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This chapter will discuss a review of related literature and a highlight of the major findings from previous research on teachers' communication satisfaction and their relationship with organizational commitment. Thus, this chapter will concentrate in four areas that provide relevant background information for this study; organizational climate, communication process, direction of organizational communication, communication satisfaction, organizational commitment and the relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Organizational climate is a measure of the feel of the internal environment of an organization which is perceived by an outsider and/or an employee according to their business with the organization (Ms. Gitali Choudhury, 2011). Employees' behavior is influenced by the climate of the organization. It means that employees will feel comfortable when the climate of an organization is open and friendly. On the other hand, when the climate of an organization is very formal, it will be too difficult to get comfortable feeling.
Organization which has healthy climate will motivate employee to be innovative because they can express their ideas freely, so it can increase productivity. In addition, healthy climate is one of the ways to reduce turn over because in this positive atmosphere employee can reveal their views and problem with any employees and their employers. According to Adnan Iqbal (2008), organizational climate had greater influence on organizational commitment. Organization that has low job stress would most likely result in better job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment has strong and positive association with challenge and involvement, trust and openness.
In the school organization, organizational climate create from a continuous interaction among school community (students, teachers, headmasters/principals and staffs) takes place. It is the accumulative effect of the ways in which the principal interacts with teachers and the way teachers interact among themselves and with the principal. Openness of the climate in schools must be created which it provides a situation where teachers work well together without complaining, enjoy friendly relations, have job satisfaction and are sufficiently motivated from within. Hoy et al. (2003 as cited in Harriet Rivalani Khoza, 2004) identified four general dimensions of school climate that apprehend both openness and health. These dimensions are:
Environmental press: describes the relationship between the school and the community interferes in the functioning of schools.
Teacher professionalism: describes the relationship between teachers themselves. It is marked by respect for colleague competence, mutual cooperation and support.
Academic press: describes the relationship between the school and the students, i.e. how teachers and students strive for academic excellence.
Collegial leadership: involves the relationship between the teachers and the principal, i.e. whether the principal treats his or her teachers as colleagues and set clear standards of performance. Stephen M.D. (2010) definite collegial leadership is a principal that treats faculty members as colleagues, is open to their input, establishes high yet attainable standards of performance, and is friendly and courteous should expect some level of teacher commitment. It can be said that commitment of teachers influenced by principal behavior.
Effective school is existed if the school has committed teachers. Committed teachers are teachers who have strong psychological ties to their school, their students or their subject area. It is important to create positive school climate that can make teachers committed. Creating a conducive working environment for teachers is one of the school managements' responsibility that can be done by creating a positive school culture. A study was done by Najeemah Mohd. Yusof (â€¦) that observed about the relationship between school climate and teachers' commitment of selected national Primary schools in Penang, Malaysia found that there is significant but weak correlation between school climate and teachers' commitment.
The relationship between school climate and teacher commitment also be investigated by Stephen Michael Douglas (2010). The result of the study concluded that the best predictor of teacher commitment is professional teacher behavior and collegial leadership. Professional teacher behavior is a school where teachers support one another, respect each other, are committed to student achievement, and believe in each other's abilities should expect some level of teacher commitment. Collegial leadership is a principal that treats faculty members as colleagues, is open to their input, establishes high yet standards of performance, and is friendly and courteous should expect some level of teacher commitment.
Similarly, Larry Don Smith (2009) by using sample of teachers of thirty-four elementary school in Northeast Alabama, the result indicated that the most significant predictor of teacher commitment was teacher professionalism. Collegial leadership and academic press were predictors of teacher professionalism, while SES (the socioeconomic status) was predictor of academic press.
Study done by Ilhan Gunbayi (2007) examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. By using sample of 204 (89 females and 115 males) teachers from 9 urban high schools in the centre of Afyon and Usak cities in the west of Turkey found that all the teachers reported the highest open climate score in team commitment but the lowest in rewards. The lowest open climate in reward because teachers have low and inadequate salary which affects the school climate negatively by teachers because they supposed to work with such a poor salary that can be a source of stress. The highest team commitment related to the idea that school is an organization where friendly interpersonal relations should exist (Halpin, 1967 as cited in Ilhan Gunbayi, 2007).
According to Harriet Rivalani Khoza (2004), by using sample of teacher from four high schools with different matric rates at Bohlabelo District's revealed that there were significant differences existed between the perceptions of school climate by the teachers in schools with different success rates. From the aspect of collegial leadership found that teachers in schools with high pass rates perceived their principals' leadership style more positively then teachers in schools with low pass rates. While, from the aspect of professional teachers behavior demonstrated that teachers in schools with poor pass rates perceived the relationships with their colleagues less favorably than teachers in schools with good results. Finally, from achievement press aspect focuses on how academic achievement is valued as well as how efforts to improve and press for high standards are exerted.
