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According the newly theory of educationalists at home and aboard said that the best age to learn L2 is from 4 to 12 year-old. During these times, most children have entered elementary school. Therefore, it is an essential for elementary school students to set up English lesson, which has become a trend in most cities in China including their rural places. And the National Ministry of Education issued a document, which said that gradually offer English course in elementary school from Grade Three, in 2001. In this new curriculum standard, emotional factors in teaching and learning are listed in the top place for the reason that language learning cannot departs from the emotion.
1.1 The importance of study pupils' anxiety
There are numerous reasons for believing that the influence of anxiety is very important in second language (L2) learning.
Firstly, anxiety is generally seen as a psychological concept and has been explored by researchers. Spielberg (1966) defines anxiety as subjective, consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension, accompanied by or associated with activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system. Gardner and MacIntyre (1993) think, language learning anxiety is the tense and awe emotion in L2 context (including speaking, listening, reading and writing). This anxiety is connected directly with performance in the target language, so not merely a general performance anxiety.
Secondly, pupils' character has particularity in L2 for they are at advantage in L2 learning. They are characterized by good stimulation, memory and adaptation. Those who begin to learn L2 at an early age are able to make greater achievement than those who begin to learn when they are adults. However, pupils may have some disadvantages in L2: undeveloped intelligence, lack of self-control and could not discriminate errors from their peers and even their teachers with low teaching quality and narrow knowledge. Besides, different emotion has different impact on L2 learning. According the research of Eills (2000) pupils who are motivated by promotive anxiety could challenge the new task, arouse their potential and overcome difficulties, thus they get L2 learning success. In contrast, negative emotions and attitudes, such as the psychology of excessive pendency, timidity and introversive personality, especially anxiety, will influence L2 learning and only receive litter input. "Anxiety tends to not successful L2 learning" (Arnold¼Œ2000, p.292).
Thirdly, pupils' emotion, American psychological linguists Krashen's fifth assumption, is involved the process of language acquisition and filters language input just like a protection screen controlling the input variables and inhaled quantity that they could touch. Therefore, anxiety, as a negative emotion factor, severely affects elementary students' motivation in English learning. Krashen (1982) also clearly indicates that pupils' emotional filtering device through affecting its input variables. Thus the higher learning anxiety, the more the input prevented by the affective filter device which leads to language learning failure (Krashen, 1985). Spielberg (1996) studies show that 20% students give up because of anxiety and although 6% of them is only mild anxiety.
By understanding the correlation between the language anxiety (LA) and English speaking proficiency of pupils, teachers can help reduce the students' level of LA and produce better learning effects in the low-anxiety 1eaming environment. It is hoped that the findings will draw teachers' attention to students' leaning needs and recognize what and why pupils like to do in classroom¼Ž
The final and necessary significance is to get the pedagogical solutions based on author's research and know how to provide a low anxious environment for the students and make them learn English more efficiently and happy.
1.2 The background of researching pupils' anxiety
Anxiety plays a core in language learning. Lessening the negative effect of anxiety and reasonable utilization of anxiety have become essential parts of L2 learning. Therefore, pupils' anxiety has now drawn much attention from both linguists and language teachers. In other words the importance of pupils' anxiety has received more and more attention in the past twenty years or so.
From late 1970s to 1980s, some scholars showed their concerns about affective domains. Many theories such as Krashen's monitor model discuss the significant role of affective variables. In Krashen's theories¼Œthe well known affective filter hypothesis describes the relationship between affective factors and L2 acquisition. The natural approach by Krashen and Terrell (1983) is an instance, which is designed to help beginners become intermediates. It provides comprehensible input to learners by adopting different kinds of techniques and activities. Bailey (1983) analyzed that the LA is caused by competition, examination and interpersonal relationship between teachers and pupils. Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) were the first to treat foreign LA separate and distinct phenomenon particular to language learning.
