The Origins Of Alternative Education In India Education Essay

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India has an arduous task ahead to provide good quality schooling to all six to fourteen years old. It is a task of enormous proportions in every way. The elementary education system of our country is already one of the largest in the world-150 million children enrolled in nearly 800 thousand schools which aim is to provide primary education within 1 km to children in 95% of the country. Despite this 35 million children are out of school and equal number do not complete even 5 years of schooling. The cost estimates for universalizing the elementary education in India is subsequently incremental investment ranging from Rs 40,000 crores to Rs 1, 30000 crores over a ten period of time but still India is still grappling with serious problems of in adequate access, quality and in efficiency in the schooling system. The study argues that sustainable and enduring partnerships with the voluntary sector organizations will strengthen the Government's effort to actualize the goal of universal elementary education (UEE). The current climate for nation-wide reform and development in elementary education makes it an opportune time for the Government to forge strategic alliances with the voluntary sector. But now government also recognizes the role of NGO's as innovators and professional resource centres and builds a culture of collaboration and partnerships, and the NGOs, in turn acquire a larger, macro perspective. The imperative for concerted action by the government is well recognized. However, the task of ensuring basic education and literacy to every person including youth, child and adult also requires the voluntary and private sectors as well as communities to collaborate and contribute. Successful experiments and new approaches to education have emerged from Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). The education system not only needs to 'let a thousand flowers bloom' but also to imbibe lessons from NGO activities to improve the quality of education at large.

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Since independence, the central and state governments have been expanding the provision of elementary education through formal and non-formal education to realize the goal of universalization of Elementary Education (UEE). A number of initiatives have been made in order to achieve the UEE. Some of the major interventions and steps taken by the Government to achieve UEE are Non Formal Education (NFE), Bihar Education Project (BEP), Lok Jumbish, Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP), Janshala, Mahila Samakhya, Uttar Pradesh Basic Education Project (UPBEP), District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), Operation Black Board (OBB) and on-going Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) is the recent initiative of the Government of India to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education. SSA also made an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving the human capabilities to the poor children and it is possibly done through community owned quality education in a mission mode.SSA has also realizes that the importance of early childhood care and education looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. (DISE report, 2006-07 NUEPA)

Background and Significance of Problem

Modern Bihar has an inadequate educational infrastructure which led to creating the huge mismatch between demand and supply. The craving of higher education among the youth of Bihar has forcibly led to a migration of the student community from the State. Thus, this problem is resulting in a 'flooding' of students to seek educational opportunities in other states.

Bihar has around 54000 primary schools and around 1000 private owned primary schools. An average of 91 students in a single classroom demands the need of more infrastructures in primary schools. Only 3% of primary schools have computer facilities compared to 61% in Kerala. More than 100% schools have single teacher. There is marked gender gap in enrolment of students. The primary schools in Bihar currently faces issues regarding infrastructure, number of teachers, quality of teachers and de-enrolment of students.

In spite of the meagre investment on education in Bihar, compared to other poorer Indian states, the students have done well. National institutes of learning such as IIT, IIM and AIIMS, IISER, NISER have had a good representation from Bihar.

Objectives of the Study

The objective of the research is to essentially examine various reasons for the students who come and attend the school but still there are unable to perform well in academics. In order to do so the study will examine and understand the factors in the school that are responsible for such lack of interest and also would be To Understanding Capacity of learning through different modes of learning and able to make decision analytically and logical correct.

Literature Review

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"Education is something which makes a man self-reliant and self-less" - Rigveda

"Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man." - Vivekananda

Etymologically, the term 'Education' is traced to different sources-

According to one of the view, 'education' has been derived from the Latin word 'educare' which means 'to bring up' or 'to raise'. According to this view, education is process of imparting to an individual certain information and knowledge which was considered by the society. Education implies the modification of the behaviour of the individual by imposing standards of society upon him. Thus, this derivation gives the concept of teacher-centred rather than child-centred education.

There is another group of thinkers who believes that the term 'education' has been derived from the Latin word 'educere' which means to 'lead out' or 'to draw out'. Education therefore, means to lead out or draw out the best in man. It is the process of 'drawing out from within' rather than 'imposing from without'.

In the Indian Context the Education means

The Indian Synonyms of Education are the words 'Shiksha' and 'vidya'. Shiksha is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root 'Shas' which means to 'discipline' 'to control' 'to instruct' or 'to teach'. Similarly Vidya is also derived from Sanskrit verbal root 'vid' which means 'to know'. Hence the disciplining the mind and acquisition of knowledge have always been the dominant theme in Indian approaches to understanding the education.

Experimental learning

The experimental education is an organic and constantly evolving approach to learning .According to them they believe that 'anyone can do it'. The ideas advocated can be replicated almost anywhere, and can be used, as some are doing, in mainstream (government and private) schools.

This type of pedagogy helps in Enhancement in Education. It explores the ways in which children can discover their own talents and interest, at their own talents and interest, at their own places, in their own ways, assisted by teachers, parents, and friends and others-learning in and from their neighbours, their village, their community and the environment in which they live. It tells that how education can be successful in terms of child's own need for knowledge. This kind of education therefore relies heavily on experiential learning which compiles of innovative approaches, method, and idea of learning, aim to be child centred).

The relevant and liberating education should include:-

Being child-focussed- the child is the centre. The child dictates the pace and interests.

Allowing learning in multiple ways.

Enhancing the senses through learning.

Not being exclusive, there is a (government-prescribed) examination for school completion, nor it should exclusive in the terms of class, gender, caste or religion.

Meeting a child's life -enriching needs in compliance with child rights, imparting spiritual values, knowledge of moral, social norms and duties and finally, it should try out to meet life-development needs of functional training of innate talents, and vocational education.

The importance of education being child-centred, starting from what the child knows and is interested in, and at the pace preferred by the child.

