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PKBM is a non formal institution which facilitates people to get better education. People get chances to finish their study based on level needed. Based on Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU no 20/2003), it is stated that the term of non formal education refers to the structured education that is not included in formal education. It has intentional roles and functions as the substitution, supplements or complement of formal education with the aim of supporting lifelong education. The intended participants of non-formal education are those who never have formal education, drop out from school, graduate or people that still need more knowledge and skills. Non- formal education includes life skills education, early childhood education, apprenticeship education, equivalency education and other education, which is aimed to develop the learner's ability.
The previous research which was done by Heni Puspitarini (2008) showed that heterogeneous student is one problem faced by the tutor in order to choose appropriate teaching strategy. Students have different background such as: age, gender, occupation, social status, motivation and ability. Many students said that they get bored because the teachers seldom vary their teaching techniques and materials. Heni stated that students' opinion about the learning condition in PKBM was most tutor in Kejar Paket C only teach English Grammar. In Kejar Paket C program which is held to give society chance to get education as the same level as Senior High school, tutor gets difficulties in teaching English. Many of them have low English capability. As far as the writer observed, the students had limited knowledge in knowing and using vocabulary. National curriculum of Kejar Paket C expects that students are able to communicate in English for some literary.
Tingkat literasi mencakup performative, functional, informational dan epistemic. Pada tingkat performative, orang mampu membaca, menulis, mendengarkan,dan berbicara dengan simbol-simbol yang digunakan. Pada tingkat functional, orang mampu menggunakan bahasa untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari seperti membaca surat kabar, manual atau petunjuk. Pada tingkat informational, orang mampu mengakses pengetahuan dengan kemampuan berbahasa, sedangkan pada tingkat epistemic orang mampu mengungkapkan pengetahuan ke dalam bahasa sasaran (Wells, 1987).
In order to reach that learning objective tutor badly needed to implement certain strategy which urges all students to learn actively in the classroom. Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.Â
Cooperative learning engages the students to give mutual benefit for group members. In this study, the writer would implement STAD technique or Students Teams Achievement Division as a part of cooperative learning strategy. Procedurally the students do the assignment in group or in pairs but in the end they do individual task. The STAD technique was promoted by Kagan (1992) which is able to promote student learning and academic achievement, increase student retention, enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience, help students develop skills in oral communication, develop students' social skill and promoting student's self-esteem. Students learn in teamwork by sharing, discussing, solving tasks together.
Vocabulary is an important part of students' learning. Without vocabulary people will get difficulties to communicate. Based on the writer's observation in PKBM 33, students got problems in finishing their assignment. Their learning objective is to successfully pass National Examination (UN). Tutor focused on giving task and translating the vocabularies. Tutor helped the students translate vocabulary one by one. This condition spent more time because every student was looking for the meaning of the same vocabulary in the dictionary. The worst, students could not answer the question if tutor changed types of question. Besides that, students lacked of knowledge to rearrange the vocabularies into phrases or sentence. Many students thought learning English was only dealing with guessing the answer based on reading passage and memorizing the words that they had known before. Students had very little understanding and information of how vocabulary used in certain context. Tutor would rather teach grammar than give examples of vocabulary usage in context. By doing some task of vocabulary in group, writer expected that the amount of students' English vocabulary would be developed. Learning vocabulary needed teacher's roles to give students brief explanation of vocabulary in context. Research studies have shown that vocabulary learning is increased if the learner's attention is briefly drawn to the new vocabulary by teacher giving a quick translation or definition, or by seeing it written on the board (Elley, 1989). Moreover, learning vocabulary can be more effective whether the students negotiate the vocabulary and use it in context. Nation (2008) stated that negotiation of meaning occurs when one learner in a group asks the others about the meaning of a word that came up in the conversation and the learners work together to clarify the word. Broadly it means that students will get better understanding when they use the vocabulary in communication.
Briefly, the writer would implement STAD technique as a part of cooperative learning strategies to support students' vocabulary achievement. The writer expects that after conducting this technique, students can memorize and use the vocabulary correctly. Therefore the writer is motivated to conduct a research which is aimed to find out whether the implementation of STAD technique as a part of cooperative learning can give significant result of students' vocabulary achievement.
B. Problem Identification
Based on the background of the study, the writer identified some problems. They were as followed:
How can STAD as a technique of cooperative learning strategies improve Paket C students' vocabulary achievement?
To what extent does the contribution of STAD as a technique of cooperative learning strategies improve Paket C students' vocabulary achievement?
