This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
There are several vital keys to develop a country effectively is education; hence, "Education is seen as a human right, and governments are expected to resource public systems of education to serve their people" (Mark & Bunly, 2005, p.1) Moreover, Education really plays crucial roles in society, but the people who came from poor social class do not have money to pay fee, so "Powerful economic" (Mark & Bunly, 2005, p.1) is a key to solve and reduce the high rate of school drop-out before reaching secondary or high school if the people's economy is ample to support their living. In addition, social class and successful factor in the education systems should be taken note as priority to cut down school-drop-out. "Substantial disparities in both enlistment in and completion of primary and secondary education" (UNICEF, 2007, p.3) indicates that consumption of household is issue for most parents to send their children to school, or they can hardly ever assess the school, and they sometimes might not be able to finish school powerfully. Furthermore, we understand that capital is another crucial point that government and other NGOs should take more action to facilitate the difficulty of poor people in order to motivate not only parents but also children to finish at least secondary school (Mark & Bunly, 2005).
Moreover, to develop students are extremely affected by neighborhoods, families, and social and extensive cultural forces, so in order to answer amply, we should know what is occurring in family, how student's socio-economic school achieves (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
With these issues, the present research would focus on following questions:
What are major factors that influence students' success in socio-economic status?
How does social class affect the success at school?
2- Literature Review
2.1. Classification of Social Class
Working, middle, and upper are usually known as three mountainous classes in American society, which is famous and great involvement in social class and completion in education. Furthermore, naturally middle and upper class students have well in their study than working class; therefore, to make working-class students get accomplishment is not too easy to achieve (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
There are five classification of American family such as upper class, upper middle class, lower middle class, upper lower class, and lower and lower class, so high socioeconomic status is identified as an upper-class people that cover and have power in their neighborhoods, which low socioeconomic status is recognized as a lower class, and there is no power in society (Ornstein & Levine, 2006). Nevertheless, presently there are three classes like upper class (property & investment), middle class (professionals, managers, and small-business owners), and working class is grouped into upper working class (skilled crafts worker) and lower working class (unskilled manual worker). In addition, skilled work might be considered as middle or working class due to their education, profit, and other benefit from the community where they dwell (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
For that reason, the people are living in poverty owning to "third or fourth generation has already dwelled in poverty" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p.320) and therefore they just live in order to get the support from "public assistance" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p.320) in order to continue their lives, because they are living with hopeless without developing and improving their "economic and social situation" and they also love in "the inner slums of cities or in deteriorated areas of rural poverty" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p.321). Hence, we can evaluate that most of them hardly ever register for school and finish in the large amount of them (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
2.2. School Success and Social Class
Moreover, NAEP shows that students whose parents get high education have conducted and performed well in their study, yet those parents who get low education have gotten very low marks, and just some of them will be able to access college with "average scores not far below those for thirteen-year-old whose parents has not completed high school" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p.321). As a result, students who come from low class get low achievement. What is more, rural area is another issue that we are worried about how remote students get accomplishments, for most of them live in under poverty line in remote areas; however, they can reach their goal in less numbers (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
2.3. Student's Socio-Economic Status
Moreover, the massive early socialization is important for every society. On the other hands, family might be very crucial role for parents' educational background in order to demonstrate and to develop "intellectual performance" (Zahyah, 2008, p. 95) and it is perhaps the massive original affect kids' academic attainment. Furthermore, studies have measured that parents who get higher educational grade could teach and improve "the intellectual potential within children" (Zahyah, 2008, p. 95) which might force them to be better in school, and they can gain further education. For instance, well-educational parents might promote higher association with parents in juveniles' school accomplishment, and it also impresses high school graduation. Knowledgeable parents could make clearly decision like how much to stay with their kids and how much money kids should be paid for fee. Meanwhile, parents might define in different ways for their sons and daughters that should get further education in order to participate in university. Many studies prove that parents educational manipulate with kids academic attainment were implemented in developed countries showing its affirmation relevant to academic attainment. Nevertheless, only a few were done in developing countries, which prove the same outcomes such as "Lockhead, Fuller, and Nyirongo in1989" in a cross- sectional study on Thai and Malawi kids that showed higher grade of accomplishment in 8th grade (Zahyah, 2008).