Now Approach to primary education has been formally accepted not only by the one country but also by the whole world including the developed and under developing countries as a human right for almost half a century. Yet, today even we enter into the era of 21st Century; there is only about three-quarters of children of school-going children are able to attend a primary school. In a developing countries large number drop-out of children took place before reaching Class V and there are many others who are never able to reach schools. Although the country like India in which the government had placed a high priority on education in policy statements, every time fails because of proper implementation is lacking in the policy. Thus an India stand with 30 per cent of the world's illiterates has female literacy rates much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa [PROBE 1999]. The world's largest number of children who are out-of-school is reached the mark which is close to 59 million are in India, out of which 60 percent are girls (Human Development Report 2000, UN).37 percent of the children from India are unable to reach Class V [Haq and Haq 1998]. And this despite the Directive Principles in Article 45 of the Indian Constitution which prescribes that the state shall try to provide, within a tenure of ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they reach the age of 14. Although after this decision the number of primary schools has increased 2.82 times since 1951 and enrolments have improved, the responsibility of the government for creating a satisfactory infrastructure has in practice not been matched by corresponding out-lays which continue to remain woefully inadequate at around 3 per cent of the GDP. The vast number of maze of literature on primary education in India has identified various reasons for its abysmal state; why children drop out and why they remain un enrolled or not going in the school. In this space several studies have been done which indicated that the poor quality of schooling is responsible for low retention [Colclough 1993; Bhatty Kiran 1998; PROBE 1999; Banerji 2000; Dreze and Gazdar 1996]. However, most of these studies look at the problem of education within the confines of the classroom. They tend to ignore or underplay the fact that besides poor quality, demotivated or un interested teachers and inadequate infrastructure, there are larger other structural constraints which impede access of children to schools. There are several literature written on primary education in India also reveals that access and retention remain problem areas in this sphere.

Origins of Alternative Education in India

History Overview

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The present mainstream educational system was inaugurated in India in the mid-nineteenth century. Over the next century; it almost completely supplanted earlier educational institutions. There had, earlier, been a wide network of small village schools- pathsahlas, gurukuls and madarasas. There was a concept of 'One Village-One School' and was become the norm in various parts of the country, up to the earlier nineteenth century. A large number of such learning schools-reportedly100, 000 was just in Bihar and Bengal. They played important social role and 'were, in fact watering holes of culture of traditional communities'. (Dharampal, 2000).Students from various castes studied in these schools, although there was no such discrimination on the basis of castes, creed and colour. It was open for all but there must have been disproportionately representation in the school, the boys outnumbered girls. Most of the girls learnt a range of skills within their homes; from parents, relatives, and private tutors- including Arts, crafts, practical skills, agriculture, health and languages. Harking back to the tradition of monasteries and ashrams, schools interspersed training in practical life skills with academic education. As the time goes on within the overall context of decline of local economies, these went into decline and decay under colonial rule. Intentionally the policy was employed by the government to wipe out this community based schooling, and replace it with an alien model.

In 1931, Gandhi alleged that' today India is more illiterate than it was 50 or a 100 years ago' (M.K.Gandhi 1931, Dharampal 2000). He also added that British administrators had '….scratched the soil and begun to look at the root, and left the root like that and beautiful tree perished.' Indigenous education was replaced by an alien and rootless, deliberately set up, as it was explained by Lord Macaulay (1835), to 'form a class who interprets between us and the millions we govern.

Despite the transfer of power in 1947, Indian schools continued in the same mould. Some changes were introduced: the government expanded its reach and network of schools in both rural and urban areas and local vernacular languages were accepted as medium of instruction in these schools. Today we have vast network and number of government in our country and growing number of private run institutions. Yet, the basic format remained the unchanged, a large number of school today based on derivative and mechanistic model. They are designed to produce individuals who fit into modern society and its (Consumerist and competitive) Values, and are easy to govern since they learn to be highly disciplined within hierarchical, centrally administered institutions. Schooling thus, tends to reinforce social inequalities-Class, caste and gender. Affluent Children go to privately run schools, while poor attend schools run by the state because for poor access to private school has become the dream.

Despite of Vital differences in facilities and funding, all these schools share a similar ethos. The ascent is on absorbing information rather on original thinking and imagination. The set up is centralised and bureaucratic, teachers distanced from students mostly merely doing a job, while school act as a delivery points for a set curriculum and content. Schools generate 'failures' in large scale-contributing to crises of confidence at national level.

Early Pioneers

Alternative or the experimental learning to the educational system began to emerge as early as the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century's. Some of these efforts really mark a significant change and their efforts are still visible. Social reformers began exploring alternative education by the late of nineteenth century. Swami Vivekananda, Dayanand Saraswati, Syed Ahmed Khan, Jyotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule and others promoted the idea of education as a force for social regeneration, and set up schools/institutions toward this end. Vivekananda and Dayanand Saraswati combined religious revitalisation with social service/ political work, through the Rama krishna Mission and Arya Samaj Schools respectively. Syed Ahmed Khan set up the Aligarh Muslim University (originally, Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College), with the goals of imparting modern education without compromising on Islamic Values. Jyotiba and Savitribai Phule were actively concerned with overcoming the social inequalities. They mainly work with the dalit children and girl schooling in Maharashtra.

There were some Significant educationists emerges in half of the twentieth century included Rabindra Nath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Jiddu Krishnamurthy, Gijubhai Badheka And Sri Aurobindo. By the mid of the 1920s and 1930s, these stalwarts had created the number of viable models of alternative learning, as a considered response to the ills of mainstream education. Some of the ideas were in alliance with the struggles for national Independence and the revitalisation of Indian society. The 'alternatives' emphasised commitments, and reciprocal links between school and the society. Rabindranath Tagore pointed out several limitations of school set up by colonial authorities, in his writings Shikhar Her Fer (1893) and Shikhar Bahan (1915). As a child, Tagore had refused to attend School; he later wrote, 'What tortured me in my school days was the fact that the school has not the completeness of the world. It was a special arrangement for giving lessons…But children are in love with life, and it is their first love. All its colour and movement attract their eager attention. And are quite sure of our wisdom in stifling this love? We rob the child of his earth to teach him geography, of language to teach him grammar…Child-Nature protest against such calamity with all its power of suffering, subdued at last into silence by punishment.' (Tagore, in Chakravarty1961,pg 218; in Prasad2005, pg81). Tagore set up his own alternative to the prevailing educational system: Vishwa Bharati in Shantiniketan, Bengal. Classes here, were- and still are held in the lap of nature. Vishwa Bharati becomes a centre for excellence in art and aesthetics, creative activities and awareness of local as well as world cultures.