Since 1990s, researches into anxiety study began gradually have become a focus of present study. MacIntyre wrote, in 1999, that "the term foreign LA, or more simply LA, was just beginning to be used in the literature". Trait anxiety has been improved to impact cognitive functioning¼Œdisrupt memory, lead to avoidance behavior and some other effects (MacIntyre & Gardner 1991 a). Gardner and MacIntyre stated that the strongest (negative)correlate of language achievement is anxiety (1993). Studies show the negative correlation of anxiety with the following: self-esteem, i.e., the judgment of one's own worth (Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope 1 986; Price 1991; Scarcella and Oxford 1 992)
Since now, Chinese scholars also begin to focus on anxiety in learning and teaching. Liu Meihua and Shen Mingbo (2004) pointed out that there were two kinds of anxiety in English classroom: trait anxiety and environment anxiety. Both of them influenced the students' oral English performance negatively. Zhang Baoyan (1996) made a research on the correlation between LA and listening proficiency among 40 Chinese college students. However, much of the research is often focused on certain aspects and much of it is used for college students, high school students or secondary school students and rarely used for elementary. Over the past years, there were numerous studies on pupils' anxiety of L2, but most of them focused on either college level (Aida, 1994; Ganschow et a1., 1994) or high school level (Chang, 1999; Ganschow & Sparks 1996; Liao 1999). Few of them paid attention to primary school level except the study of Chan and Wu (2000).
The anxiety is closely related with pupils' motivation in English learning. The proper anxiety could simulate pupils to overcome difficulties and to pursue deeper knowledge, while excessive anxiety strikes pupils simulations of English learning. In the aspect of encouragement, the praise is able to simulate young learners' learning interest and positive emotion, give rise to and then strengthen learning motivation and finally make them take initiatives and to develop their skills and abilities. In a word, encouragement could lessen pupils' anxiety in L2. And this English learning tide is further encouraged by an important
II Problems of Teaching and Learning English Existing in elementary Schools
The fact that English has become one of the focuses of children education in China is undeniable. However there are several problems still there.
2.1 Problems from aspects of English teaching
From the "teaching" aspect: 1) LA in teaching is not enough solid. The New Curriculum Criteria enhances teaching goals, aiming at spoken language, round grammar applying, vocabulary memorizing and all the goals which can improve the elementary school students' performance in learning English. Hence some of the teachers neglect the importance of pupils' LA.
2) The positive influence of anxiety has been looked down. Most teachers think any anxiety is negative in teaching. However, the proper anxiety helps to boost pupils' motivation on English learning, which is beneficial for teacher to take advantage of this positive influence to simulate pupils' interest.
2.2 Problems from aspects of English learning
From the "learning" aspect, 1) Elementary school's English has no examination pressure of entering a higher school. The single evaluation instrument leads to the lack of students' motivation to learn. Many students simply interested in learning for a while, and with the increase of studying difficulty, the more learning, the more difficult. Gradually they lose their learning interests and create a sense of failure, thus lose the confidence in learning English.
2) As teachers neglect to pay their attention to pupils' anxiety, result in teachers' taking vocabulary, grammar for their main teaching tasks. It does not fit the psychological characteristics and learning characteristics of pupils.
3) Class limited. Since only three hours of a week, pupils' anxiety aroused from the class could not be swift lessened in class, thus they begin to distrust their capability for L2, which draw them feel a weary of L2.
III Language anxiety
3.1 Definition of language anxiety
Language anxiety (LA) can be defined as the fear or apprehension occurring when a learner is expected to perform in the second or foreign language (Gardner & MacIntyre 1993) or the worry and negative emotional reaction when learning or using a second language (L2) (MacIntyre 1999).
The literature on affective variables in L2 acquisition shows that anxiety is one of the key factors in L2 acquisition. Although anxiety plays an important role in L2 learning, research has not produced a consensus concerning that role. The inconsistent findings suggest that anxiety is a complex construct, as is its function in L2 learning.
Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986) were the first to treat foreign language anxiety as a separate and distinct phenomenon particular to language learning (Young, 1991). At the time, the term foreign language anxiety, or more simply language LA, was just beginning to be used in the literature (MacIntyre, 1999).
LA is only one of several types of anxiety that have been identified by psychologists. In general, there are two approaches to description of LA: (1) LA may be viewed as a manifestation of other more general types of anxiety. For example, test-anxious people may feel anxious when learning a language because they feel constantly tested or shy people may feel uncomfortable of the demands of communicating publicly. (2)LA may be seen as a distinctive form of anxiety expressed in response to language learning. That is, something unique to the language-learning experience makes some individuals nervous.
