Education has always been an important issue for all countries at all times. Primary education is a basic condition to improve peoples knowledge. The original base is very important to train children to become good citizens of the country. Many projects have been conducted to study the teaching duties of teachers, facilities, instructional materials. Nobody can deny the importance of education but how to improve the quality in education is another problem. There are many aspects to evaluate the education system from the social factors, national, the teacher's pedagogical ability, faculty, facilities, infrastructure or the ability to comprehension and interest of pupils.
There are thousands reason make education more important such as the way person behavior, the way they talk, thinks, do everything, is successful key to open future door. Nowadays, companies, plants, hospital, schoolsâ€¦ used practical science, high technology and also requires staffs with high knowledge. Education is not only the lessons in school but also practical lessons from life. Primary school's education is a necessary part which is the most important and basic to lead to the higher knowledge.
Hanoi is capital of Vietnam, where integrate economic, cultural, and policy with other country. It make the training process to create high intellectual people become an extremely urgent problem which requires many factors and one of them is the standard of quality in Vietnamese Primary school. The standard is assessed through pupils' standards, standard of teachers and potential financial. Many people attribute the quality of teaching from teachers, facility conditions, the education system... But in my personal opinion the comprehension and the interesting of subjects are the problem should be addressed. Normally, when the children from school go back, the parents often ask them "how many marks did you get?" Or "today what did the teacher tell at school?" but taking care and educating the children are the responsibility of the entire society, not the only of the school. But standard of pupils also depends on many other factors such as the interest of the family for the child's learning, the child's physical, ability to comprehend and private nature of the child, or the investment and policy of social. Education is highly valued in Vietnamese society and the government always regards education as a source of direct investment for the future. First priority has been set to provide basic education for all children and education / training on the basic rate for children who meet the entry requirements. Every country has it own unique and problems. We can not copy the success programs from one place and apply them to another place. Vietnam needs to develop programs and their content based on which Vietnam and based on the actual conditions of the facilities in your country.
2.2 Research Questions
This research study what factor did affect the standard of primary schools. This research will contribute a part to help Vietnamese Primary schools in Hanoi more develop in quality of education.
What are Vietnamese pupils' standards in Primary schools?
What issues do effect to quality standards in Vietnamese Primary school?
2.3 Objective of Research
To measure the standards of pupils in Vietnamese schools
To identify the issues affected Vietnamese Primary school's quality standards.
3. Literature Review
Concept of quality standard definition in Primary school
There are many different conceptions of quality standards such as assessed by the study results, the ability to apply their knowledge in practice, general knowledge,
It is must confirm firstly that Vietnam is very focused on education especially for pediatric ages. According to Law Education Elementary Schools passed by the National Assembly on 06.30.1991, Vietnam to implement policy compulsory primary education from grade 1 to grade 5 for all Vietnamese children aged 6 to 14 years. For pupils start in 1st grade's age and level of understanding of the students are the same. Currently, elementary school pupils have to take 11 modules with level 3, 4, 5 and with level 1st and 2nd are 6 modules. In the Vietnamese school, pupils must have to develop all aspect, such as Knowledge - Ethic - Artistic - Physical.
According to the Vietnamese Ministry of Education is pupil must meet the following criteria: Firstly, Vietnamese mark level is 10 and pupils must achieve average above 5.Secondly, ethics must be reviews above moderate (the moral rating: good, fair, moderate, weak, and poor). In 2000, Viet Nam has achieved national standards of literacy and primary education. From the 2002-2003, the adult literacy rate in the 15-24 age group was nearly 95%, the average number of years of schooling of the population reached 7.3 years (Nguyen, et al. 2005)
Assess standard of quality of Vietnamese school in Hanoi.
There are many standards to assess standard of quality in Vietnamese school such as high-quality standards school (must meet the standards that the Vietnamese Ministry of Education requirements). These schools are accepted high-quality standards must meet the following criteria: Teachers have to highly quality standard, study results of pupils are high, financial resources or otherwise is facilities and infrastructure standards (Nguyen,V.C.,2012). There are all teachers have trained standard qualifications as prescribed, 100% of teachers with appropriate qualifications for teaching subjects, in which at least 30% of teachers were recognized municipal standards. There are dropout rate and no more than 6% annual repetitions, in which the dropout rate does not exceed 1%. Pupils with outstanding achievements 3% or more, quite achieving a 35% or more, kind of weak, less than 5%. Behavioral graded very well, well at 80% or more, kind of weak no more than 2%... And last but not least are facilities and equipment to meet the teaching requirements.
Measure the quality standard of Vietnamese Primary school in Hanoi
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam, with a population around 6,561,900 people. The surveys shown in September 2012 showed overload in primary schools. In many schools have the average enrollment of each class of about 40-60 pupils. Although, amount of knowledge that pupils acquire in primary schools in Hanoi are highly appreciated, a number of pupils pass more than 99%, number of pupils with excellent academic performance and good more than 70%. Every year Hanoi has pupils participate in the international competition and won the award as mathematics, art and music.