Gandhi's view resembles Tagore's in the emphasis on contextually relevant education, mother tongue as the medium of instruction, and opposition to examination-oriented bookish reaching. He translated his vision into practice through a series of school, starting in Phoenix Farm and Tolstoy Farm in South Africa and continuing into schools set up in Champaran, Sabarmati, Wardha and many other parts of India. Gandhi developed Nai Taleem or Basic Education in which students devoting few hours daily to academic pursuits, and the rest of the day to the performance of 'Bread Labour' that includes craft work, agriculture, cooking, cleaning and related tasks. His approach to education aimed at strengthening village life and communities. As early as 1917, When Gandhi began five small schools for peasants 'children in Champaran, then he said, "The idea is to get hold of as many children as possible and give them an all round education, a good knowledge of hindi or urdu and through that medium, knowledge of arithmetic, rudiments of history and geography, simple scientific principles and some industrial training. No cut and dried syllabus has yet been prepared because according to him I am going on a unbeaten track. I look upon you present system with horror and distrust. Instead of developing the moral and mental faculties of the little children it dwarfs them. Stage crafts, arts, sports and celebration of festivals from all religion were important parts of Nai taleem. In Nai Taleem there were no textbooks as such, but students were constantly encouraged to use library and can get the knowledge of diverse field. In the library education is not only the motive but exposure to different field or subjects are also required.

Educationist Gijubhai Badheka emphasised on children's need for an atmosphere nurturing independence and self-reliance. He gave this idea an institutional basis by establishing Bal Mandir in Gujarat in 1920, and in his writings, he identified the different facets of idea. Gijubhai's Divaswapna (1990) is the fictitious story of a teacher who rejects the orthodox culture of education. This classic piece of writing by him yields rich insights into effective teaching, as it describes experiments in education undertaken by an inspires teacher in a ordinary village school. Gijubhai explains and clearly showed that how to teach history, geography, language and other subjects through stories and rhymes, in a way that appealed to children. He believed in arousing the child's curiosity in a thousand and one things ranging from insects to stars, rather than routine textbook teaching. Gijubhau wrote a number of books and booklets for parents, teachers, general readers and captivating stories and verses for children.

J. Krishnamurti too thought of education in connection with the whole of life. It is not something isolated, leading to alienation. He looks closely at the process of learning in relation to human life. In the biography of Krishnamurti, pupul jayakar quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later."The boy had always said,' I will do whatever you want'. There was an element of subservience, obedience. The boy was vague, uncertain, and unclear; he didn't seem to care what was happening. He was like a vessel, with a large hole in it, whatever was put in, went through, nothing remained."( J. Krishnamurti: a biography. Arkana,1996). He noted that the teachers have a responsibility to ensure that'…when child leaves the school, he is well established in goodness both outwardly and inwardly'. Krishnamurti set up two schools in the 1930s, Rajghat Besant School in Varanasi, UP and the Rishi Valley School in Andhra Pradesh, over the decades, the KFI (Krishnamurti Foundation of India) has kept alive its commitment to meaningful education, expanding its network of schools to Chennai, Uttarkashi, Bangalore and Pune. Like Gijubhai's and Gandhi's schools, KFI has shown that alternative education can be made accessible to those from underprivileged backgrounds as well. Learning goals are individualised for each child, and teaching aids are carefully designed using cards, books, puppets, stories and local material. A visit to any of this school of Krishnamurti bring to his thought: 'Education is not just to pass examination, take a degree and a job, get married and settle down, but also to be able to listen to the birds, to see the sky, to see the extraordinary beauty of a tree, and the shape of hills, and to feel with them, to be really, directly in touch with them.'

Mainstreaming Alternatives

Innovation of Alternatives Schools can spread to mainstream Education?

Though it might seem fragmented and confusing, the landscape of alternative schooling is certainly fertile! From the range of schools discussed earlier, it is clear that there are people scattered across the different parts of the country, dreaming of a different kind of education, and many who are actually living out their dreams. Most of the experiments are small but fundamentally replicable. They reached out their target population in a meaningful ways to diverse children, from the different economic backgrounds and from diverse social settings. Several Experiments are clustered in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra with the sprinkling in other places including Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bengal, Gujarat, Delhi, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and others.

It is instructive to remember that sometimes, there is no hard and fast line dividing the mainstream from the alternative. Even hardcore 'mainstream' schools gradually adopt some elements of 'alternative' learning in their pedagogy to teach the children. Lots of primary and nursery schools across the country have for instance have adopted the some elements of Montessori and play way methods, through which children enjoy the learning and grab the technique more quickly and efficiently. Widespread questioning has propelled even the government to usher in some improvements. Thus, non formal education campaigns links education to social awareness. The Bihar Education Project ( in partnership with UNICEF) has opened Charwaha Vidyalayas (for children grazing animals) and Angana paathshalas (courtyard schools for girls in remote areas). The Central government's ' Education Guarantee Scheme, and Alternative and Innovative Education Scheme' employ flexible strategies for out of school children, including bridge courses, back to school camps and residential camps for accelerated learning. In some of these, learning outcomes have proved to be of quite a high standard (Education for All 2005). Premier teacher training institutions such as the District Institutes for education and training (DIET) have incorporated a few creative, child centred pedagogies. The NCERT has devised a new, state of art curricular framework for school education.

