The Perspective Of A Ghanaian Graduate Teacher Education Essay

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The crucial role of teachers in the educational process has all along been recognised and stressed in various educational reforms in the country. Irrespective of the aspect of any educational problem, teachers occupy the pivotal role in finding solutions to such problems .The success of any educational system will eventually depend on the teacher. Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education. Whatever educational policies that will be laid down by the Government of the day will depend on teachers resolve to interpret and implement the said policies.

1.0 Background of the Study

Teachers are arguably the most important group of professional for our nation's future. Therefore, it is disturbing to find that many of today's teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

Pay incentives have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing motivation since they are abysmally low.

Job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world since they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, educational resources and strategies as the important element of educational success and performance. Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Incentive to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. While almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs in life, he or she constantly agitates for motivation and need satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job to meet teachers' needs and improve their job or teaching performance in their various disciplines.

Work motivation on the other hand refers to the processes that influence individual behaviour with respect to the attainment of workplace goals and tasks. However, monetary need to motivate teachers is dominant in the Ghanaian educational system where pay and other material benefits are too low for individual and household survival needs to be met. It is only when these basic needs are met that the true basis for job satisfaction among graduate teachers in Ghana can be achieved in the medium to long-term. Is it possible for 'higher-order' needs, which are the basis of true job satisfaction, to be realised.

In Africa, there are an unsually high proportion of teachers working in public school systems who are poorly motivated due to a combination of low morale and job satisfaction, poor incentives, and inadequate controls and other behavioural sanctions. Standards of professional conduct and performance are low and falling in many countries across Africa (Bennell, 2004).

Political interferences in the educational systems have also had significant impact on levels of accountability in many education systems in the form of poor policy direction during the educational reform processes undertaken as a result of change in Government. This has seriously affected teacher commitment and motivation in second cycle institutions across Africa and Ghana in particular.

Incentives for schools and teachers in the public education system to perform well are frequently weak due to ineffective incentives and sanctions. Very low pay forces large proportions of teachers to earn secondary income from private tutoring and other activities in the second cycle institutions. Poor human resource management also affects the motivational drive of employees. This is because teacher management at the various association levels is weak in many countries.

In Ghana, various educational reforms have been undertaken since independent which prime focus has always been on infrastructural development and large student intake. However, little attention has been paid to building the human resource capacity of the schools specifically in the area of teacher motivation and job satisfaction. This has occurred in the face of growing teacher agitations for better conditions of service among graduate teachers in the various second-cycle institutions across the country.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The work and living environments for many teachers are poor, which tends to lower self-esteem and generally does not motivate them to perform better. High proportions of teachers remain untrained in many educational set ups in Africa due to the high proportion of pupil teacher to fill the gaps in the educational system. This adversely affects 'can-do' motivation. Too often, teachers are 'thrown in at the deep end' with little or no induction.

Graduate teachers' salaries have been regularly declining in Ghana, and particularly so in Africa. On one hand, when salaries are too high, most of the already scarce resources of the education sector are dedicated to their payment to the detriment of either wider coverage of the education system or better provision of complementary inputs. On the other hand, if teachers' compensation becomes too low, it can be feared that teachers' commitment to their job will be affected such that the quality of schooling will suffer, the consequence of which will be the loss of motivation.

Poor motivation, job satisfaction, lack of incentives and accountability within the educational sector is widely reported to result in low teacher performance, poor quality teaching and high levels of teacher absenteeism in Ghana. This therefore, indicates that differences in levels of performance are dependent both on one's ability and motivation to work. Viewing the educational set up in this perspective, it may be found that motivational factors, job satisfaction and incentives play a dominant role in the job performance of secondary school teachers.

Literature has shown that teacher motivation has become a matter of concern as indicated by large studies conducted on the phenomenon.

In Ghana, various educational reforms enacted by successive governments have failed to address the issues of teacher motivation. This has adversely affected quality of teaching in various secondary schools in Ghana since such policies focus more on infrastructural development to the neglect of the needs and satisfaction of the graduate teacher who plays a pivotal role in the secondary educational set up.

