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Learning to spell correctly may be the most valued element of written communication. In order to spell correctly it is necessary to reliably match the sounds of the language to the letters and syllable patterns such that a message can be conveyed to another person appropriately.

In order to write efficiently it is necessary for the writer to retrieve the majority of spellings from memory. Possessing the capacity to spell words rapidly and easily allows extra attention to be devoted to the mechanics of a writing task (Juel, 1991). Spelling training can not only result in greater performance on dictated spelling tasks but can also increase the length of original compositions (Berninger et al. , 1998).

Spelling is valued by society over all other writing conventions (Turbill, 2000). Furthermore parents view spelling as extremely important in their children's literacy education (Chandler & The Mapleton Teacher-Research Group, 1999). Spelling is also viewed as important by employers (Benson, 2001) as poor spelling can inhibit writing (Sacre & Masterton, 2000). For instance if the correct spelling of a word is not known it can force the writer to select a less appropriate and less meaningful word that may not fit the context as precisely. While good spellers can devote their resources to developing plot and story a poor speller may have less attentional resources to the other aspects of writing and therefore produce work of a lower quality (Sacre & Masterton, 2000).

As such it is important to identify spelling difficulties as early as possible so that these difficulties can be addressed.

Students often perform adequately on weekly spelling tests but fail to transfer this word knowledge into their general knowledge (Beckham-Hungler, Williams, Smith & Dudley-Marling, 2003). A study by Rhymer & Williams (2000) indicated that children rarely used the words from weekly spelling tests in their written compositions and that when they did they only spelt them correctly fifty percent of the time even when they had previously gotten them correct in class spelling tests.

Learning to spell is a psycholinguistic process that involves the encoding of linguistic forms into linguistic forms.

Why is spelling important?

With increased automaticity of spelling additional resources of working memory are made available for higher level writing and composition skills and it is more likely that standards of writing will improve (McMurray, 2006). This reciprocal relationship between spelling and the ideas used in writing composition highlights that learning to spell is extremely important in the context of language development.

Learning to spell can contribute to increased phonological awareness and insight into the sound system of language (Ehri, 1997; O'Connor & Jenkins, 1995). Furthermore learning to spell encourages the growth of decoding skills and spelling-sound knowledge which can enhance alphabetic understanding (Santoro, Coyne & Simmons, 2006). As such the process of learning to spell can assist with reading as phonological awareness and alphabetic understanding are key skills in learning to read (Adams, 1990).

Formal spelling instruction can further develop a child's skill in word attack or writing composition tasks (Graham, Harris, & Chorzema, 2002).

Learning to spell can also assist children's understanding and interests in print as it improves phonological and alphabetic understanding (Adams, 1990). It is clear therefore that learning to spell and learning to read are highly interrelated skills which can conceptualised as two sides of the same coin. Children read the spelling of words, and when they spell words they read their spellings. It has been noted by Ehri (1997) that reading and spelling may be more similar skills than have been recognized, however the exact relationship between the two skill sets is still subject to debate (Perfetti, 1997; Moats, 1984).

The interrelation between the skills of spelling and reading has been supported by research by Ehri (1997) who found a 0.86 correlation between reading words correctly, spelling words correctly and recognizing when words had been misspelled. This high correlation suggests that teaching spelling effectively may lead to higher levels of reading achievement.

Teaching students how to spell reinforces and teaches alphabetic understanding and phonemic awareness which are key components in reading successfully (Santoro, Coyne & Simmons, 2006). This is supported by kindergarten studies that showed a higher proficiency in word reading skills when they received spelling instruction with integrated phonemic awareness and alphabetic understanding (Ehri & Wilce, 1987).

In order to successfully spell a word a child needs to be ware that a word is made up of segments of sound or in other words possess some degree of phonemic awareness (Tangel & Blachman, 1992). Successful spelling requires that the child can segment and identify the sounds in the word and as such the way a child spells reveals the child's knowledge of how sounds form words. Atttmepts at phonetic spelling can therefore reinforce the child's knowledge of the structure of language, and skill at segmenting words.

