Chapter 1: Introduction
The recent "empirical phenomenon" of globalisation (Papastephanou, 2005, p.534) and its highly escalating process, has not only influenced the spectrum of world economy, but also "implies notions of change and social transformation" (Stakes, 2004, p.47) in almost every aspect of human life (Touraine, 2000). The increasing migration has been recognised by many researchers as determinative condition for the generation of pluralistic societies and the formation of their multicultural character (Eldering, 1996).
In the dawn of the 21st century, the variety of different ethnic groups in the mosaic societies have reasonably mirrored into the educational context. The increasing heterogeneous school population from different countries around the world has led to the incorporation of multicultural principles among the priorities of educational policies (Angelides, 2006). Multiculturalism in the field of music educational curriculum constitutes in the current study the fundamental discussed area, in order to keep up with the current requirements of the contemporary pluralistic Cypriot society.
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Like many countries in Europe, the case of Cyprus constitutes a similar situation of changes, such as the transformation to an immigrant country during the late century, and its accession to the European Union in 2004. These changes have made the cultural and ethnic composition within the school considerably variable and in consequence, they create new challenges for the national educational curriculum and the mission of the contemporary music educator. They specifically highlight the necessity of the adoption of such educational approaches in which Cyprus could not only preserve and develop its national identity and traditional values, but also incorporate cultural diversity and develop more inclusive education practices. Thus, the increasing number of foreign-speaking and immigrant pupils for various ethnic groups that are today noting in Cypriot public schools will have the opportunity do not betraying their own cultural heritage.
The redefinition of teaching theory and practice as well as the consideration of the unevenness that describes the pupil class of heterogeneous culture, lingual and national background seems to become an essential principle of music education. Multicultural music education demands radical measures towards change, such us re-examination of primary teacher education, teaching methodologies and instructional materials. To realise multicultural music education successfully the present study initially, examines the related parameters such as school culture, educational policies and national curriculum in the context of Cyprus society. Moreover, the current study, taking into consideration that early-years music education play a vital role to the modulation of child musical preferences (Seefeldt, 1999), has a special research interest in the primary school level of music curriculum.
It is also important for the introductionary chapter to clarify that the term curriculum through this research will refer on its both meanings, based on Kelly's definition. Therefore, the term curriculum is divided to the 'planned' curriculum, which refers to the written curriculum, found in the syllabus, and to the 'received' curriculum which refers to its implementation (Kelly, 2009, p.11). The equivalent approach of the term curriculum is taken into consideration because this study attempts to provide a holistic picture of the primary music education, reflecting information from both, theory and practice.
Statement of the Situation that leads to the Research
The research conducted by Economidou-Stavrou in 2006 could be reasonably used as evidence of the current situation in music education in Cyprus primary schools, since is presented, among other findings, the less and more frequent activities taking part in a music lesson, inclusive the exposure to world music. The specific research, presented in the article entitled: "The music curriculum as 'received' by children: Evidence from Cyprus primary schools", was conducted in Cyprus with a sample of one thousand hundred ninety-six children in their sixth and final year of primary school. According to the responses of children, between sixteen activities that usually take place in a music lesson, world music came the last one, indicating that pupils do not have the opportunity to exposure to multicultural music frequently through their primary education.
The information elicited from the above mentioned research could also be proved with evidence from the national music curriculum of Cyprus. Looking through the governmental curriculum it can be noticed that among thirteen objectives there is one which stated that pupils are expected to "appreciate music heritage of other people" (Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), 2002, p.2). However, Western tradition from the baroque period to the twentieth century seems to prevail among the musical genres in the design of the curriculum. The only traditional genre is the Cypriot suite, prevails in grade six, the final class. The limitation of world music to be stressed only through the objectives section, as well as the overall focus of the six-year curriculum content on Western-European perspective, establish the lack of an expanded view of the music available for teaching, through the lens of multicultural music approach.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
This is briefly the statement of the level of multicultural music in primary curriculum in Cyprus that simultaneously, referencing to the prevailing situation that leads to the research. More information concerning with the primary general education in Cyprus and specifically the national music curriculum will be discussed later. Taking into consideration the current situation, the particular study does not purpose to investigate furthermore the level of multicultural music education but use the already existing research as the starting line, so as to prove the lack of this educational approach. Therefore, this research aims to go a step forward regarding multicultural issues in music education in Cyprus, in order to suggest ways of the implementation of wide variety of music in the national primary curriculum.