Additionally, there is dissatisfying and chaotic condition under which teachers work in Ghana as teaching is not often seen as a financially rewarding profession by a new generation of secondary-school graduates. There is also the issue of poor working conditions under which the graduate teacher operates. These factors represent the most insatiable demand by graduate teachers for better quality of teaching and educational improvement in the Ghanaian educational set up.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of the research are to investigate the factors that will motivate Ghanaian Secondary School Graduate teachers for improved performance.

The specific objectives of the research seek to:

Identify and examine motivation levels among graduate teachers' in secondary schools.

Analyse job satisfaction among graduate school teachers.

Determine the extent to which incentives payment influence the graduate teacher performance.

1.3 Research Questions

What factors will motivate the Ghanaian Secondary School graduate teachers?

How satisfied is the Ghanaian Secondary School graduate teacher with his job?

Do incentives influence graduate teacher performance in secondary schools?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study seeks to identify and critically examine the extent of motivation, job satisfaction and incentives and its influence among graduate teachers in secondary schools in Ghana since there are teachers who are not highly motivated and are dissatisfied with various aspects of their job.

The research will therefore throw these factors into the limelight with the aim of influencing future policy decisions to better the working conditions of graduate secondary school teachers in Ghana.

1.5 Research Methodology

1.5.1 Research Design

The research will apply qualitative data to measure motivation among secondary school graduate teachers.

The research design is a plan outlining how information relating to motivation, job satisfaction and incentives are to be gathered for an assessment or evaluation that includes identifying the data gathering method, the instruments to be used, administration of the instrument, and how information gathered from the research process will be organized and analyzed.

1.5.2 Target Population

The target population of the research includes the entire population of graduate teachers in the four schools under consideration, namely Achimota, Presbyterian Boys', Accra Girls and West African Secondary Schools.

1.5.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

A sample of fifty (50) graduate teachers will be drawn from the population under study, specifically from Presbyterian Boys', Achimota, Accra Girls' and West Africa Senior High Schools. This will be based on non-probability sampling, specifically, the purposive sampling. This is a type of non-probability sampling where a sample selected in a deliberative and non-random fashion to achieve a certain goal. The bias in the method of selection contributes to its efficiency, and the method stays robust even when tested against random probability sampling (Tongco, 2007).

1.5.4 Sources of Data

Data on motivation, incentives and job satisfaction will be collected from a sample of fifty (50) graduate teachers from the four schools under consideration.

1.5.5 Data Collection Tool

The questionnaire will be applied to conduct the research. This is a record of the questions to be asked the respondent in its administration with appropriate instructions indicating which questions are to be asked, and in which order. This was chosen due to the fact that they are very cost effective and easy to analyse. A likert scale will be used in the questionnaire design process to rate the responses of the graduate Senior High teachers under study. The questionnaire will be administered to graduate teachers in the four Senior High Schools to test the level of motivation, job satisfaction and incentives on graduate teacher performance in Senior High Schools. The questionnaire will then undergo reliability test using Cronbach's alpha to ensure internal consistency of the data.

1.5.6 Data Analysis Techniques

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used to analyse data collected from the respondents in the survey.

The research will employ descriptive statistics such as frequencies, bar charts, pie charts to analyse the data collected.

1.6 Organization of Chapters 

Chapter One

This chapter provides an introduction to the study. It defines and outlines the problem statement, purpose of study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study and organization of the study.

Chapter Two

This chapter will provide the review on related literature on the topic under study and give an insight into the human resource theories surrounding motivation, job satisfaction and incentives and access how these factors affect the performance of the graduate teacher in the senior high schools in question.  This will be done through analyzing the theoretical and empirical literature in order to develop a conceptual framework.

Chapter Three

This chapter will contain the research methodology which will include description of the population under study, sample and sampling procedures used, reliability analysis, research instrument and its administration. It also describes the method of data collection and analysis.

Chapter Four

This chapter will deal with the analysis of the research.

Chapter Five

This chapter discusses the finding of the research as well as touching on discussions bothering on answering the research questions.

Chapter Six

This will be the final chapter and it will include the summary of major findings, conclusion and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

The falling standards in education are seen as one of the serious problems facing education in Africa and for that matter Ghana. Reasons cited for this are the failure of most schools to attract and retain quality teachers within their various educational institutions. This coupled with low incentives and job satisfaction reduces the quality of teaching in the institutions (Chapman et al, 2003).