Melissa Wheelock (2005) also investigated about the relationship between teacher assessment of school climate and its relationship to years of working with an elementary school administrator. By using sample of teachers of Elementary Schools in the Kearney, Nebraska school District, the study concluded that years of association between a teacher and an elementary school administrator in the same elementary school have little relationship to teachers' perceptions of school climate. The longer elementary teachers work with an elementary school administrator, the less supportive they view the administrator's behavior and the longer elementary teachers work with an elementrary school administrator, the less open they view the principal's behavior.
Similarly, M.E. Honigh and F.J. Oort (2009), by using sample of teachers in publicly funded school and teachers in privately funded schools. The study found that there are differences about the perception of teachers in the publicly and privately funded schools about the climate in their schools. Teachers in privately funded school were significantly more positive about the climate in their school. It can be seen from the observation that teachers spending more time on general organizational duties in the school. On the other hand, teachers who are working in publicly funded schools have negative perception about the climate in their school. Many of the teachers complain about high workloads, an increase in administrative tasks, having less contact with pupils, and lack of support from management.
Teachers' complain shows that they feel dissatisfied with organizational climate in their school. When their complaint does not care and overcome by the principals, it can affect occupational stress. This condition can be happened among teachers in the closed and disengaged organizational climates. Ghodsy Ahghar (2008), concluded that the rate of occupational stress among teachers who worked in the closed and disengaged organizational climates was higher than the respective rate for the teachers working in the open and engaged organizational climates.
In addition, principal is one of the factors that can determine the success of the school. According to Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2004 as cited in Brian C. Shaw, 2009) stated that one of the most important factors in effective school is the leadership of the principal. Therefore, a principal must be able to provide leadership and to develop an environment that is safe, secure, and positive for the students receiving services (Halawah, 2005 as cited in Brian C. Shaw, 2009). By using sample of 19 elementary schools and 6 middle schools found in the southeastern part of South Carolina, Brian C. Shawn tried to investigate the relationship between leadership style and school climate according to teachers and principal. The study found that according to teachers, school leadership tended to be the most related to the supportive principal behavior school climate dimension and have more an effect on overall school climate at the middle school level than at the elementary school level. According to principal, the principal's rating on school leadership as weak to overall school climate at both elementary and middle school levels.
Moreover, the climate of the school is influenced by leadership style of headteacher. According to O'Hanlon and Clifton's (2004:3 as cited in Oyetunji, Christianah Ouwatoyin, 2006) study indicates that the headteacher can promote or destroy a school through the climate he/she creates. Therefore, the leadership style of headteacher must be able to create or enhance a positive school climate where the process of teaching and learning is effective and academic performance of the pupils can get better. On the other hand, a negative school climate will create an environment which is not conducive to learning that contributes to pupils' low academic achievement and increase drop out rates. Oyetunji, Cristianah Oluwatoyin studied about the relationship between leadership style and school climate in Botswana secondary school. The result showed that there is a link between headteacher leadership style and school climate. The number of headteachers used the selling style of leadership inappropriately which result in a negative organizational climate. Pupils' poor performance is one of the effects of a negative organizational climate which can be identified by lack of production, lack of teachers' commitment to pupils and colleagues.
Furthermore, school climate also has contribution in improving student achievement. Hoy et al. (1991 as cited in James Joseph Smith 2005) stated that:
"Positive school climate has become part of the effective school rhetoric and is advocated by educational practitioners and reformers as a specific means for improving student achievement (p.1)"
The relationship between school division climate and student achievement of school division has been investigated by James Joseph Smith (2005). By using population of 132 public school divisions in the Commonwealth of Virginia and focus only on area study of English/reading, mathematics, history/social science. The result of the study found that lower achievement score of English/reading, mathematics, history/social science were related to higher incidents of disorderly conduct, fights, truancy, and students who receive free and reduced lunch. Higher achievement score in the area study of English/reading were related to lower incidents of disorderly conduct, fights, truancy, and students who receive free and reduced lunch. Based on these findings, school division that experience higher incidents of disorderly conduct, fights, truancy, and students who receive free and reduced lunch can expect the school division to have lower student achievement scores, whereas, school divisions that experience lower incidents of disorderly conduct, fights, truancy, and number of students who receive free and reduced lunch can expect the school division to have higher student achievement scores.
