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Parental involvement in the learning activities of their children at home-that is parental home involvement. It refers to the school-related activities, actions, and behaviours that perform at home that impact on the academic success of the children. It includes activities such as helping children with their homework, discussion with the children about their school progress, provision of words of encouragement, etc. (p.340)
In other words, parents' home-based involvement was defined by Pomerantz & Moorman (2007) as "parents' practices related to school that take place outside of school, usually, though not always, in the home" (p.375).
In this study, parents' home-based involvement shall be operationally defined as homework involvement, monitoring of television viewing, and learning facilities in the home.
The term academic achievement is made of two words.
Academic - it refers to school subjects or to fields of liberal arts or to the sphere of ideas and abstraction.
Achievement - it refers to knowledge attained or skills developed by pupils usually in the schools, measured by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers (Sunitha, 2005).
Academic achievement was defined as knowledge required and skills developed in school subjects, generally indicated by marks obtained in tests in an annual examination (Sunitha, 2005).
Academic achievement, in this study, is defined as the symbol obtained by a child in an examination. In this regard, children's academic achievement is measured in terms of the children's performance as reflected in the annual scores, which were provided by the second and third grade teachers with the approval of the school principal. The academic grades of the students for one academic year in eleven subjects were aggregated and average score was used to delineate their educational or academic achievement. These subjects are mathematics, Khmer literature, social studies (moral and civic education, geography, history and home economics), science (physics, chemistry, biology and earth science) and physical education.
2.3 Overview of parental involvement studies
Parent involvement in education either at school or at home is important for children. In the (U.S Department of Education research publication Strong Families, Strong Schools, 1994) the parent is called "a child's first and most important teacher" (p.2). In the first 18 years of life, a student only spends 13 percent of the waking, potentially-educative time in school leaving the other 87 percent under nominal control of the parents (Walberg, 1984a). Parents, thus, control over 6 times more potentially educative hours than the school and offer a relatively large and incompletely tapped resource for improving academic achievement (Graue, Weinstein & Walberg 1983). Parents are different from one to another, both in their relationship with their own children and their feelings or reactions towards schooling of their children. They have their own backgrounds, their own concerns, their own difficulties with relationships and their own tensions. Some parents are better able to relate to their children than others. Some are warm and supporting, others may be rejecting or even negligent. Some parents are intelligent, competent people; others may be uneducated, illiterate, and unable to grasp the meaning of situations involving their children, even though they love them (Grolnick & Ryan, 1989).
The first research in the area of parental involvement and academic achievement dates back to the early 1900's. E.C. Brooks, in 1916, conducted the first known study of the effects of parental involvement on academic achievement (Cooper, Lindsay & Nye, 2000). After interviewing 268 fourth, fifth, and sixth students, Brooks concluded that,
"where parents are capable of guiding the child and are inclined to supervise the home study, their children succeed in school. But where the parents are illiterate or for other reasons are unable to supervise the home study, their children as a rule either make slow progress or are failures" (as cited in Cooper et al., 2000, p.78).
Since 1916, schools and society have both changed dramatically, but the underlying findings of this study are consistent with contemporary research. Numerous studies have concluded that parental involvement in school is directly related to academic achievement. Research has overwhelmingly shown that children are more likely to have higher academic achievement levels and improved behaviour when families are involved in the child's education (Bryan, 2005).
According to the classification proposed by Pomerantz et al. (2007), parents' academic involvement is a multifaceted construct that includes both home-based and school-based involvement. School-based involvement has been defined as parents' cooperating with the kindergarten or school. It has been shown that school-based involvement enhances social functioning and decreases problem behaviour (El Nokali Bachman & Votruba-Drzal, 2010). However, it does not directly predict changes in achievement. Home-based involvement, on the other hand, refers to parents' involvement in their children's school-related activities at home, and has been shown to be related to children's achievement (Pomerantz et al., 2007; Jeynes, 2005). Parents' home-based involvement; that is, parental behaviours in promoting children's academic development, can be seen to represent what Morrison (2009) refer to as learning environment. According to (Foster, Lambert, Abbott-Shim, McCarty & Franze, 2005; Hart &Risley, 1995; NICHD ECCRN,2003), the home learning environment describes the educational quality of the setting parents establish for their children, including access to learning materials (e.g., books and toys, engagement in learning activities in the home and community (e.g., shared reading; co-viewing educational television programs; trips to a museum or zoo), and positive learning behaviours (e.g., parent reading in front of child). In addition, in 1988 Ascher mentioned that home-based learning activities were one of the most effective and efficient ways for parents to spend time with their children. According to the U.S Department of Education (1994), children's learning and behaviours are enhanced when families 1) read together, 2) use TV wisely, 3) establish a daily routine, 4) schedule daily homework times, 5) monitor out-of-school activities, 6) talk with their children, 7) communicate positive values, and 8) express high expectations and offer praise and encouragement for achievement.
