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The present study is based on modern theories of motivation focusing on individual beliefs and expectations and the relationship between motivation and cognitive processes. There is now an increasing belief that motivation and strategy use might be insufficient to explain success in reading comprehension. Moreover, implicit beliefs may be an important contributing factor.
The researcher has shown the relationship between implicit beliefs, motivation and strategy use in grade 5, Chinese students, on reading comprehension. The subjects of the study were learning in the context of Chinese as a medium of teaching and they were mix-ability students as well as most of them were from the low-income family in Hong Kong. The research design was quantitative with questionnaire and two reading comprehension tests. Also, the study focuses individual beliefs and expectations, the reason for participating in tasks and the relationship between students' motivation and cognitive processes. Law used 3 types of questionnaires to measure the variables as these followings.
The first questionnaire was adapted from the Implicit Theory of Intelligent Measure Questionnaire of Dweck, Chiu and Hong (1995). The adapted version explored students; perception on intelligence and ability related to reading. The finding indicated that students didn't think that intelligence doesn't change. The second questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was adapted from the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire by Wigfield and Guthrie (1997). The result for this part was used as an index of students' self-reported motivation. The last questionnaire for exploring awareness of the use of reading strategies was adapted from the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory by Mokhtar and Reichard (2002). This used wxploratory factor analysis and it indicated that the items could tell strategy use with high reliability of 0.89.
For assessing higher-order reading comprehension, the subjects were tested by two set of reading tasks created by Law, Chan and Sachs (2008). The first one is multiple-choice question to measure students' inferential comprehension with short passages and short paragraphs. The second set had students summarize a six-hundred-word article into 100 words. The scores were given by five-point-text-understanding scale and had been using the second rater to check reliability.
The result presented that intrinsic motivation and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and reading comprehension were moderate positively correlated as well as intrinsic motivation and implicit beliefs about intelligence and ability. Also, implicit belief and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies were positively correlated. However, implicit beliefs was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation. The finding suggested that students who think that their intelligence and ability aren't fixed would be the same group of having high awareness of the use of reading strategies and they tend to have better reading performance.
Furthermore, the awareness of the use of reading strategies is significant predictor for students' reading comprehension scores which showed the same results as in previous studies. Law stated that high ability students are likely to use strategies during reading process or doing reading tasks in order to achieve; whereas, low ability students aren't use the strategies frequently so the chance to reach the goal of the reading task is also little as they have less attempt. According to Law's study, intrinsic motivated people were high achievers and need less social support whereas low achievers want it. Students who have higher scores on extrinsic motivation had lower scores on text comprehension. When extrinsic motivation is accompanied by a degree of autonomy and the part of a continuum of motivation may lead to other types of motivation. So developing both extrinsic and intrinsic may contribute to students' learning to read effectively. In contrast, neither intrinsic belief nor extrinsic motivation was associated with reading performance.
In conclusion, this study presented that students who believe that their intelligence could be controlled are likely to try to use reading strategies leading to better understanding of text subsequently.
* Reflection through the study
Teacher is the main keys for students' success. The finding found that intrinsic motivation related to the students' success in reading more than extrinsic motivation. However, in my point of view, extrinsic motivation should be developed first by the teachers or learning materials that can contribute to intrinsic motivation later. The way to do is to make learning modules as fun as possible by providing meaningful and attractive materials. A potential to motivate is to stress meaningful aspects of learning tasks. Teachers should provide activities that appropriate to students' abilities and also have difficulties for students to solve by using strategies learned from class. Then, increase degree of difficulty in the task gradually depending on students' abilities. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation derives from students feeling a sense of control over their learning environments and activities.
To summarize, extrinsic motivation might come first from external factors around students. It is influenced by the teachers, friends, parents, learning environment or materials or even from media. Teachers should motivate students by teaching English in meaningful ways by designing challenging and fun lessons and activities. Thus students like English because of external factors affecting internal need and students want to learn by themselves with willing. Lastly, students have willing to learn harder lessons and use strategies to tackle the problem during class resulting to good attitude towards learning and favorable achievement later on.