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Higher education is widely identified to be pivotal to one, whether it is as a country or as a social individual. Today, most nations have recognized the correlationships between higher education and future prosperity. To compete more effectively, they have devoted to improving massive education programs. In the global economy which increasingly depends on knowledge and skill development, the prosperity and security of a nation is becoming ever more intertwined with higher education level. When it comes to higher education, student affairs practice can be a critical motivation. It is known that the administrative structure of most colleges can be basically categorized into three types: academic affairs, student affairs and business affairs. Under academic affairs were student's learning, curriculum performance and cognitive development. Business affairs are often concerned about administrative operations, personnel, and financial issues. Student affairs typically were in charge of extracurricular items like student residential life, housing and food services, counseling, and student health (Cohen and Kisker, 2009, p.259).
Nowadays, student affairs administration organization has been established as an operating unit within almost every university. As Kuk pointed at, it has become an integral linkage to both students and universities success (Barr et al, 2000, p.314). Although the foundation for the role of student affairs work in higher education has been laid years ago, its structures and programs are always developing and changing. Today, it has been a term associated with a wide variety of specific functions, for example, to create a positive campus environment which promote university educational mission, to serve student demands, as well as to foster their academic success and personal development. It is of great significance to discuss the importance of student affair work as it relates to higher education. As the world situation surrounding higher education and student needs continue to evolving, there exists a growing need to recognize how student affairs organizations might reorganize operating units, structures and services more effectively to handle with those, in addition to achieving their own programmatic goals.
As a fore type and global leadership in higher education, the United States has enjoyed a reputable position. Meanwhile, China, as a developing country with the largest proportion of young people with college degrees or certificates, it has also made some enormous achievements regarding higher education. For the purpose, this essay, taking the higher education student affairs work in both America and China, sets out to explore the administration principle and system for higher education students.
This paper is systematically organized into four major sections. First, some critical literature background is reviewed in relationship to higher education student affairs work; Chapter Three, from three aspects, reports the administration principle and system for higher education students in both China and America; Chapter Four presents some concluding thoughts and reflections; The final section of the paper outlines some brief completion comments.
2.0 Academic Literature Review
2.1 Student Affairs Work Philosophies and Values
To gain a comprehensive understanding of student affairs practice in higher education, the philosophies and values that guide student affairs actions shall be discussed first. According to Nagel (2002), the philosophy and values are not intended to create new knowledge, but to deepen college administrators' and educators' understanding of student affairs experiences, thoughts, concepts and activities (Komives et al, 2003, p.89). Komives et al, in 2003 summarized the following four special important philosophies to both higher education and student affairs practice, which are presented in the order from the oldest to the newest, and they are respectively rationalism, empiricism, pragmatism and postmodernism(Komives et al, 2003, p.89).
The rationalism has illustrated the intellect to be the root of a human being. Believing that education should be everywhere the same, it had upwards reading, writing and deductive reasoning (which is thought to be the essence of higher learning) as three cores of education. The rationalism college is teaching and teacher-directed, rather than a learning and learner-centered one. Thus, in the rationalism college, student affairs administrators are servile subservient to faculty men, and student affairs work are extracurricular, and therefore unessential (Komives et al, 2003, p.90). It is very true that intellectual elite is destinated to prevail over others in this kind of university.
Compared with rationalism, empiricism emphases inductive reasoning instead of deductive one. Empiricism has focalized on the acquisition of knowledge in many different specialized areas. The term "neohumanism" was once referred to describe the empiricism philosophy of higher education as applied to student affairs (Komives et al, 2003, p.92). 'Student affairs practices become elaborate, extensive, and independent of the curriculum', Lloyd-Jones described like this. However, this insightful scholar in 1952 also expressed his concern: it is still the faculty who was to cultivate intelligence in the class but left everything else to be dealt by student affair specialists. And this has might lead to a quantitative greater, but educational functions fragmented student affairs program. Blimling (2001) called the empiricism an "administration orientation". With services more specialized, new administrative practices and scientific accountability have been spawned (Komives et al, 2003, p.91).