Based on these previous studies, some specific aspects of parental home-based involvement (homework involvement, monitoring of television viewing, and learning facilities in the home) were developed as a conceptual framework for this study as presented in Figure 1 since they affect children's academic achievement; furthermore, they are the most appropriate aspects to be studied in the area.
Parents' home-based involvement
Monitoring of television viewing
Learning facilities in the home
Children's academic achievement
Figure 1 Parents' home-based involvement and its relation to children's academic achievement
2.4 The role of families in children's schooling
Family is the primary cell of society. In family, parents have duties to bring their children up. Therefore, knowing about their roles in children's schooling is crucial to children's academic performance enhancement. According to Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994; Sameroff, 1994, in order to assist and support their children in their efforts to meeting the demands of school, parents need to have knowledge about their children's schooling and access to resources to assist them. Since family is the foremost institution through which children learn who they are, where they fit into society, and what kinds of futures they are likely to experience or have, it can not be neglected in our attempt to develop the child. Thus, it is very essential for the environment within which they are raised or reared to provide the conditions that are needed to develop their innate characteristics. The child is not always in the home environment, but at times in the school, it would be worthwhile if parents liaise with the authorities of the school to ensure a proper and enduring development of the child.
Grace, Jethro & Aina (2012) show that families whose children are doing well in school exhibit the following characteristics:
"(1) Establish a daily family routine by providing time and a quiet place to study with children and assigning responsibility for house hold chores.
(2) Monitor out-of-school activities, for example setting limits on television watching, reduce time of playing, and monitor the group of friends the pupils walk with.
(3) Encourage children's development and progress in school; that is maintaining a warm and supportive home, showing interest in children's progress at school, helping him or her with homework, discussing the value of a good education and future career with children" (p.197 as cited in Harderves, 1998).
When schools work together with families to support learning, children tend to succeed not just in school, but throughout life. In fact the most accurate predictor of a student's achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent to which that student's family is able to create a home environment that encourages learning and to express high expectations for their children's future careers and become involved in their children's education at schools and in the home (Grace, Jethro & Aina, 2012).
2.5 Parental home-based involvement and academic achievement
The effectiveness of education has traditionally been measured by children's academic performance or academic achievement operationalised as children's grades or GPA. Walberg, Schiller, and Hartel (1979) assert that educational stimulation by parents in the home can account for as much as fifty percent of the difference in grades and test scores among students.
The belief that effective parental involvement within the home environment will translate into academic success has spurred the development of numerous school-based programs aimed at increasing the educationally stimulating quality of the home. In 1983, Graue et al. reviewed twenty-nine controlled studies of elementary school-based programs to determine whether parent training programs were effective or whether success was attributed because these programs selectively attracted competent families or bright children. A quantitative synthesis led them to conclude that school-based home instruction programs have large positive effects on student's academic learning with an average effect size twice that of socio-economic status. Hickman et al. (1995) provided evidence about the efficacy of home-based parent involvement strategies. Using structured interview format, these researchers examined the relationship between students' achievement in high school and different types of parent involvement. Of the seven types of parent involvement examined, only home-based parent involvement was found to have a positive linkage with student grade point average (GPA).
Fehrmann et al. (1987) and Keith et al. (1986) examined data from the massive High School and Beyond sample of 28,051 upper secondary students to determine the direct and indirect effects of homework, television viewing, and students' perception of parent involvement (in daily life, school progress, and influence on post high school plans). They found the students' perception of parent involvement in their life was positively correlated with the grades of school seniors but not with their achievement on standardized tests.