2.1 Theories of Motivation

The relevance to teachers of classic motivation theories such as those of Maslow (1943), Hertzberg (1966) and Vroom (1964) has been widely discussed in relation to developed nations but little research has been conducted with respect to developing countries such as Ghana.

The most popular theory of motivation has been developed by a psychologist, Abraham Maslow who showed that human needs can be seen in a hierarchy which implies that one need has to follow the other based on its importance in an ascending order.

The theory pointed out that if one level of need is not met, an individual cannot move to the next stage and also when a particular level of need has been met, it seizes to be a need. This is indicated as follows;

• Physiological needs: this is the lowest of the hierarchy and it includes those basic needs that are essential human sustenance. This includes clothing, food, shelter, water, sleep, education, sex, medicine etc.

• Safety needs: this level of need deals with protection from physical as well as emotional harm. This need also involves the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. Also known as the security need.

• Belonging needs: Also known as the social needs, it involves the need to belong as well be accepted in a group. Here, individuals try to satisfy their need for friendship, affection and acceptance.

• Esteem needs: At this level, individuals want to be seen as figures of high esteem which includes both internal (autonomy, self-respect) and external (recognition, attention) esteem factors. Also, individuals get the satisfaction of power, prestige, status and self confidence.

Self-actualization: This is the final and highest level of the hierarchy of human needs where individuals want to be seen as attaining heights, getting fulfilled and accomplished. This includes the thrill to become what one is capable of becoming which may include growth.

A key proposition is that if the lower level needs remain unmet, the higher level needs cannot be fulfilled. This theory is still relevant to teachers in developing countries in this modern dispensation because meeting the basic survival needs for food and shelter as well as security in conflict situations are major daily challenges for teachers in many countries. These can seriously impair the realization of higher level needs without which effective teacher performance cannot be attained. For example, teachers who are tired and hungry and excessively preoccupied about meeting their household's livelihood needs, are unlikely to become strongly motivated by their involvement in professional development activities. It is also to be expected that the fine-tuning of pay to individual teacher performance, tasks or skills, which has received so much attention recently in the USA and England (see Chamberlin et al, 2002; Conley and Odden, 1995), will not be seen as a major issue where teachers feel that they do not earn a 'living wage'. Although the theory has received only little empirical support (Hoy and Miskel, 1991), it is a useful theoretical framework for this study.

Although influenced by Maslow, Hertzberg's (1966) "motivation-hygiene theory" argues that factors intrinsic to work, such as achievement and responsibility, have more potential for a positive effect on motivation, while extrinsic factors such as pay, managerial policy and working conditions have more potential for a negative effect if they are "sub-standard". Also known as the two-factor theory, it implies that at the work place, there are certain satisfiers as well as dissatisfies for employees. The intrinsic factors are related to satisfaction while the extrinsic factors are related to dissatisfaction. Hertzberg developed the theory by finding out what people actually want to get from their work and from this he found out that employees do not really get motivated when dissatisfying factors are eliminated. In essence, some factors are inevitable in an organization which does not mean that the presence of such factors will trigger employees to do their work willingly and as required by the organization and on the other hand, the absence of these factors leads to no motivation to do work. . This means that improvements in pay could be important positive motivators. Teachers in developing countries as in richer countries (Jacobson, 1995), are likely to be motivated by a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This theory would appear to be more relevant to educational systems in which resources and expertise are abundant than to ones in which both elements tend to be scarce.

Herzberg added a new dimension to Maslow's theory and proposed a two-factor motivational theory. Herzberg's theory is based on the notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to job satisfaction (i.e., motivators), while the presence of another set of job characteristics prevents job dissatisfaction (i.e., hygiene factors). Motivation factors are present in the job itself and can be conceptualized as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals, for example, opportunity for recognition, achievement, and personal growth. Hygiene factors, on the other hand, can lead to dissatisfaction when not satisfied. However, when satisfied, they do not motivate or lead to satisfaction; they only prevent dissatisfaction (Herzberg, et al. 1959). Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increases as the other diminishes, but are independent psychological phenomena. Herzberg et al. (1959) argued that higher and lower-order needs operate independently. Gratification of these lower-order needs is essential to employees' retention but cannot lead to satisfaction or motivation.

Satisfaction can only come from the gratification of higher-order needs.