Another critical skill in reading that also can be reinforced by learning to spell is that of alphabetic understanding (using grapheme-phoneme relations). Spelling involves an intrinsic link between letter and sounds and can thus assist in earning the alphabetic writing system (Perfetti, 1997). Spelling instruction not only teaches the sounds of letters but also the sounds that they can symbolise and the groups of letters that can form graphemes. Research has indicated that while word reading ability was not assisted by learning letter-sound correspondences in isolation it is assisted by the same process in the context of learning to spell (Ehri & Wilce, 1987; Vandervenden & Siegel, 1997). Furthermore research has demonstrated that the procedure of writing words contributes to a greater understanding of letter knowledge in memory (Berninger, 1999).

The relationship of spelling and reading also involves the strengthening of memory of the letters and sounds involved in words. By learning a word a child can retrieve the stored associations regariding letters and sounds which can lead to more fluent and automated word reading (Perfetti, 1997; Trieman, 1998).

Who struggles with it?

Difficulties with reading and spelling may occur for a wide variety of reasons. For instance childen with language impairments, disabilities, who have been exposed to trauma, or who have other specific written language learning disabilities may all struggle with literacy and learning to spell (Berninger, et al., 2008).

A study examining whether, amongst poor spellers there exist different subtypes was conducted by Frith (1977). In this study twelve year old children were grouped according to their spelling and reading ability. Three groups were identified; those good at spelling and reading, those good at reading but whom struggle with spelling and those who experience significant difficulties in both domains (whom Frith (1977) referred to as 'borderline dyslexic'. An analysis of the errors made in spelling identified a difference in the types of errors made between those who just struggled with spelling and those who struggled in both domains, although their overall performance was not different. Children who were poor spellers but could read at an adequate level were significantly more likely to make errors that were phonetic in nature than those who also were poor readers. Frith (1977) suggests that the different errors are indicative of different stages of spelling development that they have progressed to. The group with poor spelling and reading are inconsistent with their approach and less likely to make phonetic errors; they therefore are in need of assistance at the earlier stage of learning the letter-by-letter structure of words. While students who only experience problems with their spelling appear to understand the sound to letter rule and instead are unable to differentiate between equally plausible phonetic alternatives, it is therefore at the stage of phoneme-to-grapheme rules that they require the most instruction.

What is required in order to spell?

The development of spelling skills progresses in stages (Ehri, 1987, Gentry, 1982; Henderson, 1990). Henderson (1990) identified fives stages of learning to spell from scribbling to being able to spell correctly.

The first of these stages is the preliterate stage in which writing involves scribbles, drawing and some letter. Children progressing through this stage develop the important skills of differentiating between writing and pictures, writing from right-to-left and top-to-bottom as well as basic phonemic awareness.

The second letter-name stage involves increasing phonemic awareness skills wherein children use the 'alphabetical principle' to represent the sounds in a word by a letter. Whereas during the third within-words patterns stage children learn orthographic patterns (e.g. short and long vowels) and begin to utilise the pattern by meaning principle for cases such as spelling the past tense morpheme -ed. The fourth, syllable-juncture stages consists of children learning the doubling principle (for syllables containing a short vowel before adding a suffix) and begin to learn patterns that are present in stressed and unstressed syllables. While in the final derivational constancy stage the roots of words and their derivations are learnt and this knowledge begins to be applied consistently.

An examination of this information regarding spelling development reveals several components that are necessary in successful spelling. Spelling involves the general components of our writing system including the orthography within the system as well as its typical features (Perfetti, 1997). As such it is clear that spelling is a multi-linguistic skill that combines various layers of knowledge including; phonological awareness, morphological awareness, orthographic and semantic knowledge (Moats, 1984)

There are a variety of spelling strategies that children use including; phonological, orthographic, morphological, analogy and either writing out or sounding out words to determine if the spelling is correct (Kwong, & Varnagen, 2005). Phonological spelling involves sounding out words and matching letters (graphemes) to sounds (phonemes) but often fails to produces the correct spelling of words (Laxon, Coltheart & Keating, 1988) and an overreliance on this stagey has been associated with poor spelling and poor reading (Barron, 1980).

The second orthographic strategy involves applying spelling rules such as 'I before e except after c' and orthographic conventions such as doubling a final consonant where a short vowel is present before adding 'ing'. While morphological strategies involving memory of a root word to spell a compound word or add a prefix or suffix are also used when spelling (Treiman et al., 1994). Children also have been found to spell words by analogy wherein the child uses a known word to spell a novel word (Goswami, 1988; Laxon et al., 1988; Varnhagen, Boechler, & Steffler, 1999). Finally once a child has produced the spelling word using on of or a combination of the above strategies they may write or sound out the word to determine whether it looks or sounds correct (Varhagne, 1995).