Yes all this is still a far cry from the realisation from the full blown alternatives. It is really sad to know that mainstream education still dominates the lives of the vast majority of Indian children. It mainly depends upon its philosophical foundation which rest on large scale, centralised, examination oriented teaching, with flexible daily schedules and rigid syllabi. In India they are many such examples which can be illustrated to a number of groups who were engaged in putting in their best efforts to bring about significant change in the field of education. They believe in their own work it does not matter to them that their effort was not in the large scale or that it was not visible to all people in the country. They think that if they or their work even influence the few young minds, they set us thinking about the enormous possibilities that would open up if the if local or national government support this changes. The government policy to set up a National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) was found to be the most popular and significant step toward improvement in the field of education. Such a step opens the door to informal and individualised pace of learning, which was welcomed by most of the alternative schools. Indeed it was the first time when alternative learning was coming on their path of main stream professional education. With this government initiative to open NIOS has made possible the following:

The opening of school for slow learners

Inclusive education for the differently able along with 'normal' children.

Delinking of the methodology of a learning programme from the stringent requirements of the Board Examination.

Addressing the different pace of learning.

Giving a point of entry to the mainstream from an alternative paradigm.

In Pedagogy of Hope, Freire writes,' I do not understand human existence, and the struggle needed to improve it, apart from hope and dream'(Freire 1996). Keeping the hope alive is not easy. To even identify and explore existing 'alternatives'-however they may be possibility of being imperfect and incomplete but still it is an exercise in hope. So today it is very necessary need to reach and stay close to mainsprings of alternative educational thinking-which nestles within the visions of wider transformative socio-political changes. These alternatives will continue to develop, expand and widen. We are required to shed the notion that 'There is No Alternative' and instead, work toward bringing and actively increasingly cohesive, meaningful alternatives to the society.

Why such Education is needed?

According to Martha C. Nussbaum, she explains in one of her article that Public education is crucial ingredients for the health of democracy. Recently there are many initiatives has been taken around the world in the field of education, however they are mainly narrow down their focus on science and technology, neglecting the important subject such as arts and humanities. They also focus on the internalization of information, rather than on the formation of the student's critical and imaginative capacities. The author demonstrated the live example which she has experienced in Bihar with the one of the Patna centred Non-government organisation named Adithi. When they reached a place near to Nepalese border, they found very meagre facilities. Teaching is done mostly outside the classroom on the ground, or under the shade of barn. Students were suffering from basic facilities such as paper and only few slates were available that has to be passed hand to hand. However it was creative education.

Next she visited the girl literacy program, house in a shed next door. The daily schedule of girls were little busy as in the morning they went for herding of the goat, So there classes began around 4p.m. about 15 girls in total comes to this single classrooms age 6-15 years for three hours of after work learning. There are no desks, no chairs, no blackboard are available, and there is only few slates and bit of chalks but these problem does not stop girls from coming to the class and the passion of the teacher is also one of the major factor of this binding. The teacher is themselves among the poor rural women assisted by the Adithi program. . Proudly the girls brought in the goats that they had been able to buy from the savings account they have jointly established in their group. Mathematics is taught in part by focusing on such practical issues. Author thinks that there are many things to learn from given examples but few of them can be: first, the close linkage between education and critical thinking about one's social environment; second, the emphasis on the arts as central aspects of the educational experience; third, the intense passion and investment of the teachers, their delight in the progress and also the individuality of their students.

Now the author elaborates model of education for democratic citizenship. According to her there are three types of capacities are essential to the cultivation of democratic citizenship in the today's world (Nussbaum, 1997). The First is a Capacity stressed by both Tagore and Jawaharlal Nehru. They emphasise on the capacity for critical examination of oneself and one's traditions, for living what we may follow Socrates; we may call 'the examined life'. This capacity can only be obtain if we train one' self, Training this capacity requires developing the capacity to reason logically, to test what one what he or she reads or says for consistency of reasoning, correctness of fact, and accuracy of judgment. Testing of this sort frequently creates new challenges to tradition, as Socrates knew well when he defended himself against the charge of 'corrupting the young' But he defended his activity on the grounds that democracy needs citizens. Critical thinking is particularly crucial for good citizenship in a society that needs and required to come to grips with the presence of people who differ by ethnicity, caste, and religion. Then after she describes the second part of the her proposal Citizens who cultivate their capacity for effective democratic citizenship need, further, an ability to see themselves as not simply citizens of some local region or group, but also, and above all, as human beings bound to all other human beings by ties of recognition and concern. It is very essential that they have to understand both the differences that make understanding difficult between groups and nations and the shared human needs and interests that make understanding essential, if common problems are to be solved. This means learning quite a lot both about nations other than one's own and about the different groups that are part of one's own nation. This task includes showing students how and why different groups interpret evidence differently and construct different narratives. Even the best textbook will not succeed at this complex task unless it is presented together with a pedagogy that fosters critical thinking, the critical scrutiny of conflicting source materials, and active learning (learning by doing) about the difficulties of constructing a historical narrative. This brings me to the third part of my proposal. As the story of the dowry play in Bihar indicates, citizens cannot think well on the basis of factual knowledge alone. The third ability of the citizen, closely related to the first two, can be called the narrative imagination. This means the ability to think what it might be like to be in the shoes of a person different from oneself, to be an intelligent reader of that person's story, and to understand the emotions and wishes and desires that someone so placed might have. As Tagore wrote, ''we may become powerful by knowledge, but we attain fullness by sympathy … But we find that this education of sympathy is not only systematically ignored in schools, but it is severely repressed'' (Tagore, 1961, p. 219).