For both Maslow (1954, 1971) and Herzberg et al. (1959), salary is a lower-order need or a hygiene factor and as such cannot lead to true job satisfaction. The findings of several studies within the area of education have supported this notion. For example, Perie and Baker (1997) reported a non-significant relationship between salary and benefits and primary school teachers' job satisfaction in the United States.

Similarly, Sylvia and Hutchinson (1985) investigated the relationship between primary school teachers' job satisfaction and their perceptions of merit payment (i.e., performance-related payment) in the United States and concluded that "Based upon our findings, schemes such as merit payment were predicted to be counterproductive in service organizations which employ professionally trained people." (p. 841).

In Nigeria, Ubom (2001) reported that extrinsic incentives such as merit payment and effective teaching rewards did not have a significant effect on primary school teachers' job satisfaction and effectiveness. Sargent and Hannum (2003) found that salaries and incentives did not have a significant effect on primary school teachers' job satisfaction in China. Mhozya (2007) reported a nonsignificant relationship between salaries and different facets of primary school teachers' job satisfaction in Botswana.

Vroom (1964) developed the expectancy theory. According to Vroom (1964), expectancy can be defined as a momentary belief followed by a particular outcome. The range of expectancy can be from zero to one. Zero expectancy is a person's subjective probability that his act will not be followed by an outcome. On the other hand, an expectancy of one is a person's subjective certainty that his act will be followed by an outcome. Expectancy is a person's estimation of the probability that effort will lead to successful performance. In the same vein, the theory also assumes that each individual makes a personal calculation of the costs and benefits of choices of action, and responds accordingly" (Handy, 1993). People are influenced by their expectation about what will happen as a result of certain actions they take. When an individual is deciding among various behavioural options, that individual will probably select the most motivating option. This is usually seen as a function of three perceptions; expectancy, that is, the belief that effort will lead to the desired performance, instrumentality, the belief that if one meets performance expectations, one will receive a greater reward and valence, the value one's personal valuation of the rewards. According to Westerman and Donoghue (1989), high expectancy leads to more effort, and low expectancy leads to less effort.

This estimation or belief is likewise based on the confidence a person has in his/her own capacities to bring skills to bear and influence outcomes (e.g. self-concept, selfefficacy, locus of control).

With reference to specific incentives, Vroom's (1964) "expectancy theory" is relevant to developing countries because of its recognition that the links between effort and reward may be very tenuous.

When applied to education, the theory assumes that if teachers work hard, achieve high performance and are rewarded, their level of motivation will be determined by the degree of valence, that is, whether the reward is highly valued by them or not. If hard work and high performance are not appropriately rewarded, staff morale may decline, as high performance will not be perceived as being instrumental in bringing valued rewards. Thus, stakeholders within the educational sector in developing countries such as Ghana should attempt to establish clear relationships between effort, performance and rewards and establish clear appraisal procedures for evaluating levels of performance (Riches, 1994). Improved pay for teachers, for example, may not motivate eligible teachers if they have no confidence in the assessment procedures for improved performance.

Porter and Lawler (1968) published an extension of the Vroom expectancy model, which is known as the Porter-Lawler expectancy model or simply the Porter-Lawler model. Although the basic premise of the Porter-Lawler model is the same as for Vroom's model, the Porter-Lawler model is more complex in a number of ways. It suggests that increased effort does not automatically lead to improved performance because individuals may not possess the necessary abilities needed to achieve high levels of performance, or because they may have an inadequate or vague perception of how to perform necessary tasks. Without an understanding of how to direct effort effectively, individuals may exert considerable effort without a corresponding increase in performance. The Porter-Lawler Theory also accepts the premises that felt needs cause human behavior and that the effort expended to accomplish a task is determined by the perceived value of rewards that will result from finishing the task and the probability that those rewards will materialize.

Porter and Lawler (1968) demonstrated the motivational process in their version of an expectancy model of motivation, which has three underlying components. Expectancy is the extent to which individuals feel an objective is achievable. Instrumentality is applied to deciding if working towards the objective will achieve what is required. Valence is the subjective value placed on the attainment of the objective. Valence therefore describes the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction an individual expects to receive from various outcomes resulting from different actions and behaviour. Expectancy theory does not assume that person' perceptions of desirable outcomes (positive valency) and undesirable outcomes (negative valency) will be universal. The individual's attitudes and orientations towards work will be a large influence on their perceptions of desirable and undesirable outcomes (Elding, 2005).