How did the students feel about the implementation of STAD technique in the classroom?
C. Problem Statement
Due to the limitation of space and time, the writer will focus on one problem. That is:
"How can STAD technique improve Paket C students' vocabulary achievement?"
D. Objective of Study
The objective of this study is to investigate whether implementation of cooperative learning in the classroom can give significant influence to the students' vocabulary achievement and find out the students' opinion of cooperative learning implementation in their classroom.
E. Benefits of study
This study gives contribution, as follows:
The students enjoy learning English by sharing and discussing in their group. Besides that, students get more knowledge about vocabulary in context. Furthermore, they also can apply the vocabulary in the real communication.
The tutors get knowledge to implement STAD technique as an alternative way to overcome problem such as a large number of students and limited time in learning activity.
F. Significance of the study
The significance of this study was to help PKBM improving students' outcomes and to give input to tutors about the implementation of STAD technique as a part of cooperative learning strategies to promote students' stocks of vocabularies. In addition, it also helps the writer to improve her capability in teaching adolescence and to have better understanding about vocabularies which exist in Equivalency National Examination in Kejar Paket C program.
A. Definition cooperative learning
Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in small teams with different students' ability. This strategy uses varieties of learning activities to improve students' understanding of a subject. Kauchak and Eggen (1998) state that "Cooperative learning is a learning strategy which involves the students to work collaboratively to achieve the goals". Sunan and Hans (2000) states that cooperative learning is a set of strategies designed to urge learners working together during the learning process. Besides that cooperative learning gives some benefits to students as quoted below:
"Cooperative learning (CL) is an instructional paradigm in which teams of students work on structured tasks (e.g. homework assignments, laboratory experiments, or design project). Many studies have shown that when correctly implemented, cooperative learning improves information acquisition and retention, higher-level thinking skills, interpersonal and communication skills, and self confidence"(Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 1998).
Baloche (1998) stated that goal interdependence is fundamental to cooperative learning and is created when students understand that they share a mutual set of goals. The essence of shared goal interdependence is that students understand that they are working together to achieve a goal. This goal might be a shared product such as a list, a story, a picture or diagram, a report, or a report or a completed experiment. Formal cooperative learning groups (D. Johnson, R. Johnson, & Holubec, 1992, 1993) are carefully designed, heterogeneous groups in which members work together on specific tasks. In formal learning groups, students share:
A goal to maximize the learning of all members.
Both individual and group responsibility for their learning goals.
Specific work goals that are to be accomplished cooperatively.
Opportunities and obligations to learn and use the interpersonal and small-group skills that are needed to get the job done and build and maintain effective peer relationships.
Opportunities and obligations to reflect on both learning and peer interaction.
B. Structure of cooperative learning
The implementation of cooperative learning in the classroom is dealing with the conditions of students. Obviously students meet positive interdependence as one of structures in cooperative learning. "The discipline of using(formal) cooperative groups begins with the careful structuring of positive interdependence" (D. Johnson, R. Johnson, & Holiubec, 1993, p. 4:9). Positive interdependence means that students in a group are related one and each other. They will fail or succeed together in finishing assignment. There are many kinds of positive interdependence structure. One of them is outside interdependence. Baloche (1997) stated that teachers use outside-force interdependence when they place groups in competition with some outside-force. Here the students are competing against their own individual or group scores or against the time (when tasks are simple and speed and accuracy is important). The technique used in outside-force interdependence is Student Teams-Achievement Divisions. In this technique, teacher conducts some teaching procedures as follow:
Teacher makes presentation of material to be learned and tested.
Students work together in academically heterogeneous teams to learn material and prepare for the quizzes and tests individually.
Teacher provides guided practice.
Students take quizzes and tests individually.
Teams earn scores based on the "improvement points" of the team members.
The idea behind STAD is that the teacher divides the class into mixed groups of ability. He or she teaches the material (ie. a grammar point) frontally. Then, in groups, the students practice the material based on worksheets prepared by the teacher or exercises in the students' textbooks, with the students helping one another, and/or re-teaching the material when necessary. The students are then tested individually. Each student is given improvement points and the total number of improvement points for each group is calculated. The teacher then informs the class of the results. STAD can be a very beneficial learning experience as students can help one another, practice together and become very involved in the inter-group competition.
Students Teams- Achievement Divisions (Slavin, 1995) develop a strong sense of individual responsibility. All students have equal opportunities to contribute towards the success of the team. Interpersonal and Small-Group learning skills is beneficial to help others learn and seek accuracy.