Setting the Context of the Study
To enable the reader to relate to the context of the research study, the following discussion aims to give a brief overview of the rationale underpinning, and aims and objectives fundamental to this research study. Moreover, it will briefly present the research methodology and discuss the contribution of the current study to the already existing research.
The overall purpose of the present research is the development of multicultural awareness in the primary music curriculum of Cyprus and specifically, it attempts to recommend some educational approaches that could be applied in primary education in order to enhance multicultural perceptions.
Particularly, this research study seeks answers to the following research question:
How can multicultural music approach be developed and applied in the primary music curriculum in Cyprus?
The discussion of the research area is based mainly on a small scale survey in primary schools in England, which aims to examine some of the parameters associated with multicultural music in the curriculum. These include teacher education, attitudes, teaching practices and resources. The discussion of the findings of an educational system, such that in England, which applies this educational approach, as well as an overview of the Cypriot educational context, aims to lead to recommendations for the development of a multicultural approach in music lesson based on the Cypriot society. Informal conversations with primary teachers in Cyprus regarding their perceptions will also be discussed in order to suggest recommendations, appropriate to the Cypriot educational context.
This dissertation topic was initially chosen because of my personal interest in multicultural music and the potential significance of its use in the primary education of Cyprus. As an aspiring music educator in primary schools, multicultural issues in music education will be analysed through this research in order to contribute to the development of a wider scope for the content of the primary music curriculum of Cyprus. It is remarkable to notice that the content of the Cypriot national music curriculum in primary education, apart from the reference to some Cypriot traditional songs, is focused predominately on a Western-European perspective. In addition, the 'actual or received curriculum' (Kelly, 2009) does not seem to provide pupils with a variety of musical experiences, as the majority of music lessons in reality do not take into consideration the pedagogical value of musical diversity.
Although the official government of Cyprus gives the opportunity for free education to every resident of the country, there is a very poor history of multicultural points of view in its curriculum philosophy (Zembylas, in press in Vrasidas et al, 2009). In spite of this educational status quo, it seems that Cypriot society has to leave its nationalistic ideals and develop a multicultural approach to official education, and specifically music education, so this can be part of the required philosophy of the whole educational curriculum. This would be a vital revolutionary improvement, crucial for the requirements of the contemporary multicultural society of Cyprus.
Reviewing existing literature is an essential aspect of the research process. The current study aims to provide accurately researched documented data from books, articles, government documents and previous dissertations and theses relevant to the research area. First hand information will be collected by interviewing teachers in England and having informal conversations with teachers in Cyprus. The suitability for the selection of the participants will be based on their current professional experience in primary music teaching.
Despite the growing interest in multicultural music education, similar research projects in the field of primary music education with focus on that in Cyprus seem to be very limited. This study attempts to add to knowledge to this field by making recommendations for the development and implementation of multicultural approaches in the Cypriot primary music curriculum. The contribution to the enrichment of the Cypriot music curriculum could make this study a pioneering venture and, at the same time, a critical step in the field of music education in Cyprus.
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The main body of the study is divided in two parts. Part A includes two chapters: the overview of the Cyprus context and the examination of the literature related to the multicultural music education internationally as well as the prevailing situation in Cyprus primary schools. Part B describes the process of a small scale survey took place in England, its methodology and discussing the dominant parameters that arose from the data findings. Finally, the current research study suggests recommendations for the implementation of some multicultural approaches in the primary music education in Cyprus.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Review of Related Literature
What is multicultural music education?
Multicultural Music Education
Possibilities and Problems-the debate with Western tradition
Significance of multicultural music education
Chapter 3: Drawing the Cyprus Context
The discussion about multicultural issues in primary music curriculum in Cyprus requires an introduction to the country's context. Therefore, the following chapter offers the historical and ethnic background of Cyprus as well as its contemporary demographic changes. It also attempts to provide a picture of multicultural issues involved in general education as well as an overview of the governmental policy regarding intercultural education.
