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According to Tannen (1992), there are fundamental differences between male's and female's communication method, which is "genderlects", as a takeoff on language dialects. However, gendered perceptions of teachers might be related to differences in teaching styles. Lacey, Saleh, and Gorman (1998) originated male teachers' styles to be more dominant and strict, whereas female's styles were more relaxed and unfasten toward students and their ideas. Ratings were made of differences affecting the teacher's performance and ability, his or her masculinity, and his or her status. Female generally evaluated the teacher's performance and academic position higher than males, and the teacher using the masculine mode of teaching was evaluated higher in performance, rank, and masculinity than the teacher using the feminine mode. No evidence of sensed discrimination in terms of remuneration between male and female teachers was found (Harris, Mary B, 2010).
According to their experience of participating in the NET scheme, the NET should have different perceptions or prospects what the experience will necessitate (Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto, Sydney, 2003). Motivations that lead students to take part in their lessons will likely be different (Thomas S.C. Farrell, 2008).
Traditionally, local English teachers (LETs) used to focus on students' awareness on accuracy, particularly grammatical accuracy, while native-speaking English teachers (NETs) are more likely to build up students' fluency in speaking English. Moreover, the teaching methodology of NETs was based on an aspiration to provide students with various types of language effort, rather than to affect the approach English was taught. (Vivien, Arthur, 2005). Recently, the scheme is to provide opportunities for students to communicate with NETs in a natural environment, and improve the oral and communication skills of students by providing more chances to practice (Kingsley, 2002).
In addition, most of the students are willing to speak English with the Native-speaking English teachers (NETs) more than Non-native speaker (NNS) English teachers, because the NETs would use interactive approaches such as playing games, language arts activities related to their daily lives (Enric, 2005). Furthermore, motivation involves more than solely approving a student. Motivation to learn is to define a student's inclination to find educational activities significant and meaningful and try to get the anticipated learning advantages from them (Brophy, 1997; Paul R, 2000).
Nonetheless, female teachers might find difficult to explain the instructions and might feel uncomfortable in teacher-centered phases. In contrast, male teachers might be too focused on problems in class and have an over-detailed lecturing style in teacher-centered phrases of a lesson (P Bress, 2000). According to Elaine Smith (1997), female teachers are more frequently reported a acute or chronic voice problem than male teachers. Hence, there were no gender differences in the perception that a voice problem harmfully affected their current or future teaching career. In this case, female teachers report a higher frequency of vocal symptoms than male teachers even when teaching styles and duration of employment are similar.
Furthermore, teaching is mainly related to femininity, motherliness and caring. A good teacher is always evaluated to a good mother who loves her children, take good care of them, and even forfeits herself for them (Acker, 1995). On the other hand, male teachers feel that their existence can counteract stereotypes by showing customary feminine development and compassionate behavior (Elien and Antonia, 2007).
This paper aims to use ethnographic analysis to scrutinize the affiliation between primary 1 to primary 3 students' motivation and the effectiveness of the NET teachers' gender differences under the PLP-RW in Hong Kong. This evaluation is planning to be carried out in the academic year 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, lasting for two years. There are two methods for this evaluation. The first method is monthly assessment: the class observation reports will be done by the local English teachers (LETs). It is because NETs co-teach with LETs in the PLP-RW English lessons, and the LETs should complete this monthly assessment and have reflection meeting with the NETs after the evaluation. The purposes of the meeting are to ensure the productivity and utility of the PLP-RW lesson, and providing better feedback to achieve better performance to NETs. The Profiles in English as a Second Language (Griffin, Smith & Martin, 2003) were expected to foster cooperation and collaboration between NETs and local teachers (Patrick G and Kerry W, 2004).
The second method is distributing questionnaires. The target audiences essentially include 4 parties which are: native-speaking English teachers (NETs), local English teachers (LETs), students from primary 1 to primary 3, and the students' parents. The set of questionnaires will target 4 parties, which include NETs questionnaire, LETs questionnaire, students' questionnaire and parents' questionnaire. Two evaluations will be conducted in each academic year, the first one will be scheduled after finishing the first term and the second one will be arranged after finishing the second term.