According to the Vietnamese Ministry of Education have 5,912 primary schools, but a number of primary schools in Hanoi are only 556 public schools and over 200 private primary schools. According to Vu, V (2012) in which have 267 primary schools meeting the national standard schools. Dr. Hamid Chachoua, LIG Research Institute, University of Grenoble 1 - France has had discussions with the VietNamNet about Mathematics he said on the perspective of a mathematician, he found mathematics education in Vietnam is an excellent education in terms of mathematics content being taught in schools.
4. Research Model
Every nation, in every region or even in different periods will require different standards of education such as in countries are faced with war, famine, or disease, if require for all children have to know how to read and write is a difficult.
Research model: from the practical and learn more experience from other country.
4.1 Standards of pupils
Firstly, we will discuss about the qualification of pupils. Primary education in Vietnam includes five levels. When the children entered primary school is when children begin to update the new information, the basic knowledge to the demands tougher. That time, the children fairly active and their logical arguments are immature, but the ability to absorb very quickly and curiosity help them always longed to know more new information. Learning in kindergarten and learning in primary schools is very different. In Primary Schools, children acquire an amount of knowledge bigger than in kindergarten. According to Vietnamese idiom is "The first step is always the hardest step", Children before entering elementary school are a health check, thinking ability, IQ ... so they are qualified child physically, mentally and intellectually to study.
The secondly is their knowledge, and past experience. Both of them, the knowledge and past experience are only few. In kindergarten, they were learning numbers, the alphabet, simple calculations but with reading and do math are quite problem. Whereas retention of children very quickly, they are easy to imitate or sensitive to new things. They should be more conscious in their learning, and is responsible for completing the tasks of lesson. Through five levels, these children have the basic knowledge to continue on their way to gain new knowledge as baggage for their future.
Lastly, standards of pupil evaluation exactly the most is the pupils graduated. They are pupils who finish their course and they are equipped with the basic knowledge that have enough knowledge to continue studying at the secondary schools, understanding of society, can self-face and handle difficult situations. They are people who clearly reflect the quality of their school. Knowledge in Primary Schools is the first tool will follow them throughout their lives from secondary school, high school, college, university and even when they go to work. The targets are the pupil's ratio who banned from school every year, the pupil's ratio graduated wants to study in this school, the pupils ratio graduated with high achievement, the pupil's ratio who can use expert English, the pupil's ratio who can use fluently computer, percentage of pupils achieved the national award or in the world.
4.2 Teachers' standard
According to Nguyen, TA. (2008), teacher is one in 3 most important elements will influence school's quality. Teachers must have good class management skills, expertise and pedagogical knowledge as well as good communication skills. Primary school teachers should be people with many skills, in addition professional capability must be knowledgeable of the various areas such as knowledge of social psychology of children and young close. Regularly, the teachers update the new knowledge, build lesson plans, curriculum to make excitement for lessons. Teachers to apply new technology in lectures and reference the documents in the domestic as well as foreign.
According to Dang,H.(2001) quality teachers can be formed in many different ways, including training, retraining of knowledge, that is an important role. Therefore, the first in building and improve the quality of teachers start from the care of the training, retraining and lives of teachers.
Over the years, training and retraining of teachers has been interested and have changed. The type of training and retraining as long-term and short-term with a lot of content in accordance with the different subject teachers. However, besides these results, the training and retraining of some shortcomings, the quality of the teaching after training and retraining still have certain limitations. Ministry of Education is making reasonable adjustments in order to improve the quality of teaching.
According to Pham,H.(1999) Vietnam's education system has been strengthened, build pedagogical schools, train teachers who have high quality, and passion with their job. Currently, most of the primary school teachers are qualified, high pedagogical knowledge, good communication skills and enthusiasm with teaching.
However, the salary of primary school teachers is low. The Ministry of Education is considering to the teacher's salary is increased.
In view of Roberd L,L.(2008) standards for competent teacher in educational assessment of pupils .
4.3 Financial resources and investment funds
The ability of finance and investment funds are the factors that directly affect the infrastructure, facilities and teaching tools. Infrastructure and teaching tools is always one of the most importance factors affected standard schools. First of all, budget affected material facilities in school. In Viet Nam, the material facilities prepare for teaching in school is not enough, sketchy and outdated. The numbers of pupils is step-up every year but the numbers of public primate schools and private primate schools do not seem to change. Because budget expends for education is not enough, and need attention of government, whole social, and domestic and foreign donors. Moreover, financial also influence research science and lecture. Furthermore limited investment cost could lead poor material facility (Nguyen, 2006). As mentioned above, the average salary of primary school teachers are quite low, mostly is small budget. Teacher's salary is too low is one of the causes of recently year's students of pedagogy rate decreased significantly, and involve difficult to find teachers who have high level in teaching skills. Ability to finance and investment funds influence total cost for teaching and learning, total cost for library, numbers of book and documents review on each teacher and pupil, number of room and furniture, projectors, speakersâ€¦ reach standard. According to Le (2010) computer systems use for learning and teaching, network system supports for learning and teaching and apply more advanced knowledge, experiences in the world.