Other researchers, however, have identified a positive connection between students' scores on standardized tests and parent efforts within the home. Revicki (1981), using a sample of second grade students from two geographically different schools, found a correlation between students' reading achievement and family expectations and provision of language stimulation and home-based educational/reading activities.
Overall, some researchers found a positive correlation between parental home-based involvement and students' grades, while others found a positive connection between parental home-based involvement and students' scores on standardized tests.
2.6 Influencing factors on academic achievement
Size of family, economic status of the family, education of parents may have an impact on the academic achievement level of pupils.
Children from large families are not likely to receive the same amount or the same type of verbal stimulation from adults which children from smaller families obtain and consequently, children from large families tend to do less well academically. The reason could be that children from large families are unlikely to take full advantage of educational opportunities provided and hence resulted in backwardness in school.
Chatterji et al. (1972) made an attempt to study the effects of family size on academic achievement of the children. The sample consisted of 230 students both boys and girls reading in class VI and class VII in eight Bengali schools in Calcutta. The students were divided into high, medium and low intellectual ability groups. Total marks obtained in the annual examination were taken as measure of achievement. The results showed that family size and the number of siblings were inversely related to the scholastic achievement of the children especially in low intellectual level. Same trend was observed when Mathur and Hudal (1972) conducted a study to find the relationship between the size of family and academic achievement of the children. The sample consisted of 100 students studying in class X in a high school in Amrutsar. The results revealed a negative correlation between the size of the family and academic achievement which indicated that bigger the family lower was the achievement.
Similarly, Cherians (1990) conducted a study on family size and academic achievement of children. The sample consisted of 369 boys and 652 girls in the age range of 13 to 17 years old that represented total 7 standard population in Transkei. The marks obtained by the pupils at the 7 standard external examination conducted by the Department of Education of the Government of Transkei was taken. The results revealed a negative relationship between family size of the children and their academic achievement. Poonam and Balda (2001) revealed that family size was negatively correlated with IQ of children.
Above studies indicate that children from small size families compared to larger families are academically good.
2.6.2 Economic status of the family
Children live in different environment; that is, some children live in poor families, whereas some live in well to do families. They have different cognitive abilities, competence and skills, which affects their academic performance in school. Many researchers carried out their studies on the relationship between economic status of the family and students' academic achievement and showed different results.
Chatterji et al. (1972) study revealed that economic conditions of the family had no effect upon the scholastic achievement of children in the three high, medium and low intellectual ability groups studied. Also, Sood (1990) studied on academic achievement of pre-engineering students in relation to socio-economic status. He used a limited sample which consisted of 120 students of pre-engineering class from four colleges of Ambala. In this study academic achievement was taken as marks obtained by the subjects in their final examination in pre-university/higher secondary. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between academic achievement and socio-economic status.
However, Mathur and Hundal (1972) indicated that the annual family income bore only a moderate correlation with academic achievement. Saini's (1977) study results revealed a positive correlation between academic achievement and economic status of parents. Further, Wangoo and Khan (1991) carried out a study to find out whether the students from government and private schools differed significantly with respect to their socio-economic status and academic achievement was concerned. The sample consisted of 180 female students from ten government and ten private schools within the age group of 13+ were selected from Srinagar. Kapoor's student's scale was administered and the mean of two annual examination results was considered as the criterion for the academic achievement. The results revealed that government and private school students differed significantly. So for as their socio-economic status was concerned significant difference on academic achievement found between students from private and government schools. The relationship between academic achievement and socio-economic status when computed on total sample was statistically significant. Similarly, Gill and Sidhu (1988) reported that socio-economic status of parents influences the school performance of the students.
2.6.3 Parent's education
Of the various home conditions, parent's educational attainment is vital so far as the academic achievement of the children is concerned. The general difference towards education of the uneducated parents often put the child in a position of handicap for intellectual growth and development. Burt (1961) observed that such a child can do a little in his home, because his parents know astonishingly little of any life except their own and have neither time nor the leisure, neither the ability nor the disposition to impart what little they know. Educated parents in general are likely to find themselves comparatively in better economic condition and this results in greater materials supports for the education of their children.