Single-parent families delegate almost 30% of all domestic consuming with children who are under 18-year-old and about 40% of female-headed families are living below poverty line if comparing with 8% for two-parent families. In 2002 up-date marriage is like a good game, for they do not give birth and run a way, so 70% were dwelling with two- parent households and if comparing with more than 90% in 1960. In addition, specific effects of growing up without father are focused too much; as a result, children have different negative impact such as splitting up parents, suffering severe fervent and scholastic issues. Particularly lacking of incontestability is very difficult to intensify for effect of social class. Nevertheless, to assist you, as a teacher, answer toward single-parent families, analysts have requested the following steps: do not think that children who come from single-parent have weird conflicts and copies of communications should be posted to no guardian parent as well as count single-parent in the curriculum and sum to library tools to show and assist children to solve divorce families (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
Race and ethnicity are other factors which are related to poverty as a forecaster of attainment. Owning to Bankston and Caldas (1998) said that minority status was more rising associated with accomplishment than it was socioeconomic status, while Harkreader and Weathersby (1998) discovered that its affect much less than economic fields. What is more, increasing working mother who has children under 18 years old has grown up steadily since 1950. There some outcomes should be taken for increasing such as "better employment opportunities for women, rising divorce rates, family financial pressures that require a second income, increase in the age at first marriage, and chances in traditional cultural attitudes dictating that mother stay home" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 292); as a result, there are a lot of schools that have change their programs in order to facilitate working parents to pick their kids at the end of daily session. Also, latchkey kids who self control at home due to absent parents, so kids mostly watch television a lot and cause problems. Owning of this, kids have to join community learning centre to make them stay longer in school (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
2.4. Student Roles and Hidden Curriculum
There are three main kinds of student role like "the pupil role, the receptive learner role, and active learner role" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 299). What expectation from the pupil role is to be "patient, docile, passive orderly, conforming, obedient and acquiescent to rules and regulations" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 299) the receptive learner role is really need students to be encouraged, oriented-aim, and good winners, and like "receptive to the institutional demands of the academic curriculum" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 299). Besides that curriculum, content are master keys in the processes and learners had to be active including "curiosity, active probing and exploring, challenging authority an independent and questioning mind, and insistence on explanations" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 299). School's curriculum and syllabus are able to teach students to respect rules and comply with criterion to an official version of understandable or it could compete in order to develop their perspectives to link to "self-liberation" (Ornstein & Levine, 2006, p. 153) for example, the achievements of White Euro-American males and abbreviates the augmentation of women such as in African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups makes a unsuccessful apprehension is proved by an official and historic version (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
2.5. School Attainment
Nevertheless, nuclear family that has two parents dwelling with their kids has been told that children get highly successful in their study because of preparing good resources from parents since World War II. Moreover, kids really need adults to motivate and to give love, time, and patience, because parents and children need to have relationship.
Teachers are other vital factors in order to motivate students' interaction with their classmates; they have to be assigned to take some liability for some tasks and assignment, and to endorse elder students to communicate with young ones in order to build up team spirit. Another reason is that extracurricular activities are positive persuasion, which is a part of student development, yet it is not too easy to apply that method. After student participation, they usually get higher levels than someone who does not have willing to attend and researcher also informs that class should not be very big unless the outcomes prove lower levels. Finally, those who have mentioned above are extremely crucial for teachers and educator to launch the extra curriculum appropriately to replace home environment which might cause issues, it is hard for students to adapt new environment (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
2.6. Effective School
We can understand obstacle of low socioeconomic status that has been mentioned above a lot. However, it is important to know and understand about school whether is very effective or not so in the 1980s expressed that "effective school-wide efforts to embellish tutelage" is able to make substantial gains, which result as a underprivileged students including poor schools in huge city and remote school in poor regime (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
3- Discussion and Conclusion
In conclusion, attainment school is really related to socio-economic status in elementary and secondary school and also leads to the college; nevertheless, student with high social class can get very high score after graduation, whereas student with low social status achieve marks that is not very satisfactory, because it is particularly a issue in poverty regimes of huge city.
Furthermore, low-income minority groups usually are low in educational attainment, yet little or no independent relationship contains between race or ethnicity and attainment after taking account of social class. Therefore, what do we think if some or more people who come from low socioeconomic status, they will be able to complete their education with higher marks? On other hands, there are some major outcomes for low attainment include the following like students' home and family environments poorly arrange them for success in the traditional school and organized and operated schools have failed to offer effective education for economically underprivileged students.