5. Research Methodologies
There are three the ways used in research methods (Sherri L. Jakson 2011). The first is descriptive in nature; the second is predictive in nature and the last one is explanatory in nature. There are two methods to support the research which are inductively and deductively. According to Veal (2005) each research can process in one method or two methods depend on the practical situations and issues to be studied. Inductive use theory, that was publish but deductive use hypothesis base from data.
5.1 Qualitative research
According to Hussey and Hussey (1997) research methodologies have two principles, which are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative have basic in the naturalistic. Almost all qualitative researchers influence, explain or interpret some different form. The qualitative researches are used explaining and actual observations with the aim of developing a theory. According to Isadore and Carolyn, (1988) this theory will interpret what were experienced. Also Veal's opinions, the methods used to collect information are observation, formal, informal, participant observation and in-depth interviewing.
5.2 Quantitative research
Quantitative research is the positivistic philosophies. Most of quantitative research approaches use to emphasize what are a real common and what everybody can agree, despite they have theoretical differences. The quantitative research approaches are used when begin a theory or begin a hypothesis. This way checks to confirm or disconfirm to prove that hypothesis is correct or incorrect (Isadore and Carolyn, 1988). According to Veal (2005) the data collect surveys, from questionnaire-based, and from secondary sources.
5.3 Proposed Research Methods
In this study use deductive and quantitative applies. There are two software will be used, those are SPSS (Statistical Package for social Science) and Excel. SPSS and Excel will be used to analysis the data after collecting respondents and the survey questionnaires.
6 Collection of data
6.1 Secondary data
According to Boyce (2002), secondary Data is considered as figures and a fact. Secondary data already exist and can be available for everybody who wants to use them for the individual purpose of each person. They may be important information depend on a particular part or research. Secondary data provide basic information for example when need to search information for a project plan. Background information will help clearly the research and easy understand the duties with more clearly and deep. The researchers will difficult to identify what are validity and reliability without secondary data. They are always cheaper and easier available than primary data.
6.2 Primary data
As far as Kerin (et al, 2003) if researchers need facts and figures are newly collected, they have to use primary data. All most researches use primary data which are collect by survey, depth interviews and focus groups. They interview a large numbers of participants and require them answer the questionnaires, that is a simple way to have information and do a survey. In projects require focus groups or depth interviews but don't need more people, only a small of participants but have to carefully selected (Boyce, 2002). Primary data are always more expensive and take longer time if compare with secondary data.
6.3 Sample size of Primary Data
In the project assess the sample size is very important and necessary. Basically, increasingly gather as much information as possible and they will make the accuracy in your research higher. The primary data in this study will selected from more than 500 survey respondents. They are pupils, parents, teachers and related people who willing joint survey. In which over 75% of survey will be answered and fill in the questionnaires by going to face-to-face meetings, telephone interviews and other will finish questionnaire and send back by email.
7. Method of Data Analysis
As author Bryman and Bell (2007) study by the data analysis is essential. Statistically analyzed data are required and data analysis helps to consider whether the hypotheses which were created have been supported.
8. Presentation of dissertationâ€¨
Present this dissertation is the process of data figures, graphs and tables. Moreover, it will be supported by writing, report and readers.
9. Ethical Issues
Ethics issues are to the appropriate of the research's behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of the research or are affected by it (Golafshani, 2012). Ethical concerns may be occurred at all stages of project and all projects:
When seeking access
During data collection
As data are analyzed
And when reports are written
All the resources in this research are collected from:
- EASB library
- Singapore national library
- Wiley Online Library
- UWIC e-library
- Vietnam national library
11. Table schedules
Primary education is the most important problem and it refers to the most difficult job is to train people, training of human resources for the future society. As society moves, poses major task for education. Vietnam's education should be "molting". Three previous educational reforms are related to the political turmoil. This time, Vietnam is gearing up to make the goal that is becoming an industrialized country in 2020 and modern industry in 2050, increasingly integrated into the world. Perform two objectives must first meet human development goals.
A meaningful education is geared towards a better future, more civilizable. Leader Ho Chi Minh reminded "For the sake of ten years to plant trees, for the purpose of hundred years to plant people". The worries of daily education can be found present in all mass media enough to see how important issues. Lawyer Nguyen,V.T (2006), packaged his all worries in a sentence "A bad doctor killed a patient, a bad officer, will kill a squad, but a bad teacher will kill a generation". Maybe so, the lifelong of people struggle to make money, in addition to take care their lives, they often have the biggest desire that is the next generation of children and have more learning opportunities. Richest planet boss Bill Gates has done, the less money people to do the same and needy people also would like to do it.