Finally, the arts are great sources of joy - and this joy carries over into the rest of a child's education. Amita Sen's book about Tagore as choreographer, aptly entitled Joy in All Work, shows how all the 'regular' education in Santiniketan, which enabled these students to perform very well in standard examinations, was infused with delight because of the way in which it was combined with dance and song. Children do not like to sit still all day; but they also do not know automatically how to express emotion with their bodies in dance. Tagore's expressive, but also disciplined, dance regime was an essential source of creativity, thought, and freedom for all pupils, but particularly for women, whose bodies had been taught to be shame-ridden and inexpressive (Amita Sen, 1999).

Story of a Bird

A very beautiful story has been demonstrated by the author in the end of the article about the education that if there is no proper guidance is given by teachers towards the children, then how it leads to the severe damage to child's mind. According to her there is no more wonderful depiction of what is wrong with an education based on mere technical mastery and rote learning than Tagore's sad story 'The Parrot's Training'

A certain Raja had a bird that he admired. He wished to teach it, as a result of he thought cognitive content was a foul factor. His pundits convinced him that the bird should visit training school. The primary issue that had to be done was to convey the bird an acceptable structure for his schooling: so that they build an impressive golden cage. Subsequent issue was to urge sensible textbooks. The pundits aforesaid, ''Textbooks will never be too several for our purpose.'' Scribes worked day and night to provide the requisite manuscripts. Then, academics were utilized. Somehow or alternative they got quite an heap of cash for themselves and designed themselves smart homes. Once the Raja visited the school, the academics showed him the strategies accustomed instruct the parrot. ''The technique was thus large that the bird looked ludicrously unimportant as compared. The Raja was happy that there was no flaw within the arrangements. As for any criticism from the bird itself, that merely couldn't be expected. Its throat was thus utterly packed with the leaves from the neither books that it might neither whistle nor whisper.'' the teachings continued in same way. One day, the bird died. no one had the least plan never thought in the past this had happened. The Raja's nephews, who had been accountable of the education ministry, reported to the Raja: ''my lord, the bird's education provided by the teachers has been completed.'' ''Does it happy and showing any expression?'' he Raja curious to know that. ''Never!'' said the nephews. ''Does it fly?'' ''No.'' ''Bring me the bird,'' said the Raja. The bird was dropped at him, guarded by the kotwal and also the sepoys and the sowars. The Raja poked its body along with his finger. Solely its inner stuffing of book-leaves rustled. It seems like outside the house in the field, the soft sound of the spring breeze amongst the recently budded Asoka leaves created the April morning wistful. (Tagore, 1994) this excellent story hardly desires comment. Its crucial point is that educationists tend to get pleasure from talking about themselves and their own activity, and to focus insufficient on the little tender kids whose enthusiasm and curiosity ought to be the core of the academic endeavour. Tagore thought that kids were usually additional alive than adults, as a result of they were less overloaded by habit. The task of education was to avoid killing off that curiosity, and so to create outward from it, during a spirit of respect for the child's freedom and individuality instead of one amongst class-conscious imposition of knowledge. I don't accept as true with completely everything in Tagore's academic ideal. For instance, I am less anti-memorization than Tagore was. Learning of reality will play a valuable and even a necessary role in giving pupils command over own relationship to history and political argument. That's one reason why sensible textbooks are necessary, one thing that Tagore would have controversial. However regarding the big purpose I am totally in agreement: education should begin with the mind of the kid, and it should have the goal of accelerating that mind's freedom in its social surroundings, instead of killing it off.

Research Methodology

Methodology

For my Research I have used the Case Study approach of two Organisations whose are working in Experimental Learning in Patna. So I have the selected the two oldest organisations in this field whose are working in teaching the students or youth through different modes of learning. The Organisations are:

Indian Institute of Yoga, Patna

Association for Promotion Of Creative Learning

Research Area

My Research area is Patna, The capital city of Bihar. Patna is beautifully located on the southern banks of Holy Ganges River. State capital of Bihar, the city is spread over an area of 3202 square kilometres and is counted as the second largest city in eastern India, after Kolkata. This vibrant city is proud to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It was known as Patliputra in ancient times, which was a capital of Magadha Empire of the Great Ashok in 490 B.C. The city is also surrounded by three rivers, namely Sone, Gandak and Punpun River, which makes most of the land fertile. The city has a humid tropical climate with extreme hot and humid summers, along with moderate winters. Beside its historical significance,

Patna is a significant educational, historical, cultural and industrial centre of east India. Thus, the city is visited by millions of visitors, including large number of tourists and pilgrims. Patna, the capital city of Bihar, is the education centre of the state. Young aspirants from neighbouring states and rural parts of Bihar come to the city to avail themselves of the facilities offered here. There are enormous numbers of coaching centres in Patna, where thousands of students come every year to get enrolled from across the rural parts of the Bihar.

The case study Approach

P.V. Yound defines Case study as a method of exploring and analysing the life of a social unit, be that of a person, a family, an institution, a cultural group or even an entire community.

This case study is designed by qualitative analysis which involves very careful analysis of person, statement, and of situation.

The aim of the case study method is to find out the factors that account for the behaviour patterns of the given unit and its relationships with the present scenario.

Data Collection:

For collection of data I have use observation, informal interviews of different stakeholders, data has been be collected from some secondary source mainly like reports of DISE , NUEPA, Pratham, results of state government bodies of Bihar

Observation on operations of the organisation and what are the different methodologies they provide to the students, following the views of the different domain specialists and government officials who visited that organisations time to time.

I have also interviewed parents of different household income living nearby areas housing, these interviews were done by following the route of children day to day activities which they perform in a day.

Informal discussions with Education secretory of Bihar with some other officers were also done either during their lunch time or at the time they were at the field during inspection of these organisations and what experiences were there.

In this research link with the literature and theories with the ground work done has been tried to be done.

Case 1.Indian Institute of Yoga, Patna

The Indian Institute of yoga was founded in 1969 by Dr. Phulgenda Sinha. The Institute of duly registered on March30, 1971 at Patna under Indian Societies Registration Act xxi of 1860, vide Registration No. 80 of 1970-71.