Historical and Ethnic Background of Cyprus
Cyprus (in Greek: ÎšÏÏ€ÏÎ¿Ï‚; in Turkish: Kibris) - officially the Republic of Cyprus (in Greek:Â ÎšÏ…Ï€ÏÎ¹Î±ÎºÎ® Î”Î·Î¼Î¿ÎºÏÎ±Ï„Î¯Î±; in Turkish:Â KÄ±brÄ±s Cumhuriyeti) - is the third largest island, situated in the East Mediterranean Sea. According to the Statistical Service of European Union the population of the country (estimated in January 2010) is less than a million, specifically, 798.045 (European Commission, Eurostat, 2010). The strategic position of the island at the crossroad of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. .... The year of 1960, when was the independence year of the Republic of Cyprus state from the United States, it has given a finale to all the occupations that Cyprus suffered for centuries. Mainly, because of its attractive geographical position in the Mediterranean Sea, the island faced the captivity of Arabian (649Â - 965), Roman (965 - 1191), Venice (1191- 1571), Ottoman (1571 - 1878) and British domination (1878 - 1960).
Multiculturalism is relatively a novel phenomenon in Cypriot society and education and it has its own genesis. Cyprus is a small multicultural country. Greek-Cypriots, Turkish-Cypriots as well as the Armenian, Maronites and Latinoi, which are the three minorities in Cypriot population. Whilst Cyprus has been a multiethnic country with a number of the population belonging to the non-Greek Cypriot part, the cathode of new migrant groups creates on the one hand challenges for the society and on the other hand deposits the cornerstone for the creation of a wider democratic, multiethnic and multicultural state through the successful and just confrontation of the phenomenon. The three later are regarding the constitution of Republic of Cyprus (1960) the three acknowledge religious groups regarding (the, they all synthesise the multicultural concept of the country).
Until recently, the Cypriot society was relatively homogeneous, populated by Greek orthodoxe citizens, the last years the consequences of mass arrival of immigrants from the countries former Soviet Union came to Cyprus to seek employment. Despite that Cyprus is situated at the crossroads of various civilizations and it always has elements of multicultural society, the country meets today an unexampled presence of foreigners, workers, visitors, or permanent habitant. The collapse of the Soviet Bloc, the escalating globalisation of the neo-liberal model, Cyprus accession to the EU and the domestic economic progress in certain sectors led Cyprus led Cyprus to reconsider its restrictive approach to immigration. denproetoimazetaioanagnwstis. While the island of Cyprus has always been multicultural, recent socio-political developments have led to an increase of the population ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious diversity (Papamichael, 2009, p. 2009). The accession of Cyprus to European Union in 2004 and the partial lifting of restrictions of movement across the Green Line ...
Changes are obvious in the social profile of Cypriot society and the statistics confirm the continuing increase of immigrants, especially of economic immigrants, during the last years (Panayiotopoulos & Nicolaidou 2007).
With the Cypriot population becoming more and more multicultural, the school population has also changed and become more diverse. Reflecting the situation in society, public Cypriot schools have consisted of relatively homogeneous population. During the last decades, the percentage of non-indigenous pupils increasing in proportion, though, Greek-Cypriot pupils are still in the majority. Specifically, current official statistical results reported by the Director of Elementary Education of Cyprus showed the increasing number of foreign pupils coming from different countries and attending Cypriot public schools (MoEC, 2010).
Table 2.1: Percentage of the school population of the public primary and nursery schools for school year 2009-2010 (MoEC, 2010)
Despite the fact that Greek-Cypriots pupils seem to constitute the majority of school population in the non-occupied area, however, as Oikonomidou (2003) underlines, there are some cases where foreigners are the majority of the total pupil amount (in Panayiotopoulos & Nikolaidou, 2007). Vrasidas, Themistokleous and Zembylas (2009) add that non-indigenous pupils in some schools constitute the vast majority, at between 80% and 90%.