Pragmatism is the child of empiricism and it shares its parent's distrust of thought. Yet traditional empiricism looks backward for the causes of ideas, while pragmatism looks forward to their impact on experience (Komives et al, 2003, p.91). Lloyd-Jones and Smith (1954) put forward the view that student affairs personnel should not be expert technicians so much as they should be educators in a somewhat unconventional and new sense. Pragmatism believed that student affairs professionals can play a powerful, if unorthodox, role in their college (Winston et al, 2001, p.385). Fired(1995) urged the pragmatism philosophy be revitalized in student affairs work as it is a process oriented approach to learning in which life becomes the laboratory and every thinking person a scientist(Winston et al, 2001, p.385).
In 1971, Illich concluded the idea of postmodernist education as "to provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any time in their lives; to empower all who want to share what they know as well as to find those who want to learn from them and finally furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known". He also added that, everyone should enjoy as many as chances and get fully educational. Favoring socially constructed education, lifelong learning as well as informal experiences, the postmodernism appear to meet all the needs (Komives et al, 2003, p.95). Postmodernism has influenced student affairs work since the new majority of American entered the academy in the 1960s. With every legal right and responsibility defined in logical and llinear terms, the roles of students and student affairs specialists have been put into contracts. As faculty no longer own knowledge and form a superior culture of intellect in postmodern higher education, learning is put in the prior place instead of teaching. With revolution boomed by technology developing in learning relationship, activities and roles on residential campuses have been profoundly affected. Students can take courses and professional can give a speech at their convenient time, no matter where they are.
Generally speaking, rationalism, empiricism, pragmatism, and postmodernism all care about the value of truth, and they demonstrated it in just very different ways. Both the rationalism and empiricism value freedom, nevertheless, rationalism advocates intellectual excellence, deductive reasoning, teaching and individual responsibility; while empiricism initiates inductive reasoning, research and tolerance. As for pragmatism and postmodernism, they deep the search for truth to the individual context, involving human knowledge and harmony (Komives et al, 2003, p.98).
To conclude, all these values affect student affairs work in higher education and some are embraced by it, specifically the values found in pragmatism and postmodernism. Others seem to oppose student affairs practice, but they can still instruct higher education academic behaviors, primarily the values laid central to rationalism and empiricism (Komives et al, 2003, p.98).
2.2 Student Affairs Organization Model
Nowadays student affairs organizational structures are established based on their mission and organizational type. The following part will make a summary about common organizational models used within student affairs organizations.
Compared to other college styles, the baccalaureate and liberal art colleges prefer a modest student affairs organizational structure with regard to organization scope and hierarchical depth. Only to serve primarily a small-scale residential student body, those institutions would rather to have few professional staff, whose title are usually as vice president for student affairs, with assistants and associates, who may have some functional responsibility such as managing housing, student activities, or counseling etc.. Barr et al (2000) estimated that in baccalaureate colleges, a residence hall director may not only be responsible for a residence hall, but also provide advising and/or counseling service to the general student population (Barr et al, 2000, p.318). With a staff undertaking kinds of tasks, the levels within the baccalaureate and liberal art organization has become simplex.
Compared with that in baccalaureate and liberal art organization, the student affairs organization in the master's colleges or universities are generally larger and have more complex defined hierarchy and functional units. Actually, these organizational structures are still not very hierarchical or deep in terms of numbers of staff in each unit. As a result, staff within these functional units may have a breadth of responsibilities and serve in a more generalist capacity involving many responsibilities within the unit. According to Kuk et al (2010), residence life personnel may look to housing assignment and other administrative functions or student development while serving as residence hall directors. These organizations, although functional in structure, often need resources services from other institutional units such as facilities, maintenance and security (Kuk et al, 2010, p.128).