How it started:

Dr. Phulgenda Sinha had earlier established the Yoga Institute of Washington in Washington D.C., U.S.A. in 1965. It was an immediate success and its popularity can be measured from the fact that 6.5 thousand men and women were completing their yoga every year. With the vast experience of running yoga institute in the United States, Dr.Phulgenda Sinha returned to help our own people in motivating to take up yoga for mental and physical development and got succeeded in his mission to a great extent.

Process of Training and Set back

From 1973 to September 1997, about 1800 teachers across from various secondary schools and government schools across the state have successfully received the certificate from the Institute.

The deputed teachers were full trained to impart yoga training in the High schools, according to prepared syllabi.

The Cost of each training Programme are being met by the Government of Bihar as per the schemes drawn up and submitted by the Institute, But Since 1981, The Government of Bihar stopped the financial assistance at random not only the financial assistance but also orders to depute the teachers for such initial training.

But the Institute decided not to stop here. It is really need of the people, so they starting making the continued to make efforts from the government not to reverse a very sound decision of the noble training the students in the field of Science of Yoga on a good sound line. As the necessity of Yoga training especially among students of all categories are too well known. Yoga has been recommended as one of the most beneficial science for the development of mental and physical health in the society. As such , Ministry of Human Resource Development (Department of Education), Government of India, New Delhi recommended for ' Implementation of Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Introduction of Yoga In School' in the year 1990 and in this connection, Government of India has been giving Financial assistance to the Institute for conducting the Yoga training course from February, 1991 to till date.

During These period, The Indian Institute of Yoga, Patna has held several yoga camps of ten days duration in various parts of the State and it has having concrete programme of holding yoga camps in each district of Bihar. The Institute has published several books on Yoga and gained popularity in the country as well as abroad. The Director was invited in 1978 to conduct Yoga classes in West Germany and he was invited by various Associations of U.S.A., Sweden, Holland, West Germany and France. The Director visited these countries in the years 1979, 1981, 1987.

Therapeutic Yoga

In the field of therapeutic yoga (which means having a good effect on the body or mind; contributing to a sense of well-being) the Institute has earned good name, The patients of Arthritis, Diabetes, Asthma, Hypertension, Mental Disorders, Abdominal Disorders and various other ailments have come to the Institute in great number and were fully cured from the disease that they were suffering from. The Union ministry of Health is seriously considering for opening Yoga Hospital under the Indian Institute of Yoga for providing Yoga Treatment to patients of various chronic diseases. Institute is always looking forward for making remarkable progress in the field of Yoga Education, Yoga Training, Yoga treatment, Research and Publication.

Institute is being trying to emphasis and influence the Bihar Government to kindly consider and interpret the utility of the cultivation of the Yoga not only for the school going children, through schools but also not going children and adults alike, to be involved in Yoga culture through the health centres. Just like teachers, Para medical staffs of the Health Department can be given orientation training in Yoga to cover rural population. In our Country no one is unaware from the benefits of Yoga and is rudiments, what is requires is an organised effort to make it a mass movement and it won't be complete without Government and people support.

Manas Mantra

During its Journey the Institute now realizes that there is a need of another wing which would be working especially with students and youth. So 1998, The Institute has started it's another wing known as Manas Mantra. Its main objective was enhancing the capacity and capabilities of children who is suffering from lack of concentration, lack of memory, Depression, Mental stress and problem in facing the examination and so on.

Tools and Techniques used:

Yoga and psychological methods both are used simultaneously. It is the blend of Physical exercise as well as mental exercise. They not only make the students physically strong but also mentally strong so that they can think logically and also the decision making process more robust and clear. There is no such age bar; children from any class and youth can join this training programme. Initially there is 7 day training programme for children and youth.

The Manas Mantra targets the students from Class IV to XII and the aspirants who are preparing other competitive exams are also been focus and provide proper guidance to them.

The concept of Manas Mantra was the brain child of Yatinder Sidharth. He is having the experience of teaching and motivating students since last 20 years. Achieved success in improving concentration, memory, will power, confidence and observation of the students preparing for different exams, by using various methodology and techniques particularly meditation. Participated in many seminars, workshops and training programs. He is associated with many of the Study Institutes and Coaching centres in Patna So that he can test his ideas with diverse groups of students because every competitive exam needs different strategies to work. He takes classes of the aspirants who are preparing for the railways exams especially for the psychometric paper which is important part in whole railway exam process. His experiment was quite successful among the students, a large number students getting success due to this training provided by the Manas Mantra.

Experiences

As per Rajat class X student "Sir, I had heard many times about the word 'meditation' or 'Concentration' but I came to know its actual meaning after meeting you. These seven are really changing days of my life; really I never thought that is something in our body which can increase our memory. You solved my problem, I think I am really Lucky one that I met you and get opportunity to be in you class and learnt many things from you."

According to Aman class VI student " It's a great opportunity to us that we have got to do something different by making the solutions of our problems may it be to the learning process or anything else, by this yoga training I have got a new knowledge about how to increase the concentration. Now I am aware of how to learn, linking the words technique and how memorize the longest words and it also helps me to learn and solve my chemical equations".

Deepshikha Mishra, Student of class IX says" Earlier I was very depressed from myself. My position is that I try to concentrate my mind to study but I can't. I used to sing a song when I study. I want to study but I can't concentrate. But after this Institute and completing the training, now I can see the change in myself and my subjects score is also improving."

As per Anjani Kumar Singh (Secretary, Department of Education, Bihar) "I am regular visitor of this Yoga Institute as I am observing it from last many years. It provides the complete package for development of the student which is really a need for our state, they have a good library. We are happy to provide fund such type of organisation which is using their resources at optimum level."

THE MENTAL POWER TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR THE STUDENTS

All human beings are born with the same set of powers despite apparent differences in colour, social status etc. No one is superior and no one is inferior at birth. The differences arise later due to lack of effort, proper education and self-conviction. Without a proper understanding of this inborn quality, it would be difficult for millions to have self-confidence in their own abilities and the resources for pursuing self-advancement.