Prior to investing effort the individual goes through a process of evaluating the value of rewards, the probability that effort will achieve results and that effort will achieve the performance required. Performance depends on an individual's ability, traits and perceptions of their role and its demands. The degree of satisfaction is affected by individual preferences for intrinsic or extrinsic rewards and perceptions of equity.

2.2 Concept of Motivation

The concept of motivation according to Charles and Centre (1995) is derived from the Latin verb "movere", meaning to move.

Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. The subject has also been defined as the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995). According to Higgins (1994), motivation is an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need. The subject is contextually defined as the inner force that drives individuals to want to accomplish personal and organizational goals in a particular manner.

2.3 Concept of Motivation within the Teaching Profession.

Teachers are regarded as the most essential human resource in the educational set-up to achieve the goals of education (Belle, 2007). The teacher's main function in the classroom is more instructional than managerial. The teacher offers formal instruction to learners. The activities involve the transmission of knowledge, attitude and skills to learners enrolled in educational programme in a school. According to Bamby (2006), teachers perform their tasks for three main reasons, that is altruistic, intrinsic and extrinsic.

There are also two key inter-related aspects of motivation - 'will-do' and 'can-do'.

'Will-do' motivation refers to the extent to which an individual has adopted the organisations goals and objectives. 'Can-do' motivation, on the other hand, focuses on the factors that influence the capacity of individuals to realize organisational goals. A teacher may be highly committed to the attainment of the school's learning goals, but may lack the necessary competencies to teach effectively, which ultimately becomes de-moralising and de-motivating. Poor human resource management also de-motivates employees. Teacher management at the national and sub-national levels is nothing short of chaotic in many countries.

The extent to which teacher grievances are addressed is also a key issue. The high turnover of teachers in many countries is particularly disruptive and frequently bad for teacher morale (DFID,).

Also, pay on its own does not increase motivation'. However, pecuniary motives are likely to be dominant among teachers in developing countries where pay and other material benefits are too low for individual and household survival needs to be met.

Only when these basic needs have been met is it possible for 'higher-order' needs, which is the basis of true job satisfaction, to be realized (Bennell, 2007).

2.4 Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Incentives

There is a link between job satisfaction, as well as motivation, for two major factors. Firstly, job satisfaction, although distinct from work motivation, helps to account for it.

Secondly, since motivation is a broad concept, involving both characteristics of the individual and external factors, it is open to varied interpretations in the field. While motivation is predictive of future behaviour, job satisfaction, with its focus on recent experience, is likely to be easier for informants to consider. The third concept, incentives, refers to deliberate efforts to encourage desired work motivation. There are two types of motivation, namely intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from within a person whereas extrinsic motivation is determined mainly by the level and type of external rewards that are available.

Although extrinsic incentives in the form of higher pay and a decent working environment serve as the major attraction to improve the substance of teachers' work, improvement of teaching materials or in-service training, can also be significant incentives.

In developed countries, pay incentives have been found to be generally ineffective in increasing teacher motivation. Teacher motivation is based on intrinsic factors and that true job satisfaction is based on higher order needs (Sylvia and Hutchinson, 1994).

2.5 Empirical Review of Motivation of Teachers

Over the last two decades, many studies have attempted to identify sources of teacher satisfaction and dissatisfaction by secondary school teachers (Farber, 1991; Friedman and Farber, 1992). According to the majority of these studies, teacher satisfaction is clearly related to levels of intrinsic empowerment, that is, motivation. Teachers in other domains viewed job dissatisfaction as contributed by work overload, poor pay and perceptions of how teachers are viewed by society. Studies have found variations in the job satisfaction levels of teachers, depending on certain individual and school characteristics (Spear et al., 2000).

As Filak and Sheldon, (2003) put their opinion that the motivation is crucial to the long term success and performance of any educational system. Similarly, Porter et al (1973) stressed that teacher's motivation is important for several different reasons. It is important for teachers self satisfaction and accomplishments, and for the reason that motivated teachers more probably work for educational reforms and progressive legislation particularly at higher education level and finally it is the motivated teacher who assures the completion of reforms that are originated at the educational policy making level. They further emphasized that teacher's job satisfaction and motivation is associated with decreased number of Institutional absenteeism and turnover.

