National philosophy of Education is formulated in 1988, which are based on rational and critical thinking, National Principe, cultures of Malaysian society and Education reports and Ordinance. Major aims in NPE are to produce the individuals who are knowledgeable, believe and devotion in God, possess balanced and firm personality, be responsible to self-society, religion and nation and foster unity among people of various races. The objective of NPE is to produce good and excellent students towards becoming a constructive citizen.
NPE is derived from two basic terms, which are the philosophy and education. Philosophy can be considered as guide to life because of issues that focus towards basic nature of knowledge, source of knowledge, and human existence. Thus, according to the Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary in 2009, education involves teaching people various subjects or being taught at school or college. Besides that, education also means a comprehensive process that aims to develop the ability and human behavior. Education also a social process provides an opportunity for an individual to acquire social skills and personal development. This definition is consistent with the view Dewey, a famous prominent in West side. He said, "Education is a process that aims to improve the human condition and school is seen as a special environment that is equivalent to the social environment".
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Besides that, there are six mains factor, which helps to develop NPE in Malaysia, which are individual, economic, social, political, international, and religious. First factor is individual that is a well balanced and harmonious individual will always try to inculcate positive attitude, enjoy spiritual peacefulness and ready to face challenges in life. Second, economic factor which the society is trained with special skills in various fields that can assist in the development of the national economy. Third, social factor, which is, depend on the practice of cooperation among the citizen and mutual respect among Malaysian. Fourth, political factor is one of the basic considerations when planning NPE. Fifth, international factor is reflecting the concept of life-long education with the respect to the globalization and education. Sixth, religious factor that Islam is the official religion but other religion are free to embrace.
Moreover, NPE can be analyzing by four branch of philosophy, which are metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. The characteristic of NPE in metaphysics are the holistic and integrated that means the universal body of knowledge, which taught by the teacher and learnt by the pupils. Second, epistemology in NPE is on-going effort, which means knowledge is ever changing and emphasis on life-long learning. Third, axiology in NPE is firm belief and devotion to God and high moral standards and responsibility. It means that the NPE are emphasis on the element of existence and role of religion and role of moral values, ethics, and personality. Fourth, logic in NPE is competent which means the importance of valid and non-valid reasoning. It is to foster self-competence and need for good and systematic work procedures.
Furthermore, the implications of NPE on the education system are all educators must be open-minded at all times to the rapid changes in science and technology. They have to be ready for new knowledge and skills in a classrooms teaching and learning. They also have to be courageous and willing enough to implement these innovations for the subjects they teach. Besides that, they have to be aware that their tasks and responsibilities are not only limited and confined to knowledge and skills. They must give more attention towards the formation of human capital, which can develop into holistic individual who are able to contribute to family, society and nation.
Next, NPE has become the main source to improve our education system for the development of society. It has form several school curriculum, which helps the school to plan and conduct teaching and learning process for the pupils. School curriculum is a framework, which is compiling the aspect of knowledge, skills, values, and the norms of cultural and the beliefs of community. It implements the curriculum and activities that carried out through the process of teaching and learning by teachers. The objectives of school curriculum are to know the types of curriculum, how to categorize curriculum and the application of concept in integration in teaching. The functions of school curriculum are helping the teachers to interpret the syllabus and alert with the latest syllabus and they will be able to apply the objectives in the classroom. Besides that, Tyler's model also assumes that by stating the objectives, it will be helpful in selecting learning experiences and derive the lessons.
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In Malaysia, debate involving curriculum design begins with Razak Report (1956) who got a way to eliminate the differences in the school's curriculum Malay, Chinese, Tamil, and English while maintaining their respective medium. Then, syllabus of Committee was established in 1956 to formulate an appropriate syllabus and recommend the amount of time for each subject lessons. Next, Cabinet Committee set up in 1974 to review the implementation of education policy and aspects of the curriculum to ensure that it meets the demand of energy needs of people in economic construction.
Since independence when the Education of 1961 published, Old Curriculum Primary School (KLSR) is implemented on our education system. The contents in KLSR are focus more on academic and compact towards the pupils at primary level. Then, in 1983, elective courses and packages offered at the primary level in New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR). KBSR is constructed based on the Razak Report (1956), the Education Ordinance (1957), Rahman Talib Report (1960), the Education Act (1961), and the Cabinet Committee Report (1979). After a while, KBSR needs to be review and relevance across time. In 1993, Integrated Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) is implemented in our education system. It is relevance with the objective of NPE. Integration is implementing in teaching and learning process to integrate skills and absorption knowledge. After a decade, the government thought to change the school curriculum in 2011, which is relevance towards the advanced of technology and holistic of development of generation on Y, Z, and upcoming Alpha. The government has transform KBSR to Standard Curriculum Primary School (KSSR) which is a process of holistic changes that includes form, organization, pedagogy, time allocation, interpretation, materials and curriculum management. It is to create an integrated approach to the students, development of comprehensive individual, equal quality education for all students and education for life.