While some theorists believe that progression through these strategies occurs for a child in clearly defined stages whereby less effective strategies are replaced with more successful strategies over the course of time (Ehri, 1992; Gentry; 1992; Henderson, 1985) others believe that all the strategies are utilised at all points of time but that the child switches reliance onto more effective strategies over time (Siegler, 1995; Varnhagen et al., 1997) in a more overlapping waves model. This overlapping waves model has been applied successfully in many algorithmic domains such as addition (Siegler & Shrager, 1984) but spelling is a non-algorithmic domain in that no one strategy can be definite to produce a correct result (Rittle-Johnson & Siegler, 1999). However research on the overlapping waves model has provided support for its utility in understanding spelling development (Rittle-Johnson & Siegler, 1999; Varnhagen et al., 1997; Kwong, & Varnagen, 2005).

Research by Treiman, Cassar, & Zukowski, 1994) has shown, that even at early ages, children used morphological knowledge in their writing. Children in first and second grade were required to spell single morpheme and multi-morpheme words and it was found that they were less likely to spell 'flaps' (common medial phones) with a 'd' in words with multiple morphemes.

Cognitive factors may also influence the rate and degree to which a child learns to spell (Masterton & Creed, 1999). Firstly global intelligence can allow a child to learn and utilise spelling rules but there are also specific spelling strategies that may be linked to success with spelling. For instance Zutell (1980) found that decentration (the capacity to consider multiple aspects in problem solving) had a significant relationship to spelling strategy development. Using multiple strategies such as phonological awareness, orthography, and visual storage decreases spelling errors compared to using one strategy in isolation (Frith, 1980).

Dual Route Model of Reading

While reading and spelling are two distinct, although related, tasks it is worth examining the dual route model of reading deficits (Coltheart & Rastle, 1994). According to this model reading aloud requires the utilisation of two distinctive routes; that of lexical orthography and non-lexical phonology. As such this model considers that reading impairments stem from impairments in one or both of these lexical or non-lexical processes (Ziegler, et al., 2008). While this model is developed to explain the difficulties inherent in reading for adults as related to phonological and orthographic/morphological deficits it is a model that is utilised in a number of spelling interventions which will be examined in this review.

Why do we need it?

What skills is it linked to?

In order to be able to spell a student must possess a number of skills and capacities. Firstly a child must adequate general language and fine motor skills. Assessment of these areas may be conducted by Speech Pathologists and Occupational Therapists respectively.

Another prerequisite skill for spelling is that of sound perception and discrimination and can be assessed using discrimination tasks and non-word repetition. While another prerequisite skill that of segmentation (the ability to explicitly break down words) needs to be present for spelling to be learnt. Knowledge of spoken vocabulary is another important component of spelling and may be an issue for children who acquire English as a second language. Other core skills implicated in spelling include knowledge of sound-letter rules and orthographic lexicon (using mental representations of words).

Short Term psychosocial? (Erikson Identity)

Why is it important school and job?

In modern society the degree of literacy competency of an individual can be the crucial factor in determining educational success. For children who struggle with literacy their school years and future occupational success can be at increased risk of underachievement (Snowling, Adams, Bishop, & Stothard, 2001).

What does it affect over time? Developmentally what does it affect?

Research has indicated that children who struggle with reading continue to experience difficulty with reading and spelling throughout their schooling and tend not to catch up with other children (Shaywitz et al., 1999). Children who experience early difficulties with literacy appear to avoid reading and as a result are less exposed to reading which affects their long term progress in the domain (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997).

A study conducted by Maughan et al. (2009) conducted a thirty year follow-up of poor and normally developing readers on their spelling ability and found that individual differences in spelling were highly predictive of future spelling ability. Adults with a diagnosis of dyslexia are likely to have persistent problems with spelling throughout their life and this effect is prone to be more severe in males (Lefly & Pennington, 1991). Treatment studies of dyslexia have found that even when overcoming issues with reading dyslexic subjects continued to experience difficulties with spelling and producing written compositions; but that they were often unable to access services regarding their writing problems (Berninger, 2006). The aetiology and prognosis of language difficulties between those with dyslexia and specific language impairments is likely to be distinct (Berninger, 2006).

