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The purpose of this study is to consider the relationship between leadership styles associated with physical education teachers efficiency at school settings. To this end,40 school principals and 40 male and female physical education teachers at secondary schools were randomly assigned to participate in the study . School principals performance assessed with Fiddler leadership style questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.86
by teachers.Also, teachers`performance evaluated with teacher -made questionnaire with validity coefficient of 0.87 (Cronbach Alpha) completed by the students. Data distribution was normal shown in this study using kolmogorov-smirnov test .Additionally,statistical method in terms of statistical model is parametric,while non-parametric statistics is employed for heterogeneous groups through which desired hypotheses discussed using Pearson correlation test , Spearman correlation coefficient and T -test. Results indicate that there exists a significant relationship between the leadership style of school principals and physical education teachers efficiency at 5% significance level.
The results show that participative leadership style would end up with substantial efficiency of male and female education teachers, whereas authoritative leadership style has shown the lowest efficiency.
Key words: leadership style, authoritative leadership style, participative leadership style, school principals, teachers
Needless to say that human resources play a considerable role in the development of communities. Thus, the countries will develop only if they take a great number of human resources into account. Today, educational management encompasses concepts like leadership, guidance and , hence, in order to attain its desired goals, the educational system should reconsider its educational system management. The educational management shall optimally apply the human and physical resources to materialize its goals.
The school management is considered as one of the important aspects of the educational system .Thus, it is necessary to recognize the factors influencing the school principals' leadership and performance which, in turn, can improve the teachers' efficiency and effectiveness . Due to increasing number of students, there is a need to train efficient and proficient teachers in educational system .Of course, the educational goals won't be achieved unless there are significant changes in the thoughts, knowledge and attitudes in this regard. So, if we want our educational system develops, we have to improve the knowledge skills, information, thoughts, attitudes, leadership styles and working patterns of school principals and teachers who closely interact with students.
Historically ,the civilizations have witnessed that the educated and skilled human resources would effectively convert the traditional communities into developed ones. Accordingly, the development is highly dependent upon the management knowledge, especially in terms of education as well as efficient human resources.
Education is closely associated with the development and opens promising horizons for the future. In other words, the educational system of every society reflects its future.
Alvin Toffler argues that if educational system doesn't prepare students for the future and provides them with an unrealistic and wrong image of the future, it will, certainly, be considered as incompetent and treacherous. Considering the important role of educational system in the development of countries, it seems reasonable to apply scientific findings for the management of educational centers so as to increase the teachers' efficiency, effectiveness and motivation so that they try to work better and effectively.
Applications of leadership styles
Leadership behavior theory: The humanistic leaders pay special attention to the organization members, whereas organization - oriented leaders prefer organization missions to the individuals.
Life cycle: The authoritative leadership style fits the immature individuals whom the leader should control authoritatively, while participative leadership suits highly mature individuals
Likert management system .
System1: This kind of management doesn't tend to trust the subordinates. Hence the whole decision - making process takes place at top - level management and the sub - ordinates are seldom involved in the decision - making process.
System 4: In contrast with system 1 , here the management trusts the subordinates. In addition, the decision - making occurs across the organization. Furthermore , there is a great bond among all aspects of the organization.
Fiddler's studies show that task - oriented leaders perform well when the conditions are either desirable or unfavorable .On the other hand, relationship - oriented leaders work best when the conditions are relatively favorable.
Task - oriented leadership style
Relationship - oriented leadership style
Task - oriented leadership style
Relatively satisfactory conditions
The results show that application of specific leadership styles relative to a special situation can both result in a favorable and sound working environment and increase the teachers' motivation toward working effectively .The study findings show the school principals' leadership style has the most noticeable impact upon the physical education teachers' efficiency. Conversely, the authoritative leadership style has the least effect upon the teacher's efficiency. Court lewin etal (1981) studied five groups of children and adults in welfare center at Ohio university and found out that the group members, under democratic (participative) leadership, would develop their creativity, cooperation and performance .On the other hand, working with opinionated leadership would result in considerable dependency, minimum creativity and group spirit as well as failure in children. Haim (1992) believed that the leadership style has nothing to do with the management goal - setting .So it is concluded that efficiency and leadership style apparently don't go with each other. Gen (2004) argued that the transformation - oriented leaders would influence the organizational culture, staff obligations and their job satisfaction. Bruce and Russel's (2004) studies indicate the important difference between function and transformation - oriented leaders .Here, the transformation - oriented (participative) leaders are innovative and creative, whereas function - oriented (authoritative) leaders are more dependent upon the existing structure in the organization.