The changing face of Cypriot educational context can be identified through a long term review of the last ten years that is studying the school years from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010. It is notable that the percentage of the pupils who do not speak Greek as their mother tongue has been rapidly increasing in the public schools of Cyprus. During the school year of 2001-2002 the percentage for non-Greek speaking pupils was 4.4%, whereas in 2009-2010 this percentage rose to 10.5% of the total school population. The respective percentage in the nurseries amounts 11.2% of the total school population, a number that demonstrates a continuing increase in primary level for the next year (MoEC, 2010).
Table 2.2: The percentage of pupils enrolled in public schools that do not speak Greek as their mother tongue (2005-2010)
The Cypriot primary educational system is highly centralised. The Ministry of Education and Culture, along with other matters dealing with the official education, is responsible to design and produce the 'planned' curriculum and teaching resources (mainly textbooks). According to the educational programme of the country, primary school is divided into six grades, from six years pupils to twelve and each class is consisted with same aged pupils. Moreover, the classes are mixed ability and all schools are non-selective, which in other words means that they accept children regardless of their abilities (MoEC, 2002).
As multiculturalism is a political and a pedagogical imperative a first parameter is to investigate the policy formation process and the extent to which the policy aims at satisfying the needs of the immigration pupils and the barriers that impede. ALLAGHTISANAGKESTHSDIAFORETIKOTHTASTOYPLOYRALISMOYOXIMONOTONMETANASTWN.
Auta ta dedomena den mporoun na agnoithoun apo thn episimi ekpaideysh dhmosia.....The ministry of Education is carried out important work (the first steps), in order that the young students acquire from very early conscience of their identity as European citizens? Contributes in the harmonious coexistence of all students of school, independent from the different ethnic groups.
Intercultural education in Cyprus is relatively new approach.
Eginan kapoies prospatheies alla ousiastika periorizontai sti glwssa ellinika epifaneiakos multiculturalism (Reference). An kai anakoirissei oti den thelei na tous afomoiwsei den kanei ousiastika vimata gia na dwthei se auta ta atoma ises eukairies.exelixeis px etos diapolitismikou dialogou alla me poly argous rithmous ..
The MoEC sent a circular to public schools titled Intercultural Education and it was regarding the governmental policy on intercultural education focused on measures for language support, which does not seem to equally serve all pupils in all school. Intercultural education is among the discussed goals of Educational Reform which set its implementation in 2003 by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC, 2008).
Based on the occasion of declaration on behalf of European Union for the year of 2008 as a European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, the Ministry of Education and Culture in Cyprus entitle as objective for the school year 2007-2008 the Intercultural Dialogue. ..
During the school year 2009-2010 the objective of Cypriot education was the cultivation of peaceful living together and reciprocal respect and collaboration between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots with a main objective of exemption by the possession and the reunification of our homeland. Also the educational policy aims to the obliteration of discriminations of social exclusion in the social web and in the promotion of incorporation of immigrants and integration of national minorities in the social web. However, equal opportunities for all pupils seems to remain an unfilled goal in Cyprus (Vrasidas, p.52)
Simultaneously, however, having awareness of responsibility against the multicultural tendencies that are developed in the modern world with the globalisation, helps the pupils to acquire cross-cultural conscience, cultivating them attitudes of acceptance and respect of diversity of ethnic groups.AKIRO?
Also important is the work that is carried out in the Municipal Education and
However, the educational system of Cyprus does not seem to deal adequately with multicultural issues. Multicultural education is offered in isolated cases (REFERENCE) Prowthisi metrwn apoti dhmotikh ekpaideysh ... " " ta opoia wstoso periorizontai sto mathima to ellinikwn??
Prospatheies ...mesw ekpaideutikhs metarithmisis diapolitismikos dialogos...ypo emfash stoxoi ....einai omws ousiastiki i prospatheia i einai prospatheia na afomoiwthoun stin kipriaki koinwnia?? the situation does not seem to improve, as school teachers' share the same negative feelings as years go by...allagi
A pot of assimilation ..multicultural education tends to lean toward assimilation rather than toward cultural pluralism. hand in hand with society ...social position of minority groups in the country ...