Group is assessed by some procedures below:
Calculate "base" scores of individual members. In general, base scores can be calculated by averaging scores on a few individual quizzes that are given before beginning STAD.
Determine improvement points
Quiz Score Improvement Points
More than ten 10 points below base score 5
10 points below to 1 point below base score 10
Base score to 10 points above base score 20
More than 10 points above base score 30
Perfect paper (regardless of base score) 30
6. Teams are recognized for their achievement. Since it is possible for all teams t achieve award, in essence, teams are not competing against each other. STAD encourage individual students to focus on- or compete against- their own past performance.
Criterion (Team Average) Award
15 Good team
20 Great team
25 Super team
According to Slavin (1982), students seem to enjoy classrooms that employ these techniques. Few studies have been conducted at the secondary level and even less research have been initiated in the upper secondary social studies class. Therefore, there is a need to study cooperative learning strategies in the upper secondary classroom. The cooperative learning techniques used in this study was the Student Achievement Divisions' (STAD) method developed by Robert Slavin (1986). STAD has been described as the simplest of a group of cooperative learning techniques referred to as Student Team Learning Methods. In the STAD approach students are assigned to four or five member teams reflecting a heterogeneous grouping of high, average, and low achieving students of diverse ethnic backgrounds and different genders. Each week, the teacher introduces new material through a lecture, class discussion, or some form of a teacher presentation.
Newman and Thompson (1987) reported that STAD was the most successful cooperative learning technique at increasing student academic achievement, but the bulk of the research on STAD had been conducted at the elementary level and in subject areas other than social studies. Slavin (1995) reported on 29 studies that examined the effectiveness of STAD. He reported that STAD consistently had positive effects on learning. Generally, STAD positively affected cross race relations, attitude toward school and class, peer support, time on task, peer relationships and cooperation.
In this research the writer also implemented another technique which is simultaneous roundtable. This technique is also a part of cooperative learning strategy. Simultaneous roundtable (1992) used sequence interdependence which focused on giving the students sequential task. Based on Kagan this technique is good to build the students' participation by sharing the material and ideas to finish task.
These are steps of Simultaneous Roundtable:
Teacher distributes material to be learned and often uses a series of worksheets to organize the procedure.
Each students complete step one
Students rotate worksheets.
Students check step one and complete step two
Process repeats until sequence has been completed
C. Definition of vocabulary
According to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, is all the words that a person know or uses; all the words in particular language; the words that people use when they are talking about particular subject; a list of words with their meanings especially in a book for learning a foreign language. In addition, Steven Stahl (2005) defined vocabulary knowledge, "Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that words fit into the world. Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime". Burton and Huumphries (1992:2) defined vocabulary of words that a particular person can use it. It is said that the larger the vocabulary of a person, the better will his performance in all aspects of language without enough vocabulary, one will have difficulties in expressing ideas precisely and vividly.
Vocabulary is divided into two general lines, productive and receptive vocabulary. Meara (1990a) sees the distinction between active and passive vocabulary as being the result of different types of association between words. Instead, Corson (1995: 44-4) uses the terms active and passive to refer productive and receptive vocabularies. Passive vocabulary, according to Corson, vocabulary means words that are only partly known, low-frequency words not readily available for use and words that are avoided in active use.
Nation (2001) distinguishes for kinds of vocabulary in the text: high-frequency words (unmarked in the text), academic words (in bold), and technical and low-frequency words (in italics).
High frequency words are words which are commonly used in text. High frequency words consist of function words and content words. The example of function words such as: in, for, the, of, a, etc. Besides that high frequency words also include many content words like government, forest etc.
The text is from an academic textbook and contains many words that are common in different kinds of academic text: policy, phase, adjusted, sustained.
The text contains some words that are very closely related to the topic and subject area of the text. These words include indigenous, regeneration, pod carp. These words are reasonably common in this topic area but not so common elsewhere.
Low- frequency words
The words are not high-frequency words, not academic, and not technical words for a particular subject. They consist of technical words for other subject areas, proper nouns, words that almost got into high-frequency list, and words that we rarely meet in our use of language.
In giving test to the students, language teachers and testers make decisions about learners with different focus. They use tests for purposes such as placement, diagnosis, measuring progress or achievement and assessing proficiency as in these examples:
The vocabulary section of a placement test battery can be designed to estimate how many high frequency words the learners already know. Apart from the placing of students into classes, the test scores may help the teachers to decide which vocabulary workbook to use in class or what kind of vocabulary learning program the students need.