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How much of a problem is it?

While exact prevalence of children with spelling difficulties are unknown it has been estimated that between 5 to 10% of children may be classified as having a severe developmental reading problems (Maughan, Messer, Collishaw, Pickles et. Al, 2009). It is known that developmental reading problems are more likely to affect boys than girls and appear to have a strong genetic influence (Snowling & Hulme, 2008 in Maughan). There has however been a suggestion by Shaywitz, Shaywitz, Fletcher & Escobar (1990) that the higher incidence of boys than girls with relation to reading problems may be explained by boys having a higher likelihood of being identified.

The comorbidity of spelling problems with other developmental disorders such as reading and arithmetic has been examined in a number of studies with the co-occurrence of spelling difficulties with arithmetic being appearing more significant than for reading difficulties with arithmetic (Landerl, & Moll, 2010). Specifically 47-70% of people with arithmetic disorders also have spelling deficits with between 36% and 42% of those with spelling difficulties also struggling with math.

A recent study by Landerl and Moll (2010) measured 2586 German Year 2, 3, & 4 students to determine their level of performance in reading, spelling and arithmetic domains. Utilising a cut-off criteria of 1.5 standard deviations below the average, this study found that 8.8% of the sample had difficulties with spelling. Of these students with spelling deficits only 39% were also found to have comorbid reading difficulties; which demonstrates that reading and spelling deficits should not be automatically assumed to be a singular are of learning disorder (Landerl & Moll, 2010). Only 25.9% of the sample with spelling disorders also had deficits in arithmetic (Landerl & Moll, 2010).

The incidence of spelling problems is difficult to determine although Frith (1977) estimated conservatively that in may be around 2% of the population. Of course this estimate is dependent for the cut-off criteria for spelling difficulties that is applied. The prevalence of spelling difficulties within Australia is measured across Years 3, 5, 7, & 9 of schooling in every Australian school each year as part of the National Assessment Program Literacy & Numeracy (NAPLAN). According to information released by NAPLAN in 2010 9.0% of Year 3's (average age 8 years 7 months), 8.1% of Year 5's (10 years 6 months), 7.1% of Year 7's ( 12 years 6 months) and 10.4% of Year 9's (14 years 5 months) were below the national minimum standard for spelling (NAPLAN, 2010). This across Year levels is one of the highest rates of failing to meet the minimum standard and is trending down since the testing began in 2008.

How to assess spelling problems? (How big a problem do they have?)

Given the relatively high rates of spelling difficulties it is important to consider measures for monitoring progress for spelling so that spelling difficulties can be identified. A child who is not making significant progress in spelling is in need of a precise intervention that addresses their difficulties. A large number of measures of spelling currently exist; but what test is useful in which context?

Measuring the overall progress of spelling skill for a child over time requires the testing of several abilities; sentences, morphologically difficult words, homophones, and regular and irregular words (Kohen, Nickels, & Castles, 2009). At different ages and levels of development diverse items will be required to gain insight into spelling ability. The majority of spelling measures have a single form with differences in age being accommodated with distinct starting points for each level. Typically measures of spelling without multiple forms, for a variety of age groups, have regular words for the lower levels and as such the spelling of simple irregular words is not able to be measured for younger or struggling children. As such these tests are often not able to distinguish those with good sound-letter principles from overall good spellers. Early identification and assessment of young children who have difficulty the whole word procedure is often compromised by such tests. Furthermore tests such as the spelling component of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS) (Elliot, 1990) enables students to progress through each block of testing if they answer two items correctly. However each block of testing contains at least two regular words and this test may not enable the identification of orthographic difficulties.

Another highly regarded spelling test is the South Australian Spelling Test (SAST: Westwood, 2005) which contains 70 regular and irregular words, with two parallel forms. Due to its combination or regular and irregular words it may possibly have limitations into determining the orthographic skills of a student (Kohen, Nickels, & Castles, 2009). Many other widely used measures of spelling are drawn from larger test batteries such as the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew & Mather, 2001), Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT: Weschler, 1992) and the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4; Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006). Whilst they possess an advantage in that the normative data in these tests is drawn from large samples they contain a limited number of items to test a wide age-range thus limiting their sensitivity.