The sudden shift to an immigrant country caught the government of Cyprus unprepared for the socioeconomic challenges and opportunities that immigrants have brought to the island (Mainwaring, 2008 in Vrasidas et al, 2009). As a result, immigrants are facing racism, xenophobia and marginalisation. Various people in the mass media that are looking for appreciation and respect for, and tolerance of their ethnic or cultural differences. They also cultivates emotions of enmity.
The cultural diversity in Cypriot schools has brought to the surface of Cypriot society problems such as racism, ethnocentrism and the marginalisation of some different children. Through media ..besides this the MoEC seems to be inactive in facing a national educational policy that could effectively confront the different racist, sexist and xenophobic behaviours (angelides, 2004).epanalipsiapopanw
epifilaktika fovitsiasmena ...( a lot of newspapers state from time to time the beliefs of Greek-Cypriots regarding the bad fainomena stoun xenous...teleutaia xwra eurovarometro. Cultural diversity seems to threaten the unity of Cypriot society rather than encourages the equal opportunities for all pupils.
In the field of educational policy it has been continuously highlighted the significance of re-examination of the mono-cultural view of education. At this traditional trend the equal opportunities of pupils are translated as assimilation of minorities from the ascendant population or as incorporation of cultural differentiation, without however substantial attempt of their protection (Panayiotopoulos & Nicolaidou 2007).
Angelides et al. (2003) point out that Cypriot educational system seems to aim at the full assimilation of foreign pupils into the dominant culture. Teacher unconsciously serve the official education aim regarding to homogeneity in their classrooms in order to avoid the difficulties associated with multicultural education. They feel secure.
Decade of 1950 and 1960 in Cyprus it existed a multicultural context in the country because of the peaceful coexistence of Christians and Muslim, Greek-speaking and Turkish-speaking people, As Kitromilides (1979) states the years of British colonial "witnessed the rise of Greek and Turkish nationalism in Cyprus (in Papadakis et al., 2006, p. 2). movements from both communities grow up: the Greek Cypriots support the idea for union with Greece while among Turkish Cypriots was developed the idea of country dichotomy as a reject of idea of union of Cyprus with Greece. Greek-Cypriots wishes for the union of the country with Greece, called 'Enosis', whereas the other ethnic group wanted the geographically division into Greek and Turkish parts. The contrasting wishes of the two ethnic groups along with the British policy of enhancing the enmity led to violent inter-communal conflicts (Papadakis et al., 2006). This situation followed by the Turkish invasion in 1974 and occupation of about 37% of territory in the northern half of the island. Since then the two communities have been living apart (Pieridou-Skoutella, 2007).The transformation of multicultural society in a mono-cultural was the sequence of nationalistic movements by both communities, which drowned the two communities in to blood.
As a result, Greek Cypriot education, which this study aims to examine, has developed rhetoric in order to confirm Greek identity. Primary education cultivates awareness of the national identity as that formed by "the Greek language, the Greek orthodox religion, the history, the culture and the tradition of our place" and tried to develop intercultural sensitivity and respect. Compatibility of two values: equality of opportunity and a person's right to maintain his or her cultural identity (Eldering, 1996, p.316). epifaniaki kiriarxos stoxos einai the national identity
"Particularist approach" multicultural education limited solely to pupils from ethnic/cultural groups (Eldering, 1996, p.319).
Eginan kapoies propsatheies alla ipersxiei o prwtos stoxos.
The basis of the development of a mono-cultural education system within the education system of the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots (Vrasidas, p.52). Frangoudaki and Dragona (1997) explain that the reason of this situation with multicultural matters is that the Cypriot education contains many nationalistic elements that reflected the national curriculum (ANGELIDES).
(Zembylas, 2006, p.305) " ethnic conflict ..Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots have developed firmly ingrained competing discourses about each Other. Perhaps education has contributed to promoting nationalism within both communities in Cyprus. (Spyrou, 2010, p.257) "in ethnically divided societies like Cyprus, nationalism, especially as it manifests itself through the educational system, plays a key role in defining a political sense of 'self' in relation to 'others'.