Lunenburg and Ornstein (2003) discussed about the key components of the communication process in the book, Educational Administration: Concepts and practices. The components involve a sequence of steps which are described below:
Ideating, developing idea, message, or information to transmit to some individual or group.
Encoding, symbolizes the ideas that the sender wishes to transmit.
Transmitting is the next step by one of several methods including memoranda, telephone, closed-circuit television, computers, board policy statements, and face to face communication.
Receiving, is the next step, which requires that the receiver be a good listener if the message is oral. If the message is written, the receiver must be attentive to its stated and implied meaning.
Decoding is the translation of a received message into a perceived or interpreted meaning. Because meaning cannot be transmitted, it cannot be received.
Acting, the receiver can ignore the communication, store it for possible action later, or do something else with it. The receiver, however, should give feedback to the sender that the message was received and understood to reduce misunderstanding and conflict.
DIRECTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Lunenburg and Ornstein (2003) stated that the purpose of organizational communication is to provide the means for transmitting information essential to goal achievement. Much of this communication flow is carried out in four distinct directions: downward, upward, horizontally, and diagonally. The other major communication flow is the grapevine.
Downward communication. Hierarchical systems like large school distinct tend to use downward communication, in which people at higher levels transmit information to people at lower levels in the school district. The communication can take place among different groups of senders and receivers, including superintendents to assistant superintendents, assistant superintendent to principals, principals to department heads, department heads to teachers, or any other combination of superior to subordinate.
Upward communication. Upward communication also follows the hierarchical chart and transmits information from lower to higher levels in the organization. It is necessary to provide administrators with feedback on downward communication, monitor decision-making effectiveness, gauge organizational climate, deal with problem are quickly, and provide need information to administrators.
Horizontal communication. Horizontal communication takes place between employees at the same hierarchical level. It is frequently achieved through cross functional committees or council meetings, groups or liaison positions that tie together units horizontally, and informal interpersonal communication.
Diagonal communication. Diagonal communication is important in situations in which participants cannot communicate effectively through other channels. This is used to minimize the time lag in securing the needed data.
The grapevine. This type of communication flow does not appear on any organizational chart, but carries much of the communication in the organization. It applies to all informal communication including institutional information that is communicated verbally between employees and people in the community. It is flexible and usually involves face to face communication, it transmit information rapidly.
Some barriers may interfere with effective communication according to Lunenburg and Ornstein (2003) will be discussed below:
Frames of reference. This type of communication barrier is related to the encoding and decoding components of the communication process. If the sender and receiver have a common frame of reference-that is, when the encoding and decoding of a message are similar-communication is likely to be effective. On the other hand, the communicators have different frames of reference, communication is likely to become distorted.
Filtering. It is a process that occurs as information is transmitted from one level to another for example during downward or up ward flows of communication. This happened because of errors in encoding and decoding message.
Structure. The structure of the school district can affect the quality of communications within it. A tall structure is one in which there are many hierarchical levels of authority. So, the more levels of administration through which a message must be transmitted, the greater the danger that it will be changed, modified, shortened, amended or misinterpreted or will totally fail to reach its receiver, Dues et al., The Process of Organizational Communication as cited inLunenburg and Ornstein (2003).
Information overload. Administrators are deluge with information; they cannot absorb or adequately respond to all of it. Thus they select parts of it, which often results in incomplete or inaccurate information on which to make decisions.
Semantic. It can be a communication barrier because of the misinterpretation of words. Meanings are not in the words but in the minds of the people who receive them. Little misunderstanding arises when we speak of typewriter, computer, paper, or book.
Status differences. School district create status differences through titles, size of office, carpeting, office furnishings, stationery, private secretary, a reserved parking space, salary, and the formal organizational chart.
Effective communication required some effort to overcome some barriers and to achieve mutual understanding, which will be discussed below:
Repetition. It involves sending the same message over and over again, using multiple channels (e.g., telephone call, face to face discussion, memorandum, or letter).
Empathy. It is a technique for understanding the other person's frame of reference.
Understanding. Message should contain simple and understandable language which can understand by receiver.
Feedback. It determines the degree to which a message has been received and understood.
Listening. The receiver must listen to receive and understand the sender's messages; and the sender must listen to receive and understand the receiver's feedback.
The term communication satisfaction has been used to refer to "the overall degree of satisfaction an employee perceives in his total communication environment" (Redding, 1972, p.429 as cited in R. Wayne P. & Don F. F (1994). Satisfaction relates to comfort, hence, satisfaction with communication means that the employee may be comfortable with the messages, media, and relationships in the organization.