Ololube (2004) explored the same point of view that increased motivation of teachers' leads to an increase in productivity that gives boost to the educational systems; hence the function

A large-scale study conducted by the US Department of Education (1993) showed that 40 percent of American teachers were strongly dissatisfied with their workload, the resources available to them, the support received from school administrators, and the procedures used to evaluate their work. The report identified "more administrative support and leadership, good student behavior, a positive school atmosphere, and teacher autonomy" as the working conditions that were associated with higher teacher satisfaction (US Department of Education, 1997). Favorable workplace conditions were positively related to teachers' job satisfaction regardless of whether teachers were employed by a public or private school, an elementary or secondary school, and regardless of the teachers' background characteristics or school demographics. The study also found that teachers in any school setting who receive a great deal of parental support were more satisfied than teachers who did not. In addition, a weak relationship was found in the same study between teacher satisfaction and salary and benefits.

Hughes (1991) in his research found professional growth as fundamental motivators for teachers. He further described that teacher's professional learning is a component of their career development that gives them effectiveness and satisfaction in teaching (Hughes, 1991).

Likewise, Lynn (2002) supported the idea that educational leaders should provide professional learning and growth opportunities in order to motivate teachers and to enhance their performance.

Wright (1985) asserted that satisfaction of teachers is closely related to recognition. He further explains that teachers get motivation from the recognition of their achievements and accomplishments by their head, when they get appreciated for their valuable contribution or receive constructive feedback in order to correct their flaws. This open feedback and appreciation not only compel teachers to perform better but also allows the organization to grow collective manner.

Nevertheless, as predicted from previous research (Herzberg et al., 1959; Sergiovanni, 1967), the International Teacher 2000 project has shown very clearly that teachers are motivated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic motivation. This series of studies found that teachers obtain their greatest satisfaction through a sense of achievement in reaching and affecting students, experiencing recognition, and feeling responsible, as well as a sense of personal power and motivation. Studies conducted in Australia, England, New Zealand and the USA showed that teachers were found to be motivated by a desire to work with and for people, and to "make a difference" (Dinham and Scott, 2000a, b, 2002; Scott et al., 2001), by assisting children and young people to reach their potential, experience success, and grow into responsible adults.

De Jesus and Conboy (2001) on the other hand found that in Portugal, teachers were not motivated as less than 50% of them desire to continue in the teaching profession. A larger proportion of the teachers would rather like to change their profession.

In the United States of America (USA), Mertler (2002) found that there exist low levels of motivation among teachers to the extent that survey conducted on their motivation levels showed that 34% were of the opinion that if given the chance, they would change their profession from teaching. Further, Boyd and Gillespie (2001) stated that 6% of teachers in the US leave the field every year and the rate is higher at 9.3% for new teachers who leave the field after just a year of teaching.

A comprehensive literature review by Spear et al (2000) highlights the wide range of factors that influence teacher job satisfaction and motivation in the United Kingdom. The main factor found to contribute to job satisfaction of teachers is working with children whereas job dissatisfaction was primarily attributed to work overload, poor pay, and perceptions of how teachers are viewed by society.

In developed countries also, pay incentives have been found to be generally ineffective in increasing teacher motivation. Teacher motivation is based on intrinsic factors and that true job satisfaction is based on higher order needs (Sylvia and Hutchinson, 1994). Offering additional extrinsic rewards has even been found to undermine the intrinsic motivation of teachers (see Deci et al, 1999).

Research conducted in Africa on motivation showed that the teacher in Africa is usually motivated by extrinsic factors such as pay and good working conditions.

A research by Voluntary Service Overseas (2002) on teacher motivation in developing countries, based on findings from Malawi, Zambia and Papua New Guinea. It focuses on factors in four areas: the conditions of employment of teachers, their situation as educators, their relationship with the local community, and their voice in educational policy. The report shows a plethora of negative factors in all these areas and not many redeeming features in the educational systems concerned.

Teacher motivation is said to be "at best fragile and at worst severely deteriorating" in these countries.