Unfortunately, the adventuresome history of Cyprus, the raids of foreign people in the country, the occupations, the Turkish invasion in 1974 and occupation of the 37% of the island territory until today, the demographic alteration, the Turkish military settlement, the immigration and the diachronic threat at the national and natural survival of Greek Cypriots in the ground of their fathers, continue acting upon as inhibitory factors in the growth of cultural collaboration and respect for other cultures. These factors have created phobia, suspiciousness and reserve against multiculturalism. The statistical results of the research of eurobarometer, that were held in the frames of European year of "Intercultural Dialogue", confirm this phobia and reserve of Cypriots against the opening of their society to other cultural horizons. In particular, regarding this survey which conducted in 2008 'the highest levels of disagreement .. were found in Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania' people with a different background (ethnic, religious or national) enrich the cultural life of their country)
3.2. Music Education in Primary School Level in Cyprus
Prior to the discussion regarding the implementation of multicultural principles in the primary music teaching in Cyprus, it is crucial to introduce brief information regarding the structure of the country's educational system, focusing on the music lesson and the music teacher education in primary schools. The following section will also discuss the music syllabus content and the prevailing teaching practices.
Along to the aims of the current used curriculum, music is considered to be a fundamental subject for primary education (MoEC, 2002). It is a compulsory subject throughout the six years of primary education and it is formally taught for two forty-minute periods per week. Musical activities, mainly with vocal nature, are also included in extra-curricular activities for a forty-minute period per week. However, it applies only to the two last grades of primary school (eleven and twelve years old) and the pupils have to choose between music activities and physical exercises.
3.2.1. Music Teacher Education in Primary Schools
In Cypriot primary schools, as in many European countries, there are two types of music teachers, regarding their education: the generalists and the specialists. According to the national primary school policy, music is supposed to be taught, along with the other subjects of the general curriculum, by general classroom teachers (MoEC, 2002). However, the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture appointed, on a permanent basis, some specialist musicians, who had diploma from the Greek and Cypriot conservatoires, and a very minimal number of music specialists, who had a University degree (Roussia, 2006). These music teachers are often called 'musicians' and they used to undertake the lesson of music in big schools (MoEC, 2002).
The majority of music teachers belongs to the first type and has graduated either from the University of Cyprus (established in 1997) or from its predecessor, the Cyprus Pedagogical Academy. A considerable number of generalist teachers have also graduated from Greek Universities and recently from the private Universities in Cyprus. Some of the graduated teachers from the Pedagogical Academy have specialised in music during their third and last year of studies and the rest have attended at least three courses in music (Nicolaou-Telemachou, 2007). The department of Education Science in the University of Cyprus through the four years course in Education offers a mandatory course in music education while a second one is optional (University of Cyprus, 2007). Until recently, furthermore, the educational programme does not include any specialisation in music. Similar situation counts for private Universities and Greek Universities. However, recently the Cyprus University curriculum has enriched its programme with three extra optional courses, thus from 2005 the student teachers had the opportunity to choose specialisation in music (Ibid).
Taking into consideration the different levels of generalist student teachers' musical backgrounds and their option to chose music specialisation or not, it could be suggested that the types of music teachers greatly vary. Roussia (2006) reported that a disadvantage of primary music education is that it is offered by three different kinds of music teachers regarding their own music education. In particular, she explained that there are some generalist teachers, who have received very minimal music training and they are obligated to teach music lesson, and some other fewer cases who have more musical knowledge because of their specialisation or/and because they have diplomas from conservatoires. This type seems to be the best case for primary music teacher, since they have both, pedagogical and musical background (Roussia, 2006). A third music teacher's category, the specialists, who used to undertake mainly the upper grades of primary school are often musically equipped mainly in performance, composing or theory, but less adequate in pedagogical training (Nicolaou-Telemachou, 2007).
2.3. The National Curriculum
Regarding firstly to the 'planned' curriculum, it is articulated through a syllabus, which is published by the Ministry of Education and Culture in the form of official document, called 'Analytical Programs from Primary Education'. Inspectors in cooperation with selected teachers have the responsibility to planned and developed the curriculum document (Economidou-Stavrou, 2006a; 2006b). The current music syllabus "underwent curriculum reform" in 1994 (Ibid, 2006b, p.189). Since then, the government republished the written curriculum twice, in the year of 1996 and 2002, with no major changes.