Downs and Hazen (1977) has conducted analysis of organizational communication satisfaction by developing an instrument to measure communication satisfaction which called Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). They identified eight dimensions of organizational communication. These dimensions are communication climate, supervisory communication, organizational integration, media quality, coworker communication, organizational perspective, communication with subordinates, and personal feedback.
Each factor of communication satisfaction was discussed below:
1. Satisfaction with communication climate reflects communication of both the organizational and the personal level. On the other hand, it includes items relating to the extent to which communication in the organization motivates workers to meet organizational goals. On the other hand, it includes estimates of the degree to which people's attitudes toward communication are healthy in this organization. Workers often tend to think of climate when they respond to general questions about communication.
2. Satisfaction with communication with supervisors includes both upward and downward aspects of communicating with superiors. For example, it measures subordinate's perceptions of how open the managers are to their subordinates as well as how adequately the manager keeps subordinates informed. Tanzeer Ahmad (2011) found that effective supervisor-subordinate communication is related to greater employee job satisfaction.
3. Satisfaction with organizational integration revolves around the degree to which individuals receive information about the immediate work environment such as departmental plans and personnel news. Such information makes them feel a vital part of the organization.
4. Satisfaction with media quality obtains reactions to meetings, written directives, and several other important communication channels. It also covers the degree to which the total amount of communication in the organization is seen as adequate.
5. Satisfaction with horizontal and informal communication concerns the degree to which the grapevine is active and the degree to which horizontal and informal communication is accurate and free-flowing.
6. Satisfaction with organizational perspective concerns the degree to which employees receive the broadest kind of information about the organization as a whole. It includes notification about changes, information about the organization's financial standing, and information about the overall mission of the organization.
7. Satisfaction with communication with subordinates focuses on upward and downward communication with subordinates, who are expected to be responsive to downward communication and also to anticipate the supervisor's needs and initiate upward communication that will be helpful
8. Satisfaction with personal feedback is one of the strongest dimensions because workers in general have a need to know how they are being judged and how their performance is being appraised. (Downs & Adrian, 2004, pp.140-141 as cited Alanezi, 2011).
C. Glenn Pearce and Gerald J. S. (2004) investigated about communication satisfaction and staff evaluation. They found that there is strong relationship between communication satisfaction and staff evaluation. When communication satisfaction of employee was low, managerial evaluation of staff productivity, work quality, attendance, safety, conduct, and job longevity were low.
Organizational commitment consist of the factors such as the employee's belief and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, the employee willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, and a strong desire to keep up membership in the organization (Cevat Celep, 2000). There are several negative effect of lower commitment of teachers such as effectiveness of the school will be difficult to achieved, professional performance of teachers to be less successful, and teachers may like to leave the profession. Reyes and Fuller (1995) and Oberholster and Taylor (1999 as cited in Pamela Olivia Outram (2007) also suggested that, when teachers' commitments to their schools are at low levels, teachers begin to focus on finding other jobs and when it is happens, students achievement begins to decrease.
Intend to leave, turnover and absenteeism are some consequences of low organizational commitment that can be happened in organization. The relationship between commitment and intention to leave was also be studied by Pamela Olivia Outram (2007). By using correlation analysis she found that there was a significant inverse relationship between commitment and intention to leave. It can be said that when organizational commitment of employee is high then intention to leave tend to decrease. On the other hand, when organizational commitment of employee is low then intention to leave will get increase.
In addition, there are some effects associated with high turnover in the school organization. Firstly, the goals of the school will be difficult to achieve because most of teachers are novice teachers. Secondly, the cost of training will get increase because the basic training for novice teachers must be repeated.
In the teaching and learning process commitment of teachers to their school, students, teaching activities, occupation, colleagues have positive influences on the effectiveness of the school. Shen (1998 as cited in Harriet Rivalani K. 2004) categorized commitment of teachers into three such as; stayers, movers and leavers. Stayers refer to the teachers who are happy with their jobs and are willing to remain at their schools. Movers are those who like their profession but are unwilling to continue working at heir current schools, while leavers are those who want to leave the teaching profession. Harriet Rivalani K. (2004) investigated about the levels of professional commitment among teachers in different matric success rate school. The finding of this study discovered that there is significant difference exist between teachers' levels of professional commitment in schools with different matric success rate. Based on the three categorized of teachers commitment proposed by Shen (2008), in the movers categorized revealed that teachers in schools with poor results were thinking about transferring from their current school, while teachers in schools with excellent pas rates were not. While in the stayers categorized found that teachers in school with good pass rates liked teaching at their current schools; unlike teachers in schools with poor pass rates. Finally, in the leavers categorized discovered that teachers in schools with poor pass rates reported that their profession did not warrant the stress and disappointments involved, in contrast with teachers' reports in schools with excellent matric result.