Generally, the most complex among higher educational institutional student affairs organizations is at research and doctoral granting universities. Having to serve large amount numbers of students, these organizations have formed a more hierarchical and specialized structures within their functional units. At the same time, staff responsibilities are likely to be more specialized. For example, an individual staff member's exclusive role may cover providing training for residence hall staff, and advising the university programming board. Except that a vice president or an associate provost generally lead these organizations, there may be a number of associate or assistant vice presidents or provosts to manage the daily random and undertake responsibilities in some functional units. Yet, this is seldom found in other types of student affairs organizations. At some institutions, enrollment management is part of the student affairs organization and at others'; enrollment management is a separate division within the campus.
Regarding associate's colleges, also known as community college, student affairs is a relatively newer organizational entity. Student affairs at most community colleges comprises of providing students daily-life services and academic support in order for enhancing student success. Such category as enrollment service, counseling, academic advising, transfer services, and student activities, as well as other student engagement and leadership-related campus programs can all be provided as part of student affairs organizational portfolio. However, services for campus residential students, like residence halls, health centers, and recreation rooms etc. are excluded. As time goes on, some community colleges are building such once excluded halls and essentially are becoming residential colleges. With the addition of these facilities and service units to the student affairs portfolios, the mission and organizational foci of these units will likely change. Student affairs work is closely tied to academic units within the institutions and is generally not viewed as separate and distinct.
2.3 Good Student Affairs Practice
After the student affairs work philosophy, values and models has been stated, principles guiding the daily student affairs work shall be enunciated here. The National has made a summary about what a good student affairs practice to be (NASPA Official Website, 2010).
Good student affairs work will engage students in active learning.
In higher education, an active learning, which invites students to bring their own experiences, and perspectives into the learning procedure, and encourages them to apply new understandings to their lives, shall be promoted. Student affairs practice shall work in accordance with this to provide students with various learning experiences and opportunities. This can be achieved through an experiential learning, a field-based learning, or a community service.
2. Good student affairs work enable students to develop coherent values and ethical standard.
Good student affairs practice offers chance for every member of a college, from student to an administrator, to highlight the values that define a learning community. Such as justice, honesty, equality, civility, freedom are all meaningful ones that be demonstrated within the day-to-day student affairs work.
3. Good student affairs work allows high expectation for student learning to set and communicate
Student learning can be enhanced when expectations for their achievements from inside and outside the class are high, appropriate to their abilities and aspirations, and comply with college's mission and philosophy. A good student affairs work should address a wide scope of desired student behaviors associated with academic performance, intellectual and psychosocial development, and insure their behaviors in line with institutional expectations.
4. Good student affairs work make the most of systematic inquiry to improve student and college performance.
Knowledge of and ability to analyze about students and their learning are necessary components of a good student affairs practice. Student affair expert who are capable of using available evaluation methods can acquire high-quality information. And then an effective application of those data to practice can bring out programs and changed strategies which improve institutional and student achievement.
5. Good student affairs work is able to allocate resources to achieve institutional missions and goals.
Effective student affairs work can use their financial and human resources reasonably. On the one hand, it can use principles of organizational planning to create and maintain an environment that support learning, and thus, its institutions' desired educational goals and student outcomes is expected. On the other hand, as one of the most key resources for learning, human resources can be effectively translated into practice through a good student affairs work, assisting student learning and cognitive development, as well as college's leadership, program design and implementation.
6. Good student affairs work would forges educational partnerships that advance student learning.
Through reminding every participant of their common commitment to students and their learning, good student affairs practice initiates educational partnerships, from students to faculty, from academic administrators to student affairs practitioners, developing a framework that support collaboration and enable all aspects of the college in the goal to develop and implement.
7. Good student affairs work builds supportive and inclusive communities.
Student learning performance occurs best where diversity and social responsibility are respected, discussion and debate are encouraged, accomplishments and achievements are recognized and a sense of belonging is created. A good student affairs practice can help cultivate this kind of supportive environments by prompting connections between every member taking part in the daily operation of communities. The student affair work has made the interweaving of students' academic, interpersonal, and developmental experiences as its starting point.