A progress test assesses how well students have learned the words presented in the units they have recently studied in the course book. The purposes can be essentially a diagnostic one for the teacher, to identify words that require some further attention in class. On the other hand, the teacher may want to find out whether the learners can understand words they have learned when they encounter them in fresh contexts, with somewhat different meanings.
In an achievement test, one section may be designed to assess how well learners have mastered a vocabulary skill that they have been taught, such as the ability to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items in a text on the basis of contextual cues. Or they may be tested on their knowledge of a sample of the lexical items that they have studied during the course.
Based on Nation (2000) achievement test where vocabulary is to be tested in context, the starting point for selection is likely to be a particular text rather that a list of words.
G. Effective teaching vocabulary
Based on Nation's theory of effective teaching vocabulary, it involved many elements and knowledge relate to the students. Students need to have enough L1 background knowledge. To get better result, teacher has to emphasize following principles which give benefits for making students understand easily:
Keep the teaching simple and clear.
Relate the present teaching to past knowledge by showing a pattern or analogies.
Use both oral and written presentation- write it on the board as well as explaining.
Give most attention to words that are already partly known.
H. Relationship between vocabulary and cooperative Learning
The group work is a kind of way to develop students' thinking. Group activity offers greater possibilities for exposure to ideas that re cognitively complex. Complexity and variety of input produce higher level cognitive (Bloow, 1964: Bruner, 1996). It means that group activity can stimulate students to get higher cognitive such as producing words to share ideas and thinking. Based on Brygate (1982), vocabulary is important part of speech. Less vocabulary such as verb, noun and adjective can be obstacles to the students in discussing or doing advanced task.
"Speech consisted shorter stretches of language termed "satellite unit", such as meaningful noun or adjective group or subordinate clauses. These shorter units contribute to the overall meaning of the discussion and advanced task" (Brygate, 1982).
Obviously students get difficulties to communicate if they are lack of vocabularies such as: verb, noun and adjective as content words or unite of sentence. There will create obstacles in the discussion such as misunderstanding if the students less pay attention of this part of language.
I. Paket C learners
According to Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU no. 20/2003), the term of non-formal education refers to the structured education that is not included in formal education. It has intentional roles and function as the substitution, supplements and or complement of formal education with the aim of supporting lifelong education. The intended participants of non-formal education are those who never have formal education, drop out from school, graduates or people that still need more knowledge and skills. Non-formal education includes life skills education, early childhood education, apprenticeship education, equivalency education and other education, which is aimed to develop learners: ability.
Equivalency education is one of non-formal educational programs that is structured and graded. One of the equivalency education programs is Kejar Paket C program which is equal education. The criteria of Kejar Paket C Learners are those who:
1. Have graduated from Kejar Paket B program or SMP/Mts.
2. Are not able to continue or finish their study at SMA/M.A/SMK/MAK.
3. Do not want to study in formal education because of several factors (potencies, time limitation, economic, social and law, and belief).
Based on KTSP curriculum, Paket C learners get real-life education which can be implemented in daily life. They practice four macro skills in order to reach the goals below:
kemampuan berwacana, yakni kemampuan memahami dan/atau menghasilkan teks lisan dan/atau tulis yang direalisasikan dalam empat keterampilan berbahasa, yakni mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca dan menulis secara terpadu untuk mencapai tingkat literasi informational;
kemampuan memahami dan menciptakan berbagai teks fungsional pendek dan monolog serta esei berbentuk procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, report, news item, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, spoof, explanation, discussion, review, public speaking. Gradasi bahan ajar tampak dalam penggunaan kosa kata, tata bahasa, dan langkah-langkah retorika;
kompetensi pendukung, yakni kompetensi linguistik (menggunakan tata bahasa dan kosa kata, tata bunyi, tata tulis), kompetensi sosiokultural (menggunakan ungkapan dan tindak bahasa secara berterima dalam berbagai konteks komunikasi), kompetensi strategi (mengatasi masalah yang timbul dalam proses komunikasi dengan berbagai cara agar komunikasi tetap berlangsung), dan kompetensi pembentuk wacana (menggunakan piranti pembentuk wacana).
A. Methodology and Design
The method and research design is derived from an approach introduced by Kemmis and Mc. Taggart. Action research was conducted to investigate the students' vocabulary development. Kemmis and McTaggart (1993) state that,
"Action research is deliberate, solution-oriented investigation that is group or personally owned and conducted. It is characterized by spiraling cycles of problem identification, systematic data collection, reflection, analysis, data-driven action taken, and, finally, problem redefinition. The linking of the terms "action" and "research" highlights the essential features of this method: trying out ideas in practice as a means of increasing knowledge about and/or improving curriculum, teaching, and learning (p.1)."