Madani quoted Dessler (1994) that many behavioral scientists believe that participative leadership is more effective than authoritative leadership. participative leaders encourage and reinforce their employees so that they have higher morale. Also, a group of employees with the authoritative leadership displays ,at first, high performance, but ultimately they get disappointed in the short run .
Fallahi (1995)maintains that the highest score for the mental health belongs to teachers in schools whose school principals have used participative methods
Nazari (1998) concluded in his study that staff participation in decision making causes them to feel closer to their organization . Nourbakhsh, and Mohammad (2004) argued that among the leadership styles, rational leadership style was most commonly used followed by participative leadership which was associated with low task supervision and high attention to human relations within the organization .
Ehsan Hashemi (2005) believe the success of any organization in achieving predetermined goals depends on how the school principals pursue management practices and effective management styles. In fact, management and leadership style are facilitating and motivating factors that directly and indirectly has considerable impact on staff`s job satisfaction and improve their efficiency
Alvani et al (2005) concluded that school principals and skilled professionals having scientific ideas tend to materialize the objectives of the organization through trainig and scientific improvement in the level of organization.
The findings of this research can help school principals opt for management and leadership styles appropriate for physical education administrators and school principals and other similar organizations to increase efficiency and productivity teachers and employees.
Original Persian text:
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Dessler (1973) asserted that many behavioral scientists would believe that participative leadership might function more effectively than authoritative one. Participative leaders encourage their staff to get involved in the organization affairs .Furthermore, their staff enjoys high spirit .Nevertheless, under authoritative leadership ,the staff at first has the highest performance but shortly after they ultimately get frustrated. The high school teachers led by participative school principals are psychologically healthy.Staff `involvement in the decision - making process builds up their attachment to the organization.
There is minimum supervision and maximum attention paid the individuals' relationship in terms of participative leadership style .Additionally, specialized power is the best component amongst power bases and the organization success depends greatly on the per - determined goal attainment, management style and the management power .In fact the management and leadership styles facilitate and motivate the staff's performance and directly/ indirectly influence their jobs satisfaction and efficiency.Also, the skilled and experienced school principals who have scientific ideas try to scientifically develop the organization so as to attain their organizational goals .Of course, the scientific development of the organization is one of the conspicuous components of the modern and creative communities.Studies show that exerting specialized authority from personal power as well as exercising reward from position power shall considerably bring up creativity.Hence, the findings of the present research can guide the educational system authorities in physical education course toward choosing an appropriate leadership and management style in order to increase the staff's efficiency and productivity.
The method used in the present research of descriptive analytical type and the required data regarding measurement of the school principal`leadership style and physical education teachers' efficiency collected using standard questionnaire. Then the relationship between school principals' leadership style and physical education teacher's efficiency/ assessed using SPSS package .Of course, we found out that there is no relationship between the school principals `leadership style and the physical education teacher's efficiency. Also the same can be said about female and male leadership styles which have nothing to do with the female and male physical education teacher's performance.
There were 204 school principals and high school physical education teachers from districts 1 and 2 in Manba town of whom 40 were school principals and the other 40 were physical education teachers.
The samples chosen using random stratified sampling
Tool: the management tool was 2 standard questionnaires.
The Fidler's standard questionnaire applied to determine the school principals' leadership style (participative- authoritative). The questionnaire consisted of 16 eight - item scale. The teacher -conducted questionnaire encompassed 20 five - item scale measuring physical education teachers' performance by the students (physical education teachers' performance) and collected after a pre - determined time .Then statistical computation carried out using Kolmogronov Smironov ,Pearson and independent T - student as well as spearman tests.