Grounded in research on college students and other staff members, above principles of good student affairs work are supposed to guide student affairs practice. Meantime, ongoing discussions about the principles will further develop our understanding on good student affairs work. These principles, not to limit or restrain other proven means, but a means to enrich every member involved in student affairs work to achieve educational mission.
3.0 The Administration Principle and System for High-education Students in China and the United States
As stated earlier, the United States, is undoubtedly the fore type and global leadership in higher education, the student affairs work in the U.S. is more advanced than that in any other nation. China, a developing nation, with more and more universities winning a reputable position, its student affairs work has drawn many scholars' attention. So to get a full comprehension about the current condition of the administration principle and system for high-education students, to explore that in the U.S. and China can be meaningful. The three following aspects involved in the student affairs work will be focused.
1 The enrollment management principle for higher education students in China and the U.S. is different.
Under the more competitive environment in higher education, universities have made enrollment and recruitment of students a priority. Many campuses have set up a formal operating units called enrollment management, with a goal to insure that critical areas for enrollment and recruitment such as admissions, student research etc. are working together to create a comprehensive plan to enroll more right students. Enrollment management can report to student affairs. When enrolling high school graduate, Chinese universities mainly look to an applicant's National College Entrance Examination score. Yet, in the United States, those universities will not only pay attention to this, they also concern such criterions like students' hobbies, personalities, and other features that they are interested in.
It seems that Chinese universities has lead to the abandoned concern for the intellectualistic results of students and steered Chinese higher education toward intellectualism. The core value of Chinese education may be learning rather than other purposes, and the institutional effectiveness is fundamentally measured by specific educational benefits and outcomes, especially that of the college entrance examination. In China, absolutely being locked in study was seen as an essential characteristic of excellent students. Corrensequently, a university may emphasize a student's academic performance more than other fields, especially an applicant's National College Entrance Examination score. The National College Entrance Examination, an exam that most high school graduates will take, is held every year as a way to select talents. It has set down three subjects, including mathematics, English, and Chinese as essential. Meanwhile, it will exam science physics, biology, and chemistry or social science like political science, geography and history selectively in accordance with the applicant's course type. The National College Entrance Examination score is regarded as the most vital factor which will decide a college's enrollment choice even an applicant's future fate, because only those who get a satisfying result in the examinations can be admitted to colleges or universities.
Every year's National College Entrance Examination is a combat to every high school graduate. To those colleges and universities in China, the enrollment and admitment work can be also a life-and-death battle. Those "key" universities like Tsinghua University, Beijing University etc., are all Chinese top-ranked universities; naturally, they have the privilege to recruit the best students from the National College Entrance Exam. While those unattractive small ones, may get left. However, no matter whether the college is small or big, "key" or "unworthy", when enrolling applicants, they tend to pursue the "College National Entrance Examination score first" principle, and treasure those students, especially the "champions" who have an outstanding score records very much and open a wide door to them.
In the U.S., National Association for College Admission Counseling and the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, as the major professional organizations of enrollment management, usually focuses exclusively on enrollment management issues, from access and accountability to tuition and fees, the three organizations strive to solve the current and emerging critical questions facing enrollment management today (Komives et al, 2003, p. 347). The enrollment policy is to assure an equal playing field for all individuals and improve education quality.
The United States has adopted a comprehensive selection system, which considers not only the applicant's unified entrance examination score but also those non- academic factors like personal background, extracurrlum activity performance and hobbies. Simulantely, there are also junior college, to provide youth with community education, aiming to expand educational opportunity for all individuals at a possibly lowest price.
When selecting freshmen, American colleges attach great importance to both applicants' intelligence and emotion quotient. An excellent academic record may not be a decisive factor when applying to an American university. As approximately every college thinks highly of the overall quality of a student, a student's personal characteristics, some super-human talents, potential can be important. When making assessment of an applicant, they mainly focused on the following three aspects:
However, a good academic performance will still be an advantageous counter for a student to apply to a famous American university.
