

Explanations of new concepts?

Mapping projects?

Standardized testing?

What skills usually do ESOL students show first or survive? Reading, speaking, or writing?

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Framework for Analysis of Interview Data for students

Material

Questions

Concepts of ESOL

ESOL contributions

ESOL program works in improving communicative skills (BICS and CALP)

What is ESOL program?

Why do you have to join the program?

Can you speak English now?

Do you understand when your friends or teachers ask you to do something? Or can you explain to them what you want or what you mean?

Do you still have any problems with English? Yes (what is that?)

How ESOL program helps you into English or what do you do in the program? Can you describe it?

Now, do you have any problems in doing:

Manipulative-based math activities?

Mathematic word problems without illustrations?

Science experiments?

Explanations of new concepts?

Mapping projects?

Standardized testing?

What can you do best? Reading, speaking, or writing?

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Data Collection Procedures

The data were obtained through classroom observation and interview. Classroom observation of ESOL 1 class was conducted for two months (October to November 2006). Classroom observation of ESOL 2 Class was conducted for two months (January to February 2007) and classroom observation of ESOL3 class was conducted for also two months (April to May 2007).The teachers' activities concerning on teaching learning materials and activities were recorded and noted. The data of the teachers' activities that could not be obtained through recording were noted on the field notes.

The data could not be obtained through classroom observation were collected through interview. The interview were addressed to the three ESOL teachers and 6 ESOL students from grade one or beginner level. The interviews of the three teachers were done after the classroom observation while the interviews for the six students were done from January 2007 to May 2007. The questions included in interview sheet were asked to all interviewees.

3.2. Data Analysis

Data collected in this study were analyzed by focusing them into ESOL program works to achieve academically language proficiency of ESL that included teaching learning strategy and approach, material and activities. In term of strategy and approach the data were obtained to analyze what kind of strategies and approaches the teachers used to develop communication skills. In term of teaching learning materials, the data were obtained to analyze what kind of material s the teachers used to develop students BICS and CALP so that they can survive in their social interaction and following the lesson in the class or doing the assessment (exam), whether the materials were authentic, who provided the materials, and difficulties of getting the appropriate materials experienced by the teachers. In term of teaching learning activities, the data were used to described classroom speaking, reading and writing activities promoted by the teachers

CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY

In this chapter, the data analysis and the result of the study will be presented in order to answer the research question of the study: How does ESOL program work in helping ESL students at JIS to meet the school requirement of academic language proficiency? What strategies and approaches, materials and activities teachers use and do in the program?

The data collected will analyzed by categorizing them into three concerns of teachers' activities which are teaching learning strategy and approach, teaching learning material and activities. The data also involves the exposure and the discussion of the ESOL curriculum and framework.

4.1. Data Analysis

4.1.1. The Activities of Teacher 1(ESOL 1)

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 1 class, when the teacher was teaching a group grade one (beginner level), she only focused on reading, but when she taught advance beginner level, she applied various activities for various language skills. From the interview she said that various activities for various language skills applied for all classes she taught.

I : How do you develop your students' BICS and CALP? And what material do you use for your class?

ESOL 1 : My class was not only focusing on reading skills. To develop BICS, I gave key words of the day. It bridged them in to basic social interaction language. Sometimes I gave them an interactive board games or words games to make them practice their social interaction and usually I end the day with writing a journal.

But on everyday observation of the ESOL 1 class for beginner level (grade one) did not show that phenomenon because the activities were always the same.

The materials that the teachers used only taken from one source that was level books from ESOL 1class library and there was not from any sources such as newspaper, magazines or internet.

Teaching Learning Activities

The ESOL 1 teacher did different activities for advance beginner level, but for the beginner level she only focused to reading. In beginner level she has 6 students for about 45 minutes. She opened the class with Silent reading. Students took the book base on their level and read it by themselves for two times while ESOL 1 teacher only working on her computer. This activity occurred about 5 to 7 minutes. Their level book standard was introduced by their classroom teachers.

After that, the teachers announced Reading to Friend. Here they read each others for two times. At this time, the teacher keep working on her computer and in about 2 minutes she start joined the students and call one student to read it to her while her partner joined to the other group. Then she asked about main idea, plotting, characters, how the story begins and how the story end, who the favorite character in the story is and why do they like it, and sometimes she asked to retell the story.

The activities then continued to the next stage that was Show and Tell. Here the students have to tell a story about anything. It can be about an interesting journey, favorite toys, an interesting thing that they just bought or got, or everything that made them want to share with others while the teacher listens attentively and helps for some difficult words. This activity focused on speaking. The point of scoring was how they told the story, confidently or beginning to be a confident speakers. This activity also cannot be applied to all students since the limitation of the time.