The two tests that are considered by Kohen, Nickels, & Castles (2009) to best assess a wide spectrum of spelling difficulties and contain multiple versions for different age ranges are the British Test Spelling Series (BSTS: Vincent & Crumpler, 1997) and the Single Word Spelling Test (SWST: Sacre & Masterson, 2000). The SWST consists of spelling words to dictation while the BSTS also consists of creating sentences to dictation, cloze sentences and error correction.

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What are the different perspectives on spelling - teaching and remediation?

There are various perspectives regarding the optimal methods of spelling instruction within a classroom and with specific groups to be targeted for remediation. It seems that spelling instruction with an emphasis on rote memorisation or indeed a reluctance to use spelling as a topic of formal instruction may be insufficient practices for effectively teaching spelling in either population.

Learning to spell is a process that is most effectively facilitated through a combination of inductive learning, scaffolding as well as explicit teaching (Ehri, 1991). Perhaps instruction is most effective when it is embedded in the context of student led reading and writing (O'Flahavan & Blassberg, 1992).

What spelling programs are available (from each background)?

Given the continued presence of children who experience continued and repeated difficulties with spelling and other aspects of literacy there is a general concern amongst the public that schools are not doing enough the encourage the spelling development of children (Graham, 1983). Within primary schools in Australia there is a large amount of time typically allocated to learning to spell. While many variations in the approach taken to teaching spelling are likely to be used it is reasonable to assume that the general approach is roughly; to provide children with a list of words (often drawn from thematic units) on Mondays, children complete a variety of in-school and homework tasks throughout the week and then complete a spelling test on Fridays. While this approach may be of benefit to some students it is clear from the consistent percentage of children who are found to be below the national minimum standard for spelling across all tested age groups (Naplan, 2009). Graham (1983) suggested that three contributing instructional factors to this persistent underperformance on spelling for some students are; the use of commercial materials to teach spelling is not always relevant or appropriate; the wide range of ability and achievement in spelling between students was not accommodated for and that many procedures used in the classroom are not directly supported by research.

The natural learning approach

The natural learning approach to learning literacy has been around for a significant amount of time and have manifested in alternative approaches to teaching literacy such as whole language and process writing (Atwell, 1987; Edelsky, 1990). This theory postulates that spelling as a form of language is like any other form of language in that it is best learnt through incidentally through reading and writing rather than through systematic instruction. The two basic assumptions of this approach being that spelling is capable of being learnt without specific instruction and the main avenues for learning spelling are reading and writing (Graham, 2000). Capitalizing on teachable moments by teachers is held to be more preferable and beneficial for students than an instructional approach (Krashen, 1989). However there is criticism that this natural learning approach does not provide all the adequate skills and knowledge for learning to spell and that children who struggled with literacy require explicit instruction to learn the range of skills that are necessary to develop literacy competency (Graham, 2000). Reports by teachers and students as well as studies (Gettinger, 1993 in Graham, 2000) all support the idea that while the natural learning approach has its benefits there is also a place for systematic instruction in learning to spell (Harris, 2000).

Corrected test method

Initial presentation of words in a list

Targeted Approaches

The majority of programs that have addressed spelling instruction are targeted at children who have a learning difficulty (Wanzek et al., 2006). Amongst the spelling programs that exist, for this population with learning difficulties, there are a variety of elements that are used to improve spelling. These components include; methods of instructional delivery, computer-assisted training, multisensory training as well as study and word-practice procedures (Wanzek et al., 2006).

Instructional Delivery

Instructional delivery approaches generally acknowledge that error correction procedures that incorporate error imitation modelling can have positive outcomes for students learning to read (Mc Naughton et al., 1994). Imitation modelling involves the teacher reproducing the error made by the student before providing the correct response. Limiting the number of words learnt consecutively has also been identified as a method to improve spelling performance (Wanzek et al., 2006). While the useage of an increased time delay between presenting the correct answer (as a scaffolding technique) was also associated with strong outcomes in spelling for children with learning disabilities (Mc Naughton et al., 1994).

Computer Assisted Instruction

The usage of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) that utilise the constant time delay instructional technique, in addition to personalised instruction error imitation and modelling has been demonstrated to have positive effects (in LD populations) for both spelling performance and student motivation (Fulk & Stormont-Sprugin, 1995).

Multisensory Training

Techniques that involved multi-sensory instructional techniques such as 'write and say' have received more mixed results in meta-analytic studies (Wanzek et al., 2006) although there does appear to be support that students with LD prefer the use of multi-sensory techniques such as typing out words (Gordon et al., 1993).