Apart from viewing the applicant's high school curriculum, and grades ranking, and the result of SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test), the nation's most widely used college admission exam, universities will also hope to know about the student's extracurricular activities, and application essays to make an evaluation about his/her intellectual curiosity, independent thinking ability and creativity in order to get a glimpse about his/her academic potential.
American universities give as much attention to the social, moral, and religious development of students as to their intellectual growth.
They believe that students with a good personality have the potential to future success. These characteristics include leadership, perseverance, and creative innovation, ambition, willing to challenge etc... Moreover, whether the applicant has a very high awareness of public service and social responsibility, are also highly valued by those universities.
American universities prefer students who have tremendous records of useful hobbies.
It is not only a tradition but also a key component of United States higher education that students carry out kinds of extracurricular activities. As they are thought to be apparent ways to display and develop students' ability. Thus, to select and enroll students with special talents is a very significant task for enrollment management administration of a U.S. college. Physical ability, musical or performance endowments may gift a student some advantage over his /her competitors.
3.2 The student dormitory administration and management have some features in common with both Chinese and American universities
Although impact of physical facilities on student affairs work can not be overstated, it can not be neglected as well. Along with personnel and financial resources, facilities can be one of the tools to achieve strategic goals. By providing comfortable, welcoming and well-equipment facilities, a college can promote interactions among members of the campus and the institutional culture (see course case-session nine). A typical facilitate is the student dormitory. Dormitories are the essential location for college students' study, living and social life, and have a great influence on their physical and mental development.
With the socialization of college's logistics, some changes have already occurred to the dormitory management of Chinese universities. Currently, Chinese universities usually apply two dormitory management models, the first and also the most widely used one is the integrated management model. It collaborate college logistics department, the office of the student affairs, security departments and the student instructor to work together and jointly to improve the dormitory management. For example, the logistics department provides health and utensils maintenance service; the office of the student affairs will supervise and regulate the dormitory management work; the student instructor is responsible of every-day affairs management and students education. Integrated management facilitates college's unified management and coordination, as well as enhances the overall effectiveness of school dormitory management. Wuhan University of Technology is just a representative. It has implemented a modern integrated management model. There are not only dorm personnel, but also dormitory management committee, to maintain dormitory order, safety, environment etc... Apart from above, Wuhan Technology University organizes "model dormitory rating" and "Dormitory Show Platform" annually, inviting each and every student to participate the dormitory management process (Wuhan Technology University Official Website, 2010).
The second one is the business-style management model, in which context, the student dormitories and apartments is invested by the developers, and accordingly, the developers will operate and charge to students within a certain period of years, and then the management power will be transferred to the college itself. As a social management style, it can reduce college's administration burden and costs, as well as encourage the society to develop higher education student affairs work.
Surprisingly, learning from some famous universities like the University of Cambridge, there has existed a new style called "College System" in some Chinese universities. Xi'an Jiaotong University was a pioneer to introduce such a style. In 2006, PengKang College, as the first college at Xi'an Jiaotong University, was established titled with the name of its former president, which symbolizes the beginning of the cultivation student affairs administration reform at Xi'an Jiaotong University. There are over three 3,000 students from different professionals, grades and geographical. The college has built community facilities such as reading room, computer hall, seminar rooms, reception hall, clubs, of which open to students 24 hours, providing students with a full range of logistics support. At the same time, college has Party Committee, office of the student affairs to offer targeted services to students. There are also full-time counselors responsible for ideological and political education, an academic tutor providing counseling and residential hall personnel to maintaining logistical services in the college. In addition with the aim of training qualified talents, PengKang College provides students with opportunities of self-education, self-management and self-services in accordance with the conviction of enhancing their cultural cultivation and community activities in an all-round way (Xi'an Jiaotong University Official Website, 2010).