The findings show that ESOL1 teacher often assigned the students to work in pairs first before asking them to work individually and the activities in this class show that the teacher only focused on reading skills and little bit to speaking area. From the interview with 2 beginner level students (grade one) from ESOL1 class show that:

I : what do you do in ESOL class?

ESOL 1 s1 : It so boring, you know? Everyday we have to read and read after that Show and Tell. That's all.

I : nothing else?

ESOL 1 s2 : No, nothing else, every meeting like that. It's so boring. I hate to go to the ESOL class.

The Activities of Teacher 2 (ESOL 2)

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 2 class, the teacher used many kinds of materials. For Discuss the Book, the material was from the level book from her class library. For the Morning Words, she used the difficult words from the book discussed. In Language Room, she wrote some sentences to bridge them in their social interactions To Your Classmates, To Your Teacher and Teacher To you, such as 'do you have…(subject)…today?', 'what does…(word)… mean?', 'I don't understand…(word)…', 'hand in your homework tomorrow'. For Language Implications, she introduced some words that taken from the topic in their content classroom. For example the topic was about World of Work from Social Studies subjects in grade one, after that she asked them to write about the same topic on their writing journal and some of the board games.

Teaching Learning Activities

In ESOL 2 class, the teaching learning activities were various. The teacher used different activities on different meetings (2 days a week). This was a small class with only 3 or 4 students each session. Different with the ESOL class 1 the number of students some times 6 person (2 class of grade one together).

The ESOL 2 teacher opened the lesson with silent reading for two times and then she called them one by one to present their book in Discuss the Book. Here the teacher sat together with the students and then she asked them about the main idea, the character, how the story begin, how the story end, plotting, the best part of the story, and the difficult words. Students worked individually. From here, she developed the difficult words into Morning Word. She asked another student to interpret the word and finally she told them the meaning. After Morning Word the lesson moved to Language Room. The teacher introduced some of the conversation language that usually used in their social interaction to their classmate or teacher. Students worked together and discussed the words' meaning and the teacher then when she found that her students answer was not correct directly explained the meaning. For the next lesson was Show and Tell, but sometimes they did Writing Journal or played a board game such as Chutes and Ladders, Candyland, Uno, Yatzee, Clue, Sorry, Leggos, cards games, checkers and chess. Sometimes in some occasion she taught different activities than it was such as in for UN Day, Earth Day or Indonesian Week.

The Activities of Teacher 3(ESOL 3)

Teaching Learning Material

In ESOL 3 class, the teacher used many kinds of materials. For Discuss the Book, she used book from the level book in her classroom library. She used the difficult words from the book discussed for the Morning Words. In Language Room, she discussed some sentences on the white board. For Language Implications, she introduced some words that taken from the topic in their content classroom. For topic of the day, she prepares a booklet, light brown color, tan color, red, pink, black and white of manila papers, glue, markers, and scissors.

Teaching Learning Activities

In ESOL 3 class, the teaching learning activities were almost the same with teacher ESOL 2. ESOL 3 class only taught advance beginner to intermediate level, so that the class activities were little bit higher than the other classes. The activities more about performance words such as performance verbs that based on the six Facets of Understanding. They are: explain, interpret, apply, perspective, empathy, and self-knowledge.

The teacher opened the lesson with Discuss the Book. Here the teacher asked them about the main idea, the character, how the story begin, how the story end, plotting, the best part of the story, and the difficult words. Teacher sat together with her students and helped them when they found any difficulties. From here, she moved to topic of the day. They made A Rain deer Puppet. She asked the students to make like the sample on the white board. After they finished the job, they are asked to do the booklet. The booklet was about how to make a Rain deer Puppet. They have to write the process of making a reindeer puppet, but they also have to write the reason why they have to do that activity.

Teaching Learning Activities

Activities

Nightly Reading

Discuss Book

Morning Words

Show & Tell

Language Room

Language Implication

Analogy

Board Games

Writing Journal

Beginner

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

Advance Beginner

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL2, ESOL3

ESOL 1. ESOL2, ESOL3

Results of the Study

The findings showed that in ESOL program ESOL team works together with classroom teachers. In ESOL team there are ESOL teachers, specialists, vice principle and parents. The ESOL program goals can be achieved because of this solid collaboration and strategies, approaches and activities that are used in teaching learning activities.

In Applying the program ESOL 1 teacher, taught less various activities so that her students felt that ESOL 1 class was not fun, but boring. It was supported from the interview with 2 of her students. When the researcher asked her about it in illegal interview that was at the end of the observation day, she answered that it was based on the requirement of the classroom teachers.