Amadi (1983) concluded that the irregular payment of salaries is one of the major problems facing the teaching profession in Nigeria. According to Mbanefoh (1982), practicing teachers are particularly concerned about the late payment of salaries and the non-payment of fringe benefits rather than other non-monetary incentives. School principals often complained about teachers not willing to work because of delays in payment of their salaries (Ayeni 2005). A study of teacher motivation by Gorrell and Dharmadasa (1989) provides controlled, empirical findings about certain factors that may be important "de-motivators" for teachers in a developing country. It shows that overcrowded classrooms, absent pupils and lack of teachers' texts can be very stressful factors, especially for new teachers.

Eton (1984) also identified the payment of salaries, allowances and promotion as the key factors that shape teacher attitudes towards their work and early payment of salaries induced greater commitment to teaching and that teachers and other school workers tend to remain contented and reasonably motivated as long as salaries are paid on time and they are promoted regularly.

However, no consensus exists on the extent to which financial inducements are the really critical motivators. Research has shown that monetary reward in itself has not improved teachers' low esteem and their productivity. Although regular monthly salary payments are important motivating factors, there is evidence that other factors can undermine commitment to teaching.

The work environment is also an important determining factor in teacher motivation. The teacher's working environment in Nigeria has been described as the most impoverished of all sectors of the labour force (NPEC, Nigeria 1998) Facilities in most schools are dilapidated and inadequate, (Sanusi 1998, Adelabu 2003). Kazeem (1999) has recommended that greater attention should be given to improving work-related conditions of teachers to improve the quality of education. In particular, there should be improvements in the supply of teaching and learning materials and general classroom environment to improve student learning.

In studies conducted in South Africa on teacher motivation, Lethoko, Heysteck and Maree (2001) found that teachers in dysfunctional schools in the country had zero percent dedication and motivation to do their work efficiently. The studies found that teachers were unwilling to help the school authorities with disciplinary problems. They do not report to school on time and the classroom attendance was also erratic.

Akyeampong and Bennell (2007) also documented that school teacher motivation has declined in recent years particularly, in the urban areas because of high living cost and workload in Ghana. In their studies, Vendepuuye and Somi (1998) made similar revelations as teachers in Ghana were highly dissatisfied and de- motivated to perform due to low salaries, poor teaching conditions and condition of service.

There is a general consensus that low motivation is an essential aspect of the teacher's life as such there is the need for this research to understand it recommend how to eliminate it (Mercer and Evans, 1991).

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

This chapter details the methodological approaches employed in the design, sampling and data gathering process undertaken during the research to arrive at the objectives of the research.

3.1 Research Design

The research will apply qualitative data to measure motivation among secondary school graduate teachers.

The research design is a plan outlining how information relating to motivation, job satisfaction and incentives are to be gathered for an assessment or evaluation that includes identifying the data gathering method, the instruments to be used, administration of the instrument, and how information gathered from the research process will be organized and analyzed.

The design employed the descriptive survey method which is best for investigating an existing situation. This method is used to collect data by means of a questionnaire.

3.2 Target Population

The Greater Accra Region with its capital, Accra, has about (32) government assisted senior schools, which are different in size and type.

The target population of the research includes the entire population of graduate teachers in the four schools under consideration, namely Achimota, Presbyterian Boys', Accra Girls and West African Secondary Schools.

The motivation and need satisfaction variables were based on Maslow, Herzberg and Vroom categorization. Maslow categorized this as physiological needs, security needs, social needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Herzberg further influenced Maslow's categorization to include the following work needs as achievement, advancement, responsibility, recognition and work itself which is referred to as motivating factors whereas the hygiene factors are pay or salary, job security, working conditions and interpersonal relationships. Vroom also developed the expentancy theory which was also further expanded by Porter and Lawler.

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

A sample of fifty (50) graduate teachers will be drawn from the population under study, specifically from Presbyterian Boys', Achimota, Accra Girls' and West Africa Senior High Schools. This will be based on non-probability sampling, specifically, the purposive sampling. This is a type of non-probability sampling where a sample selected in a deliberative and non-random fashion to achieve a certain goal. The purposive sample of secondary school graduate teachers was selected in order to explore in depth a wide range of issues pertaining to teacher job satisfaction, motivation and incentives. The schools were chosen due to their proximity to each other and the fact that graduate teacher placement is conducted in a randomized manner based on the needs of the schools in question and does not take cognizance of the quality of the teachers suitability for either the urban or rural school.