Most American colleges have established sizeable on-campus housing for students, with several types like suites, single or shared rooms, double room. These housing vary in size and in prize, but all are in excellent accommodation conditions. For the convenience of student life, some learning, cultural and living facilities are all attached. In terms of those non-residential students, off-campus housing like apartments, rooming houses, room and boarding in exchange for services, private home with rooms to rent can be considered. Among them, apartment buildings are privately owned. Many students would like to stay where is close to their campus to avoid transportation expenses. Apartments may be essentially furnished or unfurnished. Moreover, there are also private dwellings in which individual rooms are rented, also known as group houses, and an overall system of responsibility for certain tasks will be established. Sometimes, there may be opportunities for students to obtain free room and board in exchange for services, such as taking care of children or an old. Occasionally, some private houses may rent a room to a student on the base that all conditions of renting such a room are written and agreed to between both parties (Reed et al, 1982, p.18-19). In summary, those off-campus housing is built in order to meet different demands of student, and gift them more freedom. From the dormitory management point of view, American colleges usually use social management philosophy.
Enterprise management model is popular in the U.S. institutions. Once after building school apartments, and purchasing equipments and facilities, most colleges would transfer the operation to a business.
Multi-level services are offered. Firstly, like cleaning, safety and security will be fundamental kinds of service item. Secondly, service directly supporting the teaching process, including the adequate provision of teaching aids and location is provided. Last but not the least, some service item which aims to encourage student's personal growth and development, are selective. These can be a personal training course, some social, cultural and educational activities, as well as counseling.
Student is involved in the dormitory management procedure. In order for a good order, many American universities regulate student behavior with strict rules. As far as the Harvard University is concerned, student dormitory accommodation is not only a livelihood, but also a kind of education. Every academic year, those freshmen will be placed in the "Harvard Park", which is located in the campus center, and be managed in strict accordance with the provisions of the principle, there is often a fully-trained professional instructors in accompany with those freshmen. The Harvard University believed this can gift every freshman a "Harvard consciousness" and strengthen their sense of cooperation and expand their knowledge and ability. After a period of time in "Harvard Park", these students can be assigned to 13 different dormitory (an equivalent of College in the Cambridge University), and spend the rest of time in the university.
Some dormitory are partly open to the society. Having many elegant facilities and high-level service, some American colleges will open partly to the society. That is usually the rent of an apartment during the vocation or some gym or club open to the public. This can not only earn money for the college itself but also serve the society.
Both student instructor in Chinese colleges or counselor in the U.S. can make student affairs work process smoothly.
A full achievement of student affairs work requires the cooperative and integrated functioning of classroom and extra-class activities as well. More and more colleges have made optimum provision of carefully selected, specially trained staff members serving as advisors and counselors. Those special attentions are given to individuals the same as focal point of that is implied in the educational process. Those trained and sympathetic advisors and counselors are working to assist students in thinking through his educational, vocational and personal adjustment problems. This service can have an access, either through direct association or as a supplementary service, to achieve its counseling target.
In china, a student instructor will be responsible for all the student affairs within a wide scope. A student instructor will offer comprehensive guidance for students, involving their life, study even future job. However, there is not such a position in the most U. S. colleges. However, a counselor, who provide students with a professional consult service, may be more preferable, and can be seen an equivalent of the student instructor in China. Even though not keeping student in line very strictly like a student instructor, the counselor will innovative the growth and development of a student of all that is implied in the educational process. Such as, resources for adequate vocational information needed by the student in the process of his orientation may be closely related with the counseling process.
4.1 Cause for the current condition in the U.S. and China
The student affairs work in Chinese universities usually adopt an official administration way. While the American college's value students and respect their personality, independence and individual demands.
1 The student affairs work in the U.S. colleges is often student-centered and service orientated, while in Chinese universities, student affairs work seem to be management-directed.
The big success of American college student affairs work mostly lay in their defined philosophy that student is centered and service orientated. They are dedicated to providing students with a variety of individual services and to reflecting management during the devilry of service. Student affairs administrations have recognized the diversity of student needs and demands, and straighten the relationship between the students and school, even with the community. No matter what circumstances is encountered; they always put their students in the prior position. However, a conservative university-based and manage-direct philosophy has dominated many Chinese colleges. Chinese university student affairs work think greatly of managing and despise service. Although many are also promoting the principle that student is the first, however, at most times, it is just symbolic slogan and did not rise to the service level.