The structure of the 'planned' music curriculum follows the model of Tyler: brief introduction, aim, objectives, subject matter (content outline and musical activities) and assessment (see Tyler, 1971). In the introduction section, it is stated that "cognitive elements (patterns), technical skills as well as musical activities become of equal importance" (MoEC, 2003, p.1). However, a greater emphasis seems to be placed on the musical concepts, which are described separately, clearly specified for each grade of primary school, through the content outline (see Appendix 4). The musical concepts categorised as follows: rhythm, melody, harmony, form and expression. Western-European music prevails among other musical traditions in the context of the six-year curriculum. Traditions of other musical cultures seem to be just statements in the design of the curriculum document, since are stressed only through the objectives section.
The music 'planned' curriculum is supported by five teacher and student textbooks - the same it is used for grade three and grade four (between eight and ten years old) - one teacher anthology with a collection of 122 songs for all stages in primary school and some recordings. Although these teaching resources basically constitute the means to put the governmental document of the 'planned' music curriculum into practice, all of them are published by the respective Ministry of Education and Culture in Greece. Recent research conducted in Cyprus primary schools confirmed that there is a gap between the 'planned' and the 'received' curriculum (Economidou-Stavrou, 2006b). The particular study's findings revealed that the 'official' curriculum expectations do not correspond to what actually curriculum received by the pupils or to their musical preferences.
Although the objectives of the 'official' curriculum referred to various musical styles and genres, such as world music, popular music and traditional music, the emphasis of the music textbooks lies entirely on Western classical music, emphasising the teaching of western notation and recorder instrument learning. From the very early grades, pupils are expected to read rhythmic and melodic patterns and perform them to their recorders. Recordings on the supplementing CDs also consist mostly of western music, mainly instrumental.
The song anthology comprise mostly of Greek traditional and folk music, some Western-European music master pieces from the baroque period to the twentieth century, a limited number of Byzantine chants and very few traditional melodies from around the world. No any indication of Cypriot traditional music is included.
Generally, from personal experience, music lesson is often neglected and many general teachers often used to replace it by other subjects, such as Maths or Greek, which considered being more 'important'. Moreover, pupils' responses revealed that musical activities taking place in public Cypriot schools are mainly enclosed to the choir rehearsals for the purposes of presenting a performance on celebrations of national holidays (Economidou-Stavrou, 2006). Because of the large number of these celebrations and due to the fact that the school community assigned to them a considerable significance, it is needed to be spent more time for choir and orchestra rehearsals. After all, although the planned curriculum emphasise the support of every child's learning, it seems that offered music education is limited only to some pupils, who selected and labelled as 'talented' by their music teachers for the purpose of a succeeded musical product.
Stavrides in 2001 stated that Greek and Cypriot folk music is used as "means of cultivating pupils' understanding of musical elements and enhancing their musical development" (in Sanderson & Savva, 2004, p.9). Nevertheless, more recent education research seems to prove the contrary. When Cypriot music, songs and dance are taught to the pupils, these cases seem to be standardised versions without any local musical context and social meaning reference (Pieridou-Skoutella, 2007).
Chapter 4: Title??
(Here is the small scale survey: methodology and findings-discussion)
4.1. Research Design
The following section will present the research design, which has been used in order to suggest recommendations that answer the initial research question: How can the principles of multicultural approach be developed and applied in the primary music curriculum in Cyprus? The present section will initially describe the theoretical approach and the methodology and justify the reasons for the decisions made. Finally, the research ethics as well as the issues that arose through the research and its method will also be discussed.
4.2. Theoretical Framework
Green reports that "recent global changes in communities and demography, affording unprecedented diversity in the range of music... are going hand in hand with interest by music education researchers in sociological methods, as well as related areas such as ethnomusicology" (1999, p.159). The research interest in the current study is the case of Cypriot primary education and specifically, the implementation of multicultural approach in the music curriculum of the country.