Study & Word Practice Procedures

Systematic study and word practice procedures (e.g. copy, cover and write, compare) have been identified as having positive effects on spelling performance whether they were teacher directed or children were taught to use the strategy themselves (Gordon et al., 1993;; Fulk & Stormont-Sprugin, 1995). Studies that provided students with spelling strategies or systemic study and word practice techniques have consistently resulted in higher levels of spelling improvement (Wanzek et al., 2006).

Evaluate efficacy and effectiveness of remedial and mainstream programs? (Cotton, K.)

One major issue in the area of spelling instruction is the serious gap that exists between research in spelling and its application in the classroom (Loomer, 1978). Much of this dispute centres around the fact that there are conflicting views regarding the degree of irrationality/rationality in the English orthographic system. One group of researchers who regard the orthographic system as 'rational enough' advocate instructional practices centred around presenting rules to be learned and placing an emphasis upon phonics instruction (Swachrz & Doehring, 1997). Whereas those who view English orthography as being irrational advocate instructional practices that emphasise learning from the process of reading and writing.

A general agreement presently exists that phonics instruction should be a component of spelling instruction however some qualifications are usually expressed as part of this notion. A review by Allred () concluded that while phonics instruction should be a component of a spelling program it is important that students understand that this method will not be sufficient alone.

A large degree of research has also attempted to assess if learning spelling rules (phonetic rules, rules relating to capitalisation and abbreviation, the addition of prefixes and suffixes) help children learning to spell. Allred suggested that only a few widely applicable rules should be taught and that only rules that should be taught must apply at least 80% of the time. However research (Hanna) has indicated that older students may benefit from studying the structure of English language. Proponents of this school of thought argue that one must go beyond phonic to discover the logic of the English spelling process.

One program that aims to teach the structural elements of English is the Enlgeman Becker Morphographic Spelling Program but Issacs and Stennet's (1979) review of this program found no treatment gains for the students involved.

Phonics Instruction in Learning to Read.

In a meta-review of the effect of phonics instruction on learning to read it was found that the effect of such programs is less significant when it is introduced beyond the first year of schooling (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl & Willows, 2001). The effect may suggest that as children progress other aspects of reading and writing may become increasingly important.

Research on Instructional Methods

Which method is the most appropriate and useful method of teaching children to spell? What words or categories of words should be included? Should spelling be integrated with other components of English or should it be taught separately? Furious debate in the field has argued these questions and a summary of this information is presented below.

Word Lists Vs. Words in Context.-

Evidence for Morphological Approach

Nunes, Bryant & Olsen (2009) examined the effect of interventions that taught morphological and phonological representations to 7-8 year old children. Significant improvements in reading were observed in both conditions however only the children trained in morphological spelling rules showed an improvement in their capacity to use morphological rules in their spelling.

Orthographic Approaches

One orthographic program that has been conducted in an ordinary group of children examined the

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Scant research for older age groups - last chance to remediate

Why a whole class approach (I mean seriously?)

This program was based on accelerated learning theory and involves spelling activities based on the learning of Greek and Latin roots and common suffixes and prefixes. By Year 7 children have been exposed to a number of phonological and morphological spelling programs however many children continue to struggle with spelling. Accelerated learning theory dictates that teaching 'patterns' or broad concepts enables students to learn more in a shorter amount of time. This program aims to provide children with a fun and novel method of learning spelling by presenting spelling lists of words with similar roots, based around school unit topics, such that children are able to learn 'patterns' to apply to spelling. It was hoped that this approach may lead to a higher level of generalizabilty for the children

Atwell, N. (1987). In the Middle: Writing, Reading, and Learning with Adolescents, Heinemann Educational Books, 316 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801

Gordon, J. and et al. (1993). "Spelling Interventions: A Review of Literature and Implications for Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities." Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 8(3): 175-181.

Von Aster, M., Schweiter, M., & Weinhold Zulauf, M. (2007). Rechenstörungen bei Kindern: Vorläufer, Prävalenz und psychische Symptome. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 39, 85-96.

Single word spelling test (SWST)

L Sacre, J Masterson - Windsor, Berkshire: NFER-Nelson, 2000

Wechsler individual achievement test

D Wechsler - 1992 - San Antonio, TX: Psychological …