To encourage the commitment of teachers, every school must provide rewards. There are two kind of reward which is external and internal rewards. Salary, position, and degree are some example of external reward. While, example of internal rewards are school, job satisfaction, materials, students and their aims, and student' own values.
Meyer and Allen (1997 as cited in Faranak Joolideh & K. Yeshodhara 2007) proposed a three component model of organizational commitment:
Affective commitment that involves the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in the organization.
Continuance commitment that is based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization or on a perceived lack of alternative employment opportunities.
Normative commitment that involves the employee's feelings of obligation to stay with the organization.
Based on a three component model of organizational commitment, Faranak Joolideh and K. Yeshodhara (2007) investigated about organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. The study found that Indian teachers displayed better organizational commitment in the affective and normative components. And Iranian teachers displayed better organizational commitment in the continuance component.
A study done by Cevat Celep (2000) revealed that teachers who had commitment to teaching works would be satisfied with teaching to the students, to struggle more for the unsuccessful students, to be voluntary in teaching works, to help students out of the classes, to make an effort for extensive classes on the case that the routine classes are not enough, to teach the subjects, to have the responsibility of taking the classes on time, and to get information about students' families.
Ranny R. Mattila (2006) by using sample of 100 IT worker members of the Zoomerang Corporation found that there is positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in IT workers. It means that when the workers are satisfied with their job tend to be committed to the organization. On the other hand, when the workers are dissatisfied with their job, it may result in lower organizational commitment which has impact in increasing turnover intention and other work consequences.
In addition, in the school organization teachers' feeling dissatisfied with the job and stress in the work place may lead to teacher burnout. Kathya Arriaran-Buono (2011) studied about teacher work environment correlates of burnout, satisfaction, and organizational commitment by using sample of two California urban middle school teachers. The study found that role conflict was statistically significant predictor of burnout, role ambiguity and job design (intrinsic) predictors of satisfaction and evaluation/feedback a predictor of organizational commitment. In addition, student learning and behavior was a significant predictor of all three outcomes.
Motivated employees are crucial to an organization's success, and therefore understanding people in their jobs and what motivates them could be a driving force in strengthening organizational commitment (Schein 1996 as cited in E.J Lumley, M. Coetzee, R. Tladinyane & N. Ferreira 2011).
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
One of the factors why turnover intention is happened because employees feel dissatisfied with communication system within organization. To reduce motivational factors which impact of turnover intention, organization needs to use strategic communication system. Employees who receive good quality communication tend to be committed to the organization. Mellisa Hopper (2009) found that eight dimensions of organizational communication had a direct relationship with an employee's decision to stay with the organization.
The relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational commitment also was studied by Ahmad Salamah Alanezi (2011) by using sample of secondary teachers in Kuwait. The result revealed that there are four dimensions of communication satisfaction were the best to predict commitment such as: supervisor communication, media quality; horizontal communication and communication with subordinates.
In addition, Hilmi Seven (2012) by using sample of Turkish National Police (TNP) found that communication satisfaction had significant influences on Turkish officers' commitment to the TNP.
The relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational commitment also was studied by Federico Varona (1996). By using sample of three Guatemalan organizations which are: a private Catholic school for middle class female students, a private Catholic children' hospital, a food factory. Result indicated that there was an explicit positive relationship between communication satisfaction and employees' organizational commitment. And school teachers were significantly more satisfied with the communication practices and more committed to their organization than were the employees of the two organizations (a hospital and a food factory).
Furthermore, Potvin, Tammie Covalt (1991) stated that from the eight dimensions of communication satisfaction, horizontal-informal communication and relationship with supervisor consistently surfaced as significant predictors of commitment.
This chapter presents the literature review about communication satisfaction and organizational commitment and other areas relate to the present study. The first part of the literature review explores the organizational climate, communication process, direction of organizational communication, and then continued by communication satisfaction, organizational commitment. Finally, the researcher also describes about the relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Based on the discussion above the researcher intends to examine the communication factors and their relationship with organizational commitment of teachers in International Islamic School (IIS). Further, the conceptual framework of these factors can be seen in Figure 2.1
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework
Communication satisfaction factors :
Communication with the people in management
Horizontal and informal communication