The theoretical framework of the present study is based on the 'grounded theory' developed by Glaser and Strauss (1999), which seems to be popular method, in the educational research based on qualitative data. A qualitative research strategy was chosen to be the method of this study, due to the fact that it is more suitable for researching social phenomena (Glaser & Strauss, 1999). Strauss and Corbin (1998) explain that in this method the research area might be investigated without having a preconceived theory or hypothesis in mind. The researcher initially devises the research question, here presented in the introduction section (see Chapter 1.2), that are addressed through the analysis of the gathered data. The researcher interacts with the data and this leads to the development of the research (Smith, 2008).
Notably, this study concerns principles provided by an educational trend which as yet does not exist in Cyprus. For this reason, it is necessary to examine a different educational system, which develops some of its music pedagogy from a multicultural perspective. Thus, the research of the music primary education in England was firstly chosen due to the fact that throughout the national curriculum of music there is a multicultural emphasis on the wealth of world music culture (Department of Education and Employment, 1999). England was also chosen because of the research possibilities, as the researcher was easily able to gather data from music teachers and primary schools.
Moreover, it is crucial to spell out that the particular results of the research taking place in English primary schools cannot be recommended as suggestions to be applied in the case of Cyprus, without taking into consideration that the latter concerns a different educational context. The issues examined in England provide impetus for potential discussion, which does not disregard the differences between the situations of the two countries. Rather, the information is understood to be based on the related country's background (see Chapter 2). Furthermore, in order to discuss the potential of a future application of multicultural approach in the primary music education in Cyprus, this research will investigate the attitudes of Cypriot primary teachers and their perceptions concerning this educational trend through informal conversations. While it concerns multicultural issues, time constraints demanded that it focused just on two countries. Thus, for validity purposes, further and more detailed research involving multicultural issues in international music education should also be examined in order to export more widely applicable conclusions.
Regarding the research procedure, the main method of collecting and analyzing data was by interviewing music primary teachers. Moreover, interviewing qualified teachers serves the purpose of the study, as they are very pertinent in relation to the delivery of the planned governmental curriculum. The implementation of the various curricular requirements falls to the teachers. In the taxonomy designed by Cohen et al. (2000, p.271) the interviews had the type of "guide approach", where the covered parameters were determinated (see Appendix 3). However, this does not mean that all the participants were asked exactly the same questions in the same order. The purpose of choosing interview research method connected with the survey objectives. With interviews the investigation on issues such us teaching practice will provide more complete and descriptive answers that the method of questionnaire. The researcher will be able to press the participants for more information and further the latter will have the opportunity to be given more explanations or be clarified the meaning of the questions to them. A final reason of choosing interview is because observation of the school environment could also be possible at some of the interviews and thus "add dimensions to the data collection" (Silverman, year, and page).
The study took place mainly in England primary schools, conducted in May 2010. Three of the interviews took place in the school where the participant teachers were working and the others in a place of participants' choice. The duration of all interviews was not more than thirty minutes and they were recorded on tape. Tape-recording was chose to be used in order to achieve the natural participation of the researcher without the necessity of taking notes. Since English is the second language of the researcher, it could be ensured that will not be missed out any information, as the data will remain for later study.
4.4. The Participants
There were five participants interviewed in England. However, informal conversations with teacher in Cyprus were also very valuable. The participants were music teachers who were currently teaching or had recent professional teaching experience in primary schools, in England and in Cyprus. The sample included both, general class teachers and music specialists. There was a relatively equal participation of both types of teacher, all of which have the responsibility to teach music in primary schools. The sample was chosen randomly by contact with the director of various primary schools, located mainly in the capital towns of both countries, and provided with a statement (see Appendix 2). No positive response has been received, thus the academic staff of Kingston University seem to be very useful for helping to find the participant teachers, mainly from its friends, previous colleagues and their colleagues. The small sample size might not exclude the possibility of reaching some safely generalized findings. Thus, the current study can be examined as indication of multicultural perceptions in music educational practice in England and discussed in parallel with the real situation in Cypriot context.
It is also important to mention that ethical issues were taken into consideration for the research process. All the participants were informed from the beginning about the purpose of the research and they were assured that the interview was to be conducted on a completely confidential and anonymous basis (Cohen et al, 2000). Thus, in all written discussions their names were replaced with Teacher A, B etc. The information that the participant teachers provided during the interview have been used without link or reference to any individual's name.