2. The student affairs work in the U.S. is more diversified, while in China, a unified standard is more preferable. The development of student affairs in the United States parallels that of American higher education. Influenced by changing religious, economic and social and political forces, the practice of student affairs has started and developed early. As a multi-ethnic nation with large mass of immigrants and different cultures co-existing, thus, student affairs work in the United States showed diversity. For example, the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Maryland either have their own standards to guide student affairs practice. So far, there are around 3,000 public and private universities through the America, covering from large comprehensive university to small professional colleges, their levels and forms differ more or less. In this context, student affairs must show diversity. While, highly unified and concentrated management system are more preferable through most Chinese universities. Taking those multi-campus universities as an example, in particular those merged by many colleges, most times, they tend unify those originally scattered, differed management models into one relative integrated one.
4.2 Relationship between Student's All-round Development and Student Affairs Work
General types of student goals are enrollment goals, academic experiences goals and social experiences goals (Komives and Woodard, 2003, p.317). A student with an enrollment goal just wants to complete a course to earn a degree, or gain credentials in the hope of getting signed or promoted. One with the academic experiences goals hope to gain subject knowledge, develop critical thinking skills, for future's being eligible and competitive. Student's social experience goals may be to develop lifelong friendships, acquire leadership skills or maintain a balance among family, work, and school commitments. Once, the central concept of higher education is to preserve, to transmit, and to enrich the culture via institutional instruction, scholarly work and scientific research (ACPA Official Website, 2010). That is also, to fulfill student's enrollment goals and academic experiences goals. With more goals having been added, the student's all-round development has become a concern. As a result, the purpose of higher education has been broadened to include attention to the student's development as a whole person---physically, socially, emotionally and spirit, as well as intellectually.
The all-round development of students interacting in social situations is the central concern of student affairs work. From the viewpoint of student affairs work, a student is encompassed and need to develop as a whole. The American College Personnel Association (ACPA) and the National Association for Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) have stimulated student affairs work about how it contributes to student learning and all-round development (Komives and Woodard, 2003, p.80).
First, a good student affairs practice shall and can conduct learning-oriented student affairs work. Whether the work is good or not, this can have an enormous impact on the quality of student's learning. If a student affairs profession has been furnished with a sufficient support for student academic programs, and adequate fiscal resources are provided through which the student may require for efficient utilization of his ability, their learning needs will be met. In addition to the contribution of counseling and removing blockages form his path toward optimum potential achievement, some other related services can be offered. Thereby, his/her academic goals can be primarily achieved. Furthermore, many factors of personality are conditioned by the number and depth of interests an individual is able to cultivate. A good student affairs practice attempts to offer unambiguous, but adaptable instructions for productive use of resources for student development. For example, students can discover meaning and purpose in the world through their engagement with art. A college's office of student affairs can use art in a variety of ways like hallways, meeting rooms etc. in collegiate settings to encourage student's moral and intellectual development. Also, through fostering a program of recreational and discussion activities that is diversified, lively and decent interests can find its way into students well-round development.
To conclude, not only the student his/her self, and their parents, but also faculty, academic administrators and others, including student affairs personnel, are all thought to be of as responsible participant in student's fullest development. The realization of a well development of each student---can not be attained without an integrated efforts
Today's context for higher education presents student affairs with many challenges. With new technologies, increasing student needs and demands, rapidly changing student demographics profiles, and criticism of the moral and ethical climate on campuses, the role and importance of student affairs work, which instruct student behaviors and regulate student's daily life, has been recognized. In response to these challenges, many colleges and universities are committed to promote its student affairs practice. To identify the near future of the higher education student affairs work, this essay has explored the current student affaire principle and system in both China and the U.S. Although due to some difference in historical and philosophy, student affairs work in China and the U.S. vary in some degree. However, their student affairs work can enlighten the student affairs personnel to reshape their responsibilities, contributions to student well-round development. As co-creators and maintainers of student's fullest development, the student affairs practice shall drawn more attention in future college work.
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