In choosing a sampling method for the research, the researchers' interest lies in the method that best answers the research question. The question therefore decided the objec­tives on which the methodology was based on.

Purposive sampling is used with the help of a questionnaire in gathering data on motivation, incentives and job satisfaction (Godambe 1982). Robbins et al. (1969) used a questionnaire as a systematic way to find infor­mants in one of their sociological studies. The researchers asked the respondents what would denote the subject in question (acculturation) and ran their responses through a data reduction tech­nique to determine which qualities acculturated people.

Although random or prob­ability sampling is recommended as a means of sample selection, randomization reduces biases and al­lows for the extension of results to the entire sampling population (Godambe 1982). The results obtained from such studies be applied beyond the community (Bernard 2002, Godambe 1982). However, random sampling is not always feasible, and not always efficient. A high disper­sion of samples may induce higher costs for a researcher (Alexiades 1996, Bernard 2002). Miss­ing data, which is common in field situations, also renders random samples invalid for traditional probabilistic statisti­cal inference. This is often the situation since not everybody is willing to take part in the process, and possibly not be around during sampling (Alexiades 1996).

Unlike random sampling, non-probability methods such as purposive sampling are not free from bias. Respondents may be chosen out of convenience or from recommenda­tions of knowledgeable people (Lopez et al. 1997). However, data collect­ed from purposive sampling may still be valid for certain studies. When a sample is representative, it becomes val­id over the realm it represents, providing external validity. When a sample is measured correctly, it becomes valid for the sample, thus providing internal validity. Non-probabil­ity methods contribute more to internal validity than exter­nal validity. In purposive sampling, interpretation of results is limited to the population under study.

Despite its inherent bias, purposive sampling can provide reliable and robust data. The strength of the method ac­tually lies in its intentional bias (Bernard 2002; Tongco, 2007).

3.4 Sources of Data

Data on motivation, incentives and job satisfaction was collected from a sample of fifty (50) graduate teachers from the four schools under consideration.

3.5 Data Collection Tool

The questionnaire will be applied to conduct the research. This is a record of the questions to be asked the respondent in its administration with appropriate instructions indicating which questions are to be asked, and in which order. This was chosen due to the fact that they are very cost effective and easy to analyse. A likert scale will be used in the questionnaire design process to rate the responses of the graduate Senior High teachers under study. A summated rating scale, one type of which is called likert-type scale, is a set of attitude items all of which are considered of approximately equal "attitude value" and to each of which subjects respond with degree of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (intensity) (Kerlinger 1973).

The questionnaire describes possible motivation, job satisfaction and incentive variables. Teachers were asked to rank some possible items on job related sources of satisfaction, motivation and incentives based on whether they "strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree or strongly agree on the questions posed in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to graduate teachers in the four Senior High Schools to test the level of motivation, job satisfaction and incentives on graduate teacher performance in Senior High Schools. The questionnaire was adapted and modified from the work of Urwick et al (2005).

The questionnaire first undergoes reliability test using Cronbach's alpha to ensure internal consistency of the data.

A high degree of stability indicates a high degree of reliability of the questionnaire, which means the results are repeatable.

Sometimes the reliability method makes the instrument, to a certain degree, unreliable (Joppe, 2000). This method may sensitize the respondent to the subject matter, and hence influence the responses given.

Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. However, there is actually no lower limit to the coefficient. The closer Cronbach's alpha coefficient is to 1.0, the greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale.

George and Mallery (2003) provide the following rules of thumb: "_ > .9 - Excellent, _ > .8 - Good, _ > .7 - Acceptable, _ > .6 - Questionable, _ > .5 - Poor, and _ < .5 - Unacceptable" (p. 231). While increasing the value of alpha is partially dependent upon the number of items in the scale, it should be noted that this has diminishing returns. It should also be noted that an alpha of .8 is probably a reasonable goal. It should also be noted that while a high value for Cronbach's alpha indicates good internal consistency of the items in the scale, it does not therefore mean that the scale is unidimensional.

3.6 Data Analysis Techniques

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used to analyse data collected from the respondents in the survey.

The research will employ descriptive statistics such as frequencies, bar charts, pie charts to analyse the data collected.

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