Bhatnagar and Sharma (1992) carried out a research to investigate the relationship between education of parents and academic achievement of students in a semi-rural setting. A total of 85 students of Rajasthan city were researched. The results revealed that the children whose parents attended school performed higher academic performance than the children whose parents did not attend the school. This indicates parental education was significantly related to the academic achievement of students. Likewise, Chakrabarti (1986) conducted a study with100 boys selected randomly from English medium schools in Pune and found that the children whose parents were highly educated and involved in their study had better performance in both school examinations and achievement tests than those whose parents were rich but less educated and not involved in their children daily activities and studies.
Furthermore, in their study Chatterji et al. (1972) showed that parent's educational level was directly related to the scholastic achievement of their children. Similarly, Mathur and Hudal (1972) revealed a positive correlation between parent's educational level and academic achievement of the children. Krishnan (1977) conducted a study on 180 students from 6th to 9th studying in central school, Tirupati. The sample was divided into 3 groups depending on their parent's education as high, middle and low groups. The results showed that parent's educational status had significant influence on the academic achievement of the children.
From the above studies it can be concluded that parent's educational level has a significant effect on the academic achievement of the children. The higher the level of parents' education, the higher was the school achievement of the children.
2.7 The relationship between parents' home-based involvement and children's academic achievement
Based on the conceptual framework on parental home-based involvement developed in (clause 2.3), the empirical research related to the relationship between different types of parental home-based involvement and children's academic achievement will be reviewed. This section is divided into three main categories as following: the relationship between homework involvement and children's academic achievement, the relationship between monitoring of television viewing and children's academic achievement and the relationship between learning facilities in the home and children's academic achievement.
2.7.1 The relationship between homework involvement and children's academic achievement
The practice of assigning homework is not a new phenomenon. The history of homework has been marked by several eras. Holler and Lovelace (2001) define homework as any tasks that are assigned by teachers and meant to be carried out during nonschool hours. Originally, homework was assigned as a punishment to students and was based on recitation. In the 1950s, educators incorporated homework into the curriculum as a way of extending learning. But in the 1960s, educators decreased the amount of homework to students in fear that too much homework would cause mental stress. The educational reform movement of the 1970s caused educators to re-examine students learning, and it was established that increased homework results in improved student achievement (Holler & Lovelace, 2001). In schools today, homework is used to obtain three main goals: academic achievement, improved responsibility, and parental involvement (Holler & Lovelace, 2001). It is generally agreed that students benefit when their parents get involved in their homework process. Empirical findings regarding the impact of parental involvement in children's homework, however, are mixed.
On the one hand, Hoover-Dempsey et al (2001) reviewed the research on homework and found: (a) parents' involvement in homework took many forms, from establishing structures for homework to direct instruction on content and learning strategies; (b) parents' involvement appeared to influence student academic achievement through supporting the development of attitudes and attributes (e.g., motivation and self-regulation) that support learning. For instance, Patall, Cooper & Robison (2008) have conducted the investigation of parent involvement in homework. From a meta-analysis of 22 samples from 20 studies correlates parent involvement and achievement, they found that setting rules about when and where homework should be done has the strongest positive relationship with achievement. Setting rules also entails clearly communicating expectations, providing guidelines and reinforcing behaviour when rules are followed. This strategy may be a particularly effective way to increase the time students attend to homework task or the effectiveness of how time is used. They also found that direct involvement aid, which involves the parents giving feedback on homework accuracy or tutoring and giving instruction about the content of homework, is positively related. Xu and Corno (2003) suggested that "family help with homework" was related to middle school students' behaviours of arranging learning environments and controlling emotions. Also, there is evident that homework improves achievement for high school (Keith, 1982), middle school (Keith et al., 1993) and elementary school students (Paschal, Weinstein, & Walberg, 1984). Its positive influence extends to both standardized test score (Walberg, Paschal, & Weinstein, 1985) and grades (Natrillo &McDill, 1986). And some researchers report positive between parental involvement with homework and school achievement. Epstein (1983), in a longitudinal study with inner city students, found homework activities (listing to child and encouraging & helping in homework) produce significant increases over time, especially in reading. Causal models by Keith et al. (1986;1993) with senior and eight grade samples also suggest a positive relationship between parents' involvement with homework and student achievement although the effect is indirect with parent influence strongly increasing the time spent on homework which in turn increases achievement.