The differences in human intelligence or mental ability are the result of differences in efforts and training for development. If you try to develop, train, discipline, educate and use the mind in a proper way, your performance can be as good as that of any great man of the past or the present.

According to 'Swami Vivekananda.'

"These great men (prophets) were not unique; they were men such as you or I .They had gained the super consciousness and you and I also can gain the same." It depends upon you alone how you mould your mental as well as physical faculties. The development of the mind requires efforts and training in the same way as it requires for developing the body. "The undisciplined mind acts as your enemy whereas a trained mind acts as your friend." Keeping the above thoughts in mind our organization has developed a seven days training program for the physical and mental development of the students. This training program is based on ancient yoga science as well as on the principles of modern psychology.

Below there is detailed syllabus of seven day training programme which they conduct in their Institute.

SYLLABUS FOR A SEVEN DAYS TRAINING PROGRAMME

1st Day- A detail introduction about the physical and mental faculties of man and a comprehensive coverage of its various aspects.

For the physical health

- Proper body exercise (Asanas)

- Breathing exercise (Pranayams)

- Proper diet

Brief introduction about mental faculties

- Concentration

-Memory

- Observation

- Imagination

- Will power

2nd Day- How to use our mind in a better way ?

1st Session- . - Nature & Function of mind

- What is memory?

- Requirements for better memory.

- Practices for the better memory

2nd Session - practical

3rd Day -Goal setting

1st session - The science of fulfilment of our desires

2nd Session - Practical

4th Day- Concentration

1st Session - What is concentration?

- How to gain concentration?

2nd Session -Practical

5th Day- Seeded Meditation

1st Session - What is seeded meditation?

2nd Session -Practical

6th Day

1st Session- How to save your mental energy from leakage and time management.

2nd Session -Practical

7th Day- General Discussion and personal counselling of the students

Note: Every day 10 minutes given for the memory enhancement

About Founder:

Dr. Phulgenda Sinha, PhD (1924 -2006)

Dr. Phulgenda Sinha was born at Patna in the Indian State of Bihar, under rather humble beginnings. Bihar State is well known for being the birthplace of several notable Indian sages such as Kapila and Siddharth the Buddha, which may have had an influence upon the young Sinha. He was a disciplined student and easily obtained grades that made him eligible to go to college in Patna on the undergraduate level. Further he successfully studied at the University of Chicago, where he obtained his Master's Degree in Political Science. He later attended American University where he was granted his PhD degree. It was in Washington, DC during the early 1960s that Dr. Sinha began teaching traditional Hatha Yoga, a practice that started in his youth. In 1965 he founded the Yoga Institute of Washington. However, he had never pursued the practice seriously until he went to America. He taught Yoga primarily to support his academic studies. But, his main interest was in political science and the social transformation of Indian society after British colonial rule. Dr. Sinha was briefly aligned with Praja Socialist Party and was close friends with other activist like the famous Indian political scientist George Fernandes. But, his true mentor was Jayaprakash Narayan who inspired his impassioned mission to find ways to better Indian society.

He returned to India to continue his activist work in the empowerment of the Indian masses that he had championed unselfishly from 1946 to 1957. During those years he started numerous campaigns and organizations including the 'Bharat Sundar Banao' or 'Make India Beautiful' campaign.

He ultimately became disillusioned with much of his political work and that is when he began to see elements in the ancient Yoga and Meditation sciences of India that might serve to better empower the Indian masses. He began to realize that Yoga was being taught as part and parcel of secular Hinduism. However, he gradually studied that Yoga pre-dated Hinduism, Brahmanism and the mystical style of Yoga that was being spread around the world by various Indian Swamis and Gurus. It was during this period of soul-searching and reflection that Sinha began to elucidate his own ideas about the "true meaning and value" of Yoga and Meditation practices. He announced to the world that the mysticism and superstition rooted in Hinduism had affixed itself to Yoga and meditation to such an extent that the original system of Yoga expounded in the Samkhya Darshan of the Indian sage Kapila had been lost.

In the 1970s Dr. Sinha intensified his knowledge and practice of Yoga and became an adept in the more advanced teachings held in Raja Yoga. Dr. Sinha began to teach not only Hatha Yoga but also the therapeutic application of Yoga (Yoga Therapy). It was also in the early 1970s that Sinha set-forth on his mission to challenge the mainstream advocates of Yoga and began research which would culminate in 1987 with the publishing of "The Gita As It Was: Rediscovering the Original Bhagavadgita." 

Prior to his death, and throughout the 1990s Sinha was semi-retired having been a victim and survivor of throat cancer. The cancer had taken him earlier in his life (1970s), which resulted in the removal of his larynx and vocal cords. He had to use a voice-box amplifier to speak for the remainder of his life. While living in Arlington, Virginia he co-founded a community health center in Washington, DC known as the Abundant Life Clinic where he offered his expertise in Yoga Therapy and teaching Hatha Yoga to students.

Dr. Sinha is the author of the best-selling book Yoga Therapy for Common Heath Problems (18th Printing) and over 18 other books on Yoga, Meditation and Healing, including Dharna Healing. His unpublished works include a major treatise and commentary on Patanjili's Yoga Sutras and his own autobiography "Self-Made Mande Man." 

Yatinder Sidharth (Manas Mantra)

Faculty of Reasoning, DI & GA in T.I.M.E. (Triumphant Institute of Management Education Pvt. Ltd.), Patna since 2007.

Visiting faculty member of Analytical Reasoning in B.S.C. (Banking Services Chronicle), Patna since 2008.

Faculty of psychometric test (for the students preparing for railway exams)

Working as a senior resource person in yoga training organized by BIHAR EDUCATION PROJECT COUNCIL, for physical teachers working in Government schools to make them master trainer.