The research procedure consists of following items:
This part elaborates the steps of research, starting from observation to discussion between the researcher and collaborator regarding the researcher's performance in the classroom.
Description of the situation. The description of the class under the study is given elaborately, from general (e.g. the situation of the school) to specific situation and condition of the students in the class).
Identification of problem. To identify the problem that emerges in the class based on the mistakes that are often made by students. Those mistakes should be relevant to topic chosen.
Hypothesis. The solution of the problem is purposed for example by presenting an alternative teaching-learning methodology with the huge as improve the performance of the students.
Collaborator. A colleague or somebody who knows much about the teaching learning process of the English language. His/her job is to observe and take notes concerning the strength and weakness of the teaching learning process as well as the difficulties of the students that are identified in the class.
The teacher/ researcher designs a plans in accordance with the hypothesis mentioned above.
Based on the proposed plans, the researcher begins to conduct following step as design before.
The observation is done by the collaborator(s) and the researcher as long as the teaching-learning process lasts. And the observer note down thing that might be important to be discussed later on after class hour.
The researcher together with the collaborator(s) and the students (if there are too many students, only the representatives) discuss the result of the observation to evaluate the teaching-learning process which has been done in class. Based on the result of the discussion the following step will be described it whether the next cycle will be necessary.
B. Place and Time of the Study
This study took place in PKBM 33 Malaka, East Jakarta between Decembers 2008 to April 2009. The researcher implemented a technique of cooperative learning once a week every Friday.
The subject was a class of Kejar Paket C program students in PKBM 33 Malaka. The subjects were heterogeneous students. They were varied from their age, gender, social status and educational background. There are more than thirty students of Paket C in the classroom. The writer took twenty samples of students as the main data in this research. There are seven girls and twenty three boys' improvement points for the data collection. Writer considered of those twenty students based on their attendance.
D. Data collection techniques
The data was collected by using some instruments such as: pre test and post test, observation, questionnaire and interview.
Pre test is conducted to know the students' points, level and grade before STAD technique is implemented to the students.
Post test is conducted as the main data to measure students' improvement after STAD is conducted by the writer.
Observation is conducted to find problems which is faced by the teacher and to observe the situation of Paket C students at PKBM 33.
Questionnaire is done in the end of study, it is necessary done as data to know students' feeling about the implementation of STAD in the classroom.
Interview is conducted as additional data to support the questionnaire.
E. Data analysis procedure
The data analyzed by using qualitative analyses. The researcher would analyze the students testing result then concluded the development of students' vocabularies achievement. The writer conducted two techniques of cooperative learning in this research. STAD technique would be implemented in the second cycle. Writer gave a pre test before both techniques were implemented. She assessed the students' scores based on Analytic Rating Scale (Jacob, H.L, et. al : 1981). Student would be classified into certain level. They were: Excellent to very good, Good to average, Fair to poor and Very poor. Then she tried to give the first treatment which is Simultaneous Roundtable in two meetings then in the end of first cycle, she gave the multiple choice test to show their improvement in vocabulary achievement. After she analyzed the weaknesses, the writer came to the next technique which is STAD technique. The writer measured the students points based on individual and group points. Adapted from Slavin (1995) writer assessed the group as follows:
a. Writer considered the first cycle points as the based score. After conducting STAD technique, she asked the students to do individual task and analyzed each average group points to determine their improvement.
So the group average score improvement is 8,7 points. Based on that group's average points, the write analyzed that students got 10 points above base score (see the data measured points above). For the reward the students got 20 points or Great Team as the students' achievement. The writer would give some token and reinforcement to give more motivation in learning English. In the end of the second cycle, writer would give post test as the result of the second treatment.
Next, writer would give some questionnaire to know the students' feeling about the implementation of STAD technique. Moreover, researcher interviews the students to get description or feed back of the strength and weakness of this technique.
F. Achievement Indicators
To determine the achievement on students' vocabulary, the researcher will use two techniques in teaching vocabulary. The techniques are by using Simultaneous Roundtable and Student Teams- Achievement Divisions. The students' vocabulary achievement would be measured by using Analytic Rating Scale (Jacob, H.L, et. al : 1981). Student would be classified into certain level. They were: Excellent to very good, Good to average, Fair to poor and Very poor. The students' achievement could be determined by their increasing grade and level. The writer target improvement point up to 20 points. So, the very poor students' level can improve their capability to good and average level.