On the other hand, parental involvement in homework is often found to correlate negatively with student achievement. For instance, Bembenutty (2006) found that self-regulated learning (such as self-efficacy, effort regulation, and intrinsic motivation) was a positive predictor of math achievements as measured by the standardized test, but parental involvement in homework (frequency of checking homework and offering help) was found to be negatively related to math achievement of tenth grade high school students. In their study, Patall, Cooper & Robinson (2008) found that monitoring homework involved checking that homework is completed is negatively related to achievement. Weger (1993) also found a negative correlation between the amount of time parents spent directly supervising their children's homework and their children's grades and achievement. Cooper (1989) has conducted the most extensive investigation of the relationship between homework and academic achievement. From a meta-analysis of 120 empirical studies, he found that although there is a correlation between homework and achievement the effects are very grade-level specific. The average high school student with homework would out-perform 69% of no-homework students, in junior high school the effects would only be half as strong, and in elementary school there would be no effect on achievement. Cooper discovered similar pattern when he examined the optimal time a student should spend on homework. In elementary school there is no relationship between homework time and achievement, in junior high the achievement improved until the assignment lasted between one and two hours a night and in high school the achievement effects continued above two hours a night.
Overall, the research to date suggests that homework has positive influence on academic achievement with its effects becoming stronger as students advance in school. Parent involvement with homework appears to be an effective way to raise student achievement, primarily because of its influence on time variables. Correlation research, however, will not always show its positive effect because parents may become involved with homework as a response to already existing achievement problems.
2.7.2 The relationship between monitoring of television viewing and children's academic achievement
The amount of time children spend watching television varies from one to another. TV viewing has been demonstrated to have a small negative effect on student achievement (Fan & Chen, 2001), although its impact on academic achievement may be complex and depends on types of programming and amount of time spent on watching TV (Thompson & Austin, 2003). Nary (2004) tested the paths for the influence of TV viewing on academic achievement using data from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The results suggest that TV viewing hindered academic achievement not only by reducing the time students spent on homework, studying and reading for leisure but also by increasing their mental passivity and impulsiveness. In addition, the hypothesis that television viewing stimulated academic achievement was not supported.
Fetler (1984) conducted a research with the subject base of 10,000 elementary school students, in a study of television viewing and academic achievement, to determine the factors that influenced academic achievement. TV viewing was measured by the amount of time children spent watching television and the academic achievement was measured by mathematical ability and written expression. The results indicated that viewing television for more than four hours a day was associated with lower achievement for all students. He also found that children improved in academic achievement with the mid range of television viewing, but only when television viewing was moderate (1-2 hours). Reviewing literature from the last 25 years regarding the impact of television viewing on student achievement and necessary behaviours for school success, Thompson and Austin (2003) concluded that moderate levels of meaningful and supervised television viewing may be better for children than too much or no viewing at all.
In their studies, Williams, Haertel, Haertel and Walberg (1982) investigated the relationship between leisure television viewing and achievement. Their synthesis of 23 empirical studies found a curvilinear relationship between television viewing and achievement with positive effects occurring for up to ten hours of week. Beyond this, the effects seem to be increasingly negative, especially for girls and high ability students.
Overall, television viewing appears to have a small, negative relationship with school achievement. A study by Keith et al. (1986) also found a small negative relationship between television viewing and academic achievement but their research does not indicate a curvilinear pattern for optimal viewing time. Consistent with the earlier study, high ability students are more adversely affected.
In 1993, Keith et al. found that parent involvement increases homework which decreases television time. In contrast, the high levels of unsupervised mindless television viewing, especially when it is done in lieu of daily reading or other academic stimulation, can have the potential to exert harmful effects on achievement (Thompson and Austin, 2003). Although television viewing did not appear to have a significant impact on educational achievement, Keith et al. (1993) suggests that parental involvement can motivate students to spend time on more educationally productive activities.
Clark, et al., (1978) found that viewing habits typically increases throughout elementary school years, and decreases during high school years. The years right before and after adolescence are the more opportune times to shape TV viewing habits. From these perspectives, parent setting limits on children's television viewing time or setting rules about TV is necessary. The research conducted by Ridley-Johnson, Cooper & Chance (1982) suggests that when parents set rule about television their children have higher reading, math and ability scores. Similarly, a more recent study by Fan & Williams (2010), examining whether various elements of parental involvement predicted 10th grade students' motivation using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002), showed that family rules at home like the rules for watching television positively predicted student's academic engagement and intrinsic motivation in both English and mathematics. As parents limit their children's access to television, it is possible that children will spend more time engaging in constructive learning activities that they enjoy and thus enhancing their intrinsic motivation and engagement towards academics. Patrick (1991) also discovered that higher school social studies achievement is associated with "limited television viewing."