Having collected the questionnaires, we began to analyze and determine the validity and relationship in the data using SPSS and excel sofwares. Table 1 presents the significance level between school principals`leadership style and physical education teacher's efficiency .The results show that there is a significant relationship between school principals' leadership style and physical education teachers' efficiency. In addition , regarding the positive and high correlation coefficient in the data ,it was concluded that the more the school principals exercise participative leadership style ,the more effective the physical education teachers' performance will be.
The school principals`leadership style , female and ale physical education teachers' efficiency
The male school principals' leadership style and the male physical education teachers' efficiency
The female school principals' leadership physical education teachers' efficiency
Also, according to table 1 , the male school principals applied participative style at the top level and there is significant relationship between both male and female school principals and physical education teachers' efficiency. Table 2 shows the difference between male and female school principals' leadership style and male and female physical education teachers' efficiency.
Male school principals' leadership style
Female school principals' leadership style
Difference between both variables
Male physical education teachers' efficiency
no significant difference between both
Female physical education teachers' efficiency
The results (table-2) indicate that there is no significant relationship between male and female school principals school principals`leadership style .Furthermore both groups especially, male group benefited much from participative style .Also, there is no significant relationship between both female and male physical education teachers' efficiency from university degree perspective.
The university degree of both male and female school principals' leadership style
No significant relationship
The university degrees of both male and female physical ), education teachers' efficiency
No significant relationship
There was no relationship between principals `university degree and their leadership style .However, regarding the positive correlation coefficient ,it can be said that principals exercise participative style .Also,the higher educated the physical education teachers are, the more efficient their performance shall be .
Productivity in organizations require some specific conditions of which human resources is the most important one .The organization success hinges highly upon attainment of pre - determined goals , management and exercising suitable leadership style by the management
In fact management and leadership style shall facilitate and motivate the staff's performance and directly / indirectly influence their job satisfaction and efficiency. Since an appropriate leadership style (Court lewin etal) can bring about useful changes and transformations in the organization. The present research tries to measure the relationship between the leadership style and physical education teachers' efficiency .Based upon the respective data analysis it can be said that the more the school principals exercise participative leadership style, the more efficient both male and female physical education teachers shall be. Conversely the more the school principals take authoritative style into account ,the less productive their teachers will be .The research findings agree with the findings of Court lewin etal (1981) and Dessler (1998). . Also,the more principals exert more authoritative leadership style, the more performance of physical education teachers in both groups will be reduced. Results of this study is consistent with those of Nirumand (1999), Mohammadi (2005),Ehsan Hashemi (2005), Kurt et al (1981) and Dessler (1998) .
Physical education teachers exhibited better performancethrough participative management. Ø Research results of this study correspond to those of Mohamadi (2000) Mir Nadery and Nourbakhsh (2005)Sedagati (2005) Khavari and Yousefian(2007) .
Both male and female school principals would be willing to exercise participative leadership style especially ,here, female school principals would exercise more participative style than their male counterparts by 5% .As a consequence, to improve the teachers' efficiency, school principals are supposed to exercise participative leadership style in their schools.The results also indicate that there is no difference between both male and female physical education teachers` efficiency. Additionally, based on the leadership style exercise by the school principals, both groups would perform relatively the same. The physical education teachers worked well when led by the participative school principals. Consequently educational system should develop in -service training and specialized courses so as to keep the physical education teachers' standard high .Also it was shown that there was no significant relationship between the schools facilities and the school principals school principals leadership style .On the other hand it may indicate that most school principals might lack management specialization ,that is why they couldn't establish an effective relationship with their teachers. Plus, higher educated school principals would exercise participative style .As a consequence, these types of individuals shall successfully pursue an appropriate leadership style and positively improve their physical education teachers' efficiency .The present research findings indicate that exercising participative leadership style results in considerable
physical education teachers' efficiency ,whereas the authoritative one proves the reverse. Also, higher educated school principals and physical education teachers enjoy noticeable improvement in their efficiency .