Participated in the workshop organized by BIHAR EDUCATION PROJECT COUNCIL for the preparation of Module for imparting yoga training among physical teachers of primary school's teacher in the year 2009.

Participated in the workshop organized by the STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH & TRAINING for the preparation of syllabus for secondary schools in state of Bihar in the year 2007

Worked as guest faculty as Yoga therapist for teachers trainees undergoing Diploma course in special education ( mental retardation ) at National Institute of Mentally Handicapped (NIMH) Regional Centre, Patna during 1996-1997 and 1997-1998.

Case 2: Association for Promotion of Creative Learning

APCL or Association for Promotion of Creative Learning is a non-profit making society registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860. It has been basically established to promote creativity and creative learning in society. It has developed a unique teaching/ learning methodology, based on our age old Indian learning system properly blended with modern learning technology, to promote Quality Education in society. It believes that the problems of our society in new millennium can be solved only by universalizing Quality Education. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new method, it is running a school in the name of School of Creative Learning at Patna, which has already established its name in the field of innovative education. It has also adopted a Unique system of learner's evaluation.

The school has adopted a comprehensive and continuous evaluation system to monitor the development of the learner in various competencies. Learner's improvement is monitored on weekly basis. Three terminal evaluations in July, December and March and three mid-term evaluations are done every year. Evaluations are done in formal (written) and non-formal ways. Each learner is given a card depicting his/her progress as well as deficiencies in different competencies. At Std IX-X subject-wise evaluation on the basis of CBSE curricula is done.

Methodology

Each child has a unique learning style

Dr. Howard Gardener, a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University has found that people know and learn through multiple intelligence.

Verbal

Logical

Kinesthetic

Spatial

Intra-personal

Rhythmic

Interpersonal

This intelligence is developed in different measures in different children. Thus they have unique learning style. Generally, schools follow syllabi and curricula to cater to the needs of verbal and logical intelligence. Hence, only children having verbal and logical intelligence would have chances of success. Others do not get required success. That is one of the reasons why children of the calibre of Lata Mangeshkar, MF Hussain or Sachin Tendulkar may find the teaching processes in the schools not conducive to develop their potential. Further, as schools adopt mainly Chalk and Talk methods in teaching, learners get opportunity to develop only verbal and logical intelligence. APCL has developed techniques to integrate all intelligence in its teaching methods so that children with all learning styles get opportunity of developing their potential in their own learning styles. APCL believes in holistic approach to education by properly integrating left and right brain activities. In this process activities are such that learners of all learning styles are able to learn properly.

Each child has a unique learning environment

APCL firmly believes that each child has a unique learning environment. As learning environment plays an important role in the learning process, learning activities should be totally child cantered and contextual. Before going to school a child spends his/her early childhood entirely with parents and relatives at home and even after joining school, child has to spend a large span of time with parents at home. So the school activities must take into account these social, economic and cultural factors while designing the teaching and learning activities. In fact, arrangement must be made to effectively involve parents, teachers, peers and materials in the learning process. This can be easily shown on a learning square in the following way.

Learning is best in a joyful atmosphere

An atmosphere of joy and happiness provides a motivating environment for Creative Learning. Experiments have shown that the development of brain in a child is 25% more, if he/she is brought up in an atmosphere of love and happiness, than in an atmosphere of stress and strain. Main concern in this regard is to develop a system, where one can learn with joy. How can we create such a condition? One of the lessons we have learnt from our past experiences is to create learning occasions in the form of games. So, games may provide a clue to the actual nature of activities for CLM. APCL has tried to design most of its learning activities in the form of games as far as possible.

Learning continues from womb to tomb

It is now well recognized that learning is a whole time activity all through the life. Hence, the basic objective of any creative teaching/learning methodology should be to prepare a learner to develop capacity for this continued journey for learning.

Lessen competition, enhance cooperation

One of the serious defects of the present education system is that it only promotes individualization. Each learner is considered a separate entity with almost nothing common with others. But, in actual life situation, seldom work is done individually. With increasing sophistication in almost all walks of life, we are going to face more and more complexities. Such complexities can be handled only by groups and not by individuals. It has also now been more or less established that group cooperative skills are different from individualistic skills and as such should be attended separately. The introduction of a sense of excessive competition leads to alienation, which, at times, proves to be a barrier in the development of group spirit. Hence, Creative Learning Methodology requires development of skills pertaining to team formation, team spirit, and teamwork.

Curiosity is the mother of creativity

Curiosity is the base of Creative Learning. It is allocation of attention to things for one's own sake. It is curiosity, which propels a person to try out new method, new solution and new product.

Curiosity comes naturally to a child. A child is attached towards anything mysterious and worthy of attention. The object may or may not be useful, attractive or precious, as long as it is wonderful, it captures their attention. Gradually, with age most of us lose the sense of wonder, the feeling of awe in confronting majesty and variety of world. Creative individuals retain their childlike curiosity in their field of interest. They keep on taking interest in strange and unknown even a age of ninety years of age. As unknown is limitless, there is no end to their curiosity.

Teaching Learning Method

Develop the natural learning process

Based on the unique learning style each child has a natural learning process. The basic object of any learning program should be to develop this natural learning process. Seven Core Creative Competencies have been identified whose development may lead to development of natural learning process.

Develop core creative learning competencies

In order to bring out the inherent creative potential APCL has identified seven Core Creative Competencies (C3) which are essential in any natural process of learning:

Power of Observation

Concentration

Memory

Thinking

Imagination

Power of Expression/Communication

Emotional Control

These competencies are the base of any creative learning process. As these competencies are related to the natural process of learning, their efficient use may make a person most creative. Activities have been designed to develop these Core Creative Competencies. All subjects presently being taught in the schools are taught in such a way that they develop these C3. During the course of development of these competencies the text materials developed to transact CBSE syllabi are used so that learners may not have any difficulty in learning at higher level. In this process traditional learning practices of our indigenous system are also used.

Develop creativity through games

G