The roles of School ( School, Headmaster, Senior assistance of co-curriculum and Teachers )
Schools play an important role in the realization of NPE as the agent of socialization and agents of behavioral change in pupils. In addition, the school is also the first formal institution in which students acquire knowledge and basic skills. Schools also are to foster interest in each pupil to continue seeking knowledge and further contribute to the existing of knowledge in our education. In schools, the values should be implementing in the pupils to produce a well-balanced human capital from the physical, emotional, spiritual, and intellectual development consistent with goals and objectives of the NPE. Thus, each individual in the school play their respective roles to implement NPE. There are related parties with realizing NPE in school, which are headmaster, senior assistant co-curriculum, and classroom teachers.
Headmaster is the most important and powerful person in the school that holds the position of chairman of the committee. In addition, headmaster is accountable for all operational activities in schools that include administration, finance, curriculum, co-curriculum, environment, staff, and students. Besides that, headmaster also play important role in realizing the element of NPE in curriculum, co-curricular and administrative character. I had interview with the headmaster and senior assistance of co-curriculum in Sekolah Kebangsaan Jerantut (SKJ) about realistic of headmaster routine regarding five activities carried out in the school to visualize the objective of NPE. This school is lead by Mr. Said b. Hassan and assisted by the Mr. Abu b. Samah who is senior assistance of co-curriculum, other senior assistance, staff, and teachers. They are very committed to realize NPE from time to time.
In addition, the Senior Assistant Co-curriculum in schools also plays a very important role in realizing NPE. He also must do the staging and organizing the annual activity program and curricular activities to ensure, the program runs smoothly. Particular field is the main platform to increase and expand the physical aspects of pupils in the school. When these aspects can be improved within each student, an intelligent mind resulting from a healthy body. In an effort to expand the school to the physical aspects of the pupils, the school has had co-curricular activities.
Moreover, I had also interviewed teachers from SKJ that teach English for level 2 in primary school. Her name is Pn. Rosnita bt. Mohd Sidek. She also explain about her role in the classroom and the teaching activity that had been carried out in the classroom which can actualize the national curriculum. The teacher's role is very important in realizing the NPE and national curriculum in the school. Teachers are responsible to develop the potential of students in holistic and integrated balanced human beings who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically. Teacher class act in his mother or father when the students in the school. They need to know every student's problem so learning session will not be interrupted. They also provide guidance and support to their students to study hard in order to get good result. They must develop attitudes and values in the students that can help the students and guide them to become loyal citizens, responsible and useful, honor those who are older and cultural differences, race, and religion.
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The activity in Schools
The activities that been held in the school are based on the elements of NPE. In NPE from the physical realization, they are emphasizing co-curriculum on the students. For example, all the students must attend to the school in the afternoon to carry out extra-curricular activities every Wednesday. Co-curricular activities include associations, uniformed units, sports, and games. The interview between them and me are about the uniformed units, which is Tunas Kadet Remaja Sekolah (TKRS). They are very active in school and always have the activities for the students every week. For example, they have held camping in Mac for their members in TKRS. Camping is one of the activities that are implementing the physical elements of NPE.
Camping is a recreational outdoor activity. They will leave their house to enjoy nature as they spend several days and nights at certain campsites. The objectives of camping are to develop inquiring minds, learn practical skills, develop competencies, and acquire knowledge. TKRS had plan the paper works to hold the camping in campsite Jerantut. Their objectives are the pupils will be able to know the theory and practical during camping and the experiences of camping. Besides that, the rational are the pupils will get to learn more in basic and environment of camping. It is clearly implement the elements of NPE in this activities which is the pupils can be well balanced and harmonic, increase the development of individual potentials, and produce the competence citizens.
Next, they also stressed the element of emotional in school throughout the activities. They are working together to monitor the cleanliness environment in the school and in the classrooms. The most beautiful and cleanest class will earn the championship trophy on weekly basis. The objective of this activity is to increase the awareness of clean and healthy environment, to become responsible pupils, and engage them to participate in the activity. The teachers will help them and get them to achieve the positive result in the end of the activity.
The slogan of this activity is "Beautify the School" that is held every week. All the students must participate and plays the important role in their classrooms. Besides that, five students from each class will participate around the school such as pick up the garbage, and clean up the canteen. This activity can ensure the students to keep clean and peaceful environment of learning and they can learn well. The implications of this activity are related to NPE which are they want the student to become Malaysian citizen with high moral standard, the students will become balance and harmonic in person and they will become more responsible with their job or task.
In addition, sports activities and games can bring out the latent and potential students. It is the responsibility of teachers to train school teams. Through student participation in this activity, teachers can observe and do the selection of talented students to be absorbed into the school team. They will then be given continuous training as a strategy to represent the school to the competition group, region, or state. For example, sports day which the students have the opportunity to show their talent in sports and represent their teams. The teachers will organize the practice every evening and plan their strategy for the games.
SKJ had held the Sports Day in Mac, 2012 and compulsory for all the students to participate. They have divided into two categories, which are sports athletics and field events. Besides that, teachers and staff also participate in special event that is football match and this is one attractive event for the students. In sports day, they have to cooperate with each other and have a plan to be the winner. Teachers play the important role to select the best players and encourage them to play well in games. They also have to encourage them even though they let the teams down. The development of the social aspect can be formed when the students need to work together in carrying out assigned tasks in line with the philosophy of education who want to produce individuals that have the potential of comprehensive and integrated.