I : Ma'am, why do you teach beginner level with less various activities and only focus to one or two skill?

ESOL1 : Oo, that was not as what I want. The classroom teachers' required this. I only followed to what they want. Do you understand?

I : Ok, I got it ma'am. Thank you.

And when the researcher asked about this to the classroom teacher, the classroom teacher said that she didn't require anything from the ESOL teacher. If the way ESOL 1 teacher taught like that the classroom teachers feel disagree as students have had that kind of activities in their regular classroom.

ESOL 2 and 3 teachers look like more manageable. They applied almost all strategies, approaches and activities of ESOL program. The result from the interview to their students also the same, that they feel happy for this class and the program really helped them in doing the tests and assessments in their regular classroom.

The result for ESOL1, ESOL 2, ESOL 3 class in students improvements in their progress report were almost the same. The different only showed on their daily performance. ESOL 1 students in their regular classroom still met some problems in doing some subjects. They still haven't improved their cognitive skills because less of practice in ESOL class before it also means that they haven't really avoided from the conflict in the classroom. But ESOL 2 and ESOL 3 students can do it smoothly. They can avoid from the conflict in the classroom.

The results described that the program was not really effective if the teachers cannot transform the skills very well. Activity is one of the ways to practice the skills, so when a teacher used less various activities for some skills, the teaching skills cannot meet the teaching target.

In ESOL program case; there was a solid collaboration between ESOL teachers and classroom teachers in improving communicative skills of ESL students. Even though ESOL 1 class results were not really good, it is still helped by the classroom teachers. Here, the classroom teachers were more active than the ESOL teacher. They used various activities and materials to boost their students' skills, but it doesn't mean that the ESOL teachers can rely on them.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion

In ESOL program, ESOL teachers and classroom teachers have to make a good collaboration in improving their students' skills that is communication skills without it the program goal cannot be achieved. The ESOL methods and approaches that are used at JIS to improve Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) are Natural Approach is used for teaching basic conversation. CALLA approach is used to teach content instruction and language structure. Functional Notional approach is used to teach language function that is focused on communication. Community Language Learning Circle approach is used to teach the importance of addressing students' individual needs and feelings. Inquiry-Based Learning approach is used to build student's motivation in learning when they find activity intrinsically interesting and engaging. And Multiple Intelligence is used to encourage the creation of effective learning environments through interdisciplinary studies.

Their collaboration was not only in identifying the students' weaknesses, but also the students progress in some target skills. The ESOL teachers record their students' progress and report it to the classroom teacher. Here the classroom teacher supervised their students' progress and improvement. If under her supervision the students showed different from ESOL teachers' report, the classroom teachers will discuss it again with the ESOL teachers.

All the materials that students got or learned in ESOL class were useful in their social interaction and in doing their tasks, lessons and assessments in their regular classroom. The topics of the lesson in ESOL class followed the regular classroom curriculum, so it is coherence between teaching and the application.

In Jakarta International School Pondok Indah Elementary all the ESOL teachers use various activities to improve ESL students' communication skills, but only one ESOL teacher who was not doing the same activities as the other ESOL teachers for all her classes. For beginner level in ESOL 1, students only faced reading and reading in all session at every meeting. Different from the other ESOL classes that are used various activities and materials in their teaching learning activities, these classes were more fun than ESOL 1 class that the students felt boring and did not enthusiast to go to ESOL class and join the program.

All teachers promoted BICS and CALP improvement, but it cannot be achieved with all ESOL teachers without working together with the classroom teachers. The target teaching skills focus for every teacher was also different. Based on the class room observation, ESOL 1 teacher only focused her teaching learning on reading and speaking skills while the rest focused on all skills that are required more activities and materials in their teaching learning activities.

Unfortunately, teacher who always gives less various activities and materials doesn't want to open her mind and fix her teaching strategy and approach. So at this time, the ESOL program goals cannot successfully be achieved.

5.2 Recommendation

The methods, strategies, approaches, materials and activities that are used in ESOL program really improved the ESL communication skills, and this is supported by the classroom teachers and the activities. It will always be coherence because the ESOL curriculum followed the regular classroom curriculum. So that all the ESOL teachers have to apply them in their teaching learning activities.

The collaboration between ESOL teachers and classroom teachers must be supported by the collaboration among ESOL teachers. To achieve the teaching target, all teachers have to work together. The program that are already applied and succeed for along time, have to be supported.

The ESOL teacher who did not apply all the ESOL teaching methods, strategies and approaches have to fix her performance, so that the program goal of ESL students proficiency in BICS and CALP can successfully be achieved.

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