In conclusion, moderate television viewing does not appear to have a strong negative effect on educational achievement. Nevertheless, parent monitoring of television viewing is advantageous as it can ensure that viewing does not replace other activities which have more beneficial outcomes.
2.7.3 The relationship between learning facilities in the home and children's academic achievement
The home learning environment is one of the favourable conditions for children's education. Lustberg (1998) suggested that it is important that parents can provide an appropriate place where children can work at home. Also, parents must monitor homework time and make sure students have an atmosphere conducive to studying and organizing their time and responsibility. Saunders (N.D) found that parents spend more time helping their children with homework and projects when there is both designated time and place for the child to study.
In a high-quality home learning environment, caregivers foster children's communication skills and cognitive development by providing them with educational play materials and engaging them in activities that facilitate learning. According to the parent investment model (Mayer, 1997), children's success depends on the time, money, energy, and support their parents invest in the children's "human capital" as well as cultural endowments, such as the value parents place on education through their modelling of learning behaviours and engagement in learning activities. The money families spend on their children through the purchasing of toys, books, and learning materials for the home, and the time spent engaging children in learning activities, are investments that contribute to a high-quality home learning environment.
Melhuish et al., (2008) examined the relationship between home learning environment and literacy and numeracy development in 2,875 children who participated in a longitudinal study from ages three to seven years. It was found that home learning environment was positively related to academic achievement. In another study, Duthilleul (1997) examined how parental practices were associated with achievement in reading comprehension among 4th graders in Montevideo, Uruguay public school. This study found that one of the most consistent effects on student achievement in the literacy skills is the effects of presence of a literacy environment at home; students who have more books and school materials available at home tend to have higher reading achievement scores because they have more opportunities to learn, experience and develop literacy-related skills.
A more recent study by Altschul (2011) examined the relationship between six forms of parental involvement in education and youth's academic outcomes. By using naturally representative data (N= 1,609) from the National Education Longitude Survey, the study found that parents' payment for educational resources such as computer, typewriter, atlas, books, pocket calculator, daily newspaper, magazines and dictionary in the home has a somewhat greater impact on achievement than the other forms of involvement that parents spend time engaging in enriching activities together and discussing school-related matters. Furthermore, Saunder (N.D) suggested that appropriate material is essential to student achievement.
According to Rasinski & Frederiks, 1988 & Zhang Carrasquillo, 1995, learning resources and opportunities available are important factors in effective home learning environment created by parents. The learning resources and materials help children develop school-related skills. In this type of learning environment, children may feel at ease when they work on problems with their parents, and can often learn naturally when their parents enable them to handle books at home. In 1996, Khare conducted a study on home learning environment and academic achievement of elementary school children. The sample consisted of 212 students of middle schools of Bhopal city. Data were analyzed by the help of Product-Moment Correlation, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for unequal cell sizes. The results showed significant correlation between home environment and achievement in girls and boys. There is a significant difference in school achievement of boys and girls. It was also found out that the effects of environment and gender on school achievement of student boys were better than girls.
In one study (NICHD, 2003), the quality of home learning environment has been found to be a significant predictor of children's school readiness skills. Specially, children with high-quality home learning environments demonstrate higher cognition, language, social competence, motivation to learn, attention and task persistence than children with low-quality home learning environments. Similarly, Fantuzzo, McWayne, Perry, and Childs (2004) observed that, in a low-income and urban sample, home-based family involvement in the fall of preschool, characterized by actively promoting a home learning environment for children (e.g., creating a space for learning activities at home and providing learning opportunities for the child in the community), strongly predicted children's motivation to learn, attention, task persistence, receptive vocabulary skills, and low conduct problems later in the spring of preschool.
From the above studies it can be concluded that the quality of home learning environment has some impact on children's academic achievement as it is the condition for children's education.
parents spend time engaging in enriching activities together and discussing school-related matters.