They are also emphasized on spiritual aspect in the school. For example, the administration of the school has organized a Smart Camp for prayer and 'Solat Hajat'. These programs have succeeded in creating awareness among the students about the importance of spiritual aspects to achieve excellence in life. They always held this once a month and it is for Muslim. There are also other celebration of Indians and Chinese in the school such as Deepavali and Chinese New Year. The school also encourage various races of students participate in these program. The teachers would organize some activity that suitable for all the students so that they just did not be the audience.
The schools always teach the students to learn and respect other religion. It teaches the student to be in integrated environment and support the elements in NPE. The implications are to teach them to be Malaysia citizens who can contribute to the harmony and betterment of family, society, and nation at large. Besides that, they want the students to be aware of and believe in God, thankful for God's gift and possess good character and upholds moral values. Moreover, they want the student to practice all the teachings of faith professed so that they did not diverted from their beliefs and be aware that God determines nature's laws and phenomena.
Furthermore, the school also organized the activities that related to intellectual element in NPE. They want their students to be excellence in academic and co-curriculum. Headmaster have emphasized on English to the students because of the advanced technology and information in our country. Besides that, English has become one of the important language and national language that can be use around the world. One of the activities that they planned is English month. The students will be monitor by their teachers and this activity is held in the classrooms. This activity is held on May, 2012 and assisted by the English committee. All the students must participate in this activity and joined all the games that has been organized. There are many games in this activity such as spelling bee, guess the words, storytelling and recite a poems.
The objectives of this activity are to recognize and acknowledge potential and outstanding performance from the students, to provide a setting for intellectual and social interaction among the participants, to create a competitive atmosphere and instill value of creation among the students. Awards and certificate awarded to the winning contestant and it is one of attraction of this activity for the students. The implication of this activity are related to NPE which are the students can possess the basic skill in English and improve their fluency in English, they can posses creative, critical, and reflective thinking skills and the students will always strives to acquire and develop true knowledge. Besides that, they can become knowledgeable Malaysian citizens, which are love for knowledge, strive to foster knowledge and reading culture and be open-minded and can think critically.
The activity in the classroom
Classroom is a room in where the students are taught. Most of the students spend their time in the classroom and teaching learning takes place. There are many activity can be conduct by the teachers for the student in realization of national curriculum in NPE. After I had interviewed the teacher in SKJ, she explains more about the teaching activity in the classroom. There are various teaching activity in the classroom that can actualize the national curriculum. For example, singing simple song in the class. This activity can help the students to improve their pronunciation and fluency of English. Besides that, the students are more attract to the teaching and learning process in the class. Moreover, this activity can help the student with the element of English, which are speaking and listening.
The teachers can do this activity twice a week or when the students are not interested in learning. The teachers have to be creative and try to engage the students to participate in the classroom. the plan of this activity are teachers will give the lyrics to the students for instance,' Twinkle Twinkle Little Stars' and 'Row Row Your Boat'. Next, the teachers will divided them into groups and give them to practice the song. Then, the teachers asked the students to make performance in front of the class. This activity implement the element in national curriculum which are students will enables to master in speak and understand English, develop self confidence and improve the socialization among the students.
Besides that, there is other activity carried out in the classroom, which is storytelling. The objectives of storytelling are to improve the fluency in English, increasing the level of confidence, learn new words in the story, and enable the student to be creative. The teachers can do this activity as weekly activity because the students of primary school like to hear fiction story. Besides that, the teachers can give award to the best storytelling and it can increase the positive competitive environment among the student.
Plan of this activity is the teachers asked the student to select their favorite story from storybook in the library. Then, the teachers asked them to read it and try to remember the story. After that, the students must do the storytelling in front of the class. It is very interesting activity and the students will never feel boring in the classroom. It is because they are not only read the story but they must remember and make the storytelling in front of the class. This activity also implements the element in national curriculum, which is mastering thinking and study skills, to acquire knowledge and make an effort to widen it and improve self-confidence.
Moreover, third activity carried out in the classroom that can actualize national curriculum is games. There are many games that the teachers can conduct in the classroom such as puzzle, guess the words and flashcard. Game is a form of play or sport that played according to rules. The objective of games are to attract the student for better teaching and learning process, increasing the creativity among the students and strengthen the relationship between the students and teachers. The teachers can do this activity often in the classroom because the students are normally like to play and it is one of the way to attract them.
Plan of this activity is the teachers would prepare the games for the students such as crossword puzzle. The teachers will explain the rule and state the time allocation for playing the games. Then, the teachers will divide the students into groups and the student will have to discuss among them to solve the puzzle. This activity is quite challenging and increasing the comprehensive environment among the students. It implements the element of national curriculum such as nurture attitudes and behavior founded on moral values and enhances the talents and creativity.
Furthermore, fourth activity carried out in the classroom that can actualize national curriculum is group interactions.