For the monthly assessment, the NET's lesson will be video-recorded for LETs to review the students' learning behavior and the NET's teaching methodology during the reflection meeting. Moreover, it would be useful to evaluate whether the male or female NET teacher under the PLP-RW can motivate students to learn English. For the questionnaires, all those participants of this evaluation will be selected through questions with a five-point scale on the topic of effectiveness in PLP-RW programme in NET's English lesson. It aims to find out a group of students who believe they have higher motivation when studying in this programme. Besides, all the data will be summarized as a chart and feedback from the 4 parties will be shown.
Since the evaluation will involve 4 parities, and some feedback about the NET's performance and students' response, ability and improvement are obtained after finishing the PLP-RW, all the data should be confidential and for school use only. Consent letter and form (from Appendix 1) should be signed by the NETs before conducted the video-recording during the PLP-RW lesson.
Monthly Assessment-Teacher Evaluation Checklist
To ensure the quality and effectiveness of the NET's performance in the PLP-RW lesson, a video-recording will be performed every month as well as teacher evaluation checklist (from Appendix 2) will be completed by the LETs. It will be beneficial to improve the teaching approach of NET and adopt the teaching materials to cater for the learners' diversity.
The questionnaires are carefully constructed to focus on factors potentially influencing the achievement of PLP-RW by primary 1 to primary 3 students in the participating primary schools. The questionnaires are distributed to P1 to P3 students and their parents, LETs and NETs.
Since the target students are from primary 1 to primary 3, the questionnaire (from Appendix 3) will be bilingual (in both Chinese and English). This evaluation is to find out whether the interactive and funny activities from the gender differences of NET in the PLP-RW lesson can motivate them to study English. The elements in the questionnaire include the comments on the teaching contents, the NET's performance, which part of lessons they are most interested in and what part of the course they find most useful and so on. For instructions in terms of which teaching methods can help students move toward steady use of the apposite physics, and for research, in terms of questions about the role of epistemology, probabilistic models of students reasoning, and appropriate models of learning (Michael C, 2003). As a result, this evaluation can find out what the importance of PLP-RW is and the effectiveness of the PLP-RW.
This evaluation aims to realize the study condition their children in PLP-RW lesson, and encourage parents to read literacy story books, and develop reading habits on their own at home (Shek and H, 2009). If the students are willing to read verbally the story books to their parents, it may imply that the PLP-RW can motivate them to study English.
The LETs can evaluate the similarities and differences of student experiences between male NET's English lessons and the female NET's English lessons. The questionnaire will give the opportunity to provide feedback to the PLP-RW curriculum and gender differences of NET's teaching.
This evaluation aims to provide feedback of the PLP-RW curriculum and students' learning attitudes, ability, improvements after finishing the programme. Some recommendations should be provided for improving the programme by the NET. Consequently, successful NET integration not only would motive students learning, but also make powerful both NET and local English teachers to professional expand (Victor F, 2008, Wilson and Berne, 1999).
After finishing this analysis, it was found out that students have any kind of learning difficulties, so it is imperative to encourage students by giving them self-confidence, chance and resources to speak English. The smooth cooperation between NET and LETs are very useful to improve the curriculum effectively. This feature is integral to the recognition of effective PNET schools. It was also obvious in the most effective schools that the students speak English in the classroom. If associations among the above can be made, it would seem that the NETs in the most effective schools are apparently taking accountability for co-planning, directing modify and supplementary exercises in the classroom and had been teamed with local teachers who motivated students to use English in class.
Besides, the monthly assessment can help to improve the PLP-RW lesson and the NET's teaching approaches including class activities and games to capture students 'interest and imagination. On the other hand, teachers influence their students in areas such as knowledge attainment, education for morality and principals and success in building up interpersonal relations. These elements can enhance students' motivation to learn English and increase their confidence to participate in class.
Above and beyond, gender differences research can plot feasible likenesses and differences between male and female teachers and can have a kind of signaling function, gender dynamics research can make available deeper insight into explaining gender differences between male and female teachers through its analysis of 'gendered' dynamics in the teaching professions. Likewise, gender differences in teacher-student interactions, both male and female teachers were found to interact with boys more than girls. They asked boys more questions and gave them with more opportunities to respond. Therefore, apparent gender differences are the result of differences between the teaching styles of male teachers and female teachers.