3.2 Types of language anxiety
Scovel (1978), basing on the characteristics of persons with LA, divided LA into trait anxiety (that is the tendency of individuals in terms of anxiety and psychological characteristics of personality), state anxiety (that is the students produced a moment of anxiety ) and situation specific anxiety (that refers to specific situations, such as a particular moment in public statements, examinations, class participation and other individuals to experience anxiety), in which state-type anxiety is the product combining trait anxiety with situation specific anxiety. In L2 learning, the factor of trait anxiety is less important, while sometimes the role of state anxiety is facilitating, and sometimes the role is debilitating.
According the impact of LA on students, LA is divided into facilitating anxiety and debilitating anxiety considering by Alpert and Harber. Generally speaking, facilitating anxiety is associated with high learning and performance which can encourage pupils to challenge themselves and new tasks, self-regulating the pressure from LA, through simulating pupils to overcome learning difficulties, while debilitating anxiety is a kind of anxiety that harms learning and performance, that is to say, debilitating anxiety leads a great deal of the negative effect to pupils and forms a hinder of absorption from L2 learning. Pupils who have debilitating anxiety may feel worry and self-double, they will reduce their participation and create avoidance of language.
Gardner and Maclntyre stated that the strongest (negative) correlate of language achievement is anxiety (1993). Studies show the negative correlation of anxiety with the following: self-esteem, i.e., the judgment of one's own worth (Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope 1986; Price 1991; Scarcella and Oxford 1992); performance in speaking and writing tasks (Trylong 1987; Young 1986); self-confidence in language learning (Maclntyre and Gardner 1991; Gardner and Maclntyre 1993); grades in language course (Aida 1994; Horwitz 1986; Trylong 1987); proficiency test performance (Ganshow, Sparks, Anderson, Javorsky, Skinner and Patton 1994; Gardner, Ladonde, Moorcroft and Evers 1987).
The relationship between language and language performance is complex. Young (1991) explained that sometimes language anxiety is negatively related to one skill and not another. Ganschow, Sparks, Anderson, Javorsky, Skiller and Patton (1994) suggested that high anxiety might be a result of language learning problems rather than the cause.
Some researchers suggested that language anxiety was actually "facilitating"or "helpful" in some ways, such as keeping students alert (Scovel 1978). Facilitating anxiety has been shown in a few studies related to: high language proficiency and self-confidence among a hand-picked group of excellent language learners (Ehrman and Oxford 1995); oral production of difficult English structures among native Arabic-speakers and Spanish-speakers (Kleinmann 1977); good grades in language classes for students in regular French, German, and Spanish classes but not for students in audio lingual classes (Chastain 1975).
On the existence of anxiety's helpfulness, language researchers hold different views. Horwitz (1990) suggested that anxiety is only helpful for very simple learning tasks, but not with more complicated learning such as language learning. Young Terrell (1992) interviewed Rardin, Omaggio Hadley and Krashen the experts of language learning about the helpfulness of language anxiety. Rardin said that a positive aspect of anxiety operates all the time, but we only notice when a negative imbalance occurs. Omaggio Hadley responded that a certain amount of tension might be useful for language learning, but she refused to call the tension "anxiety". Similarly, Terrell preferred to call such tension "attention" rather than "anxiety". Krashen contended that anxiety is helpless to language acquisition, but it might be helpful for the learners in formal language learning situations.
3.3 Components of language anxiety
Bailey (1983) considered the reason that gives rise to LA including competition, examination, the relationship between teacher and learners. Horwitz and her colleagues (1986) conceptualized the components of LA especially L2 learning into three parts: communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation
3.3.1 Communication apprehension
Communication apprehension is "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons" (McCroskey, 1982, p.27). According to this definition, the contents of LA are logically related to these of communication apprehension, because one of the most prominent functions of language is to communicate interpersonally. It is assumed that people who are communicatively apprehensive in their native language will experience even Beater anxiety in speaking L2. However, some people who are communicatively apprehensive in a L2 are not necessarily apprehensive in their native language. In fact, L2 communication apprehension is best predicted by native language apprehension.
The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA), first developed by McCroskey in 1970, was revised in 1982 to a 24-item from which is used to assess adults' communication apprehension in four situations, namely, in dyad interpersonal conversation, group discussion, meetings and public speaking. In one article, McCroskey proposed that the validity of a measure was best predicted by the consistency between empirical results and hypotheses of experiments based upon theories relating to the construct of the measure. He summarized studies which employed the PRCA as a measure of communication apprehension according to the five proposition of communication apprehension theory. These five propositions were:
1. People vary in the degree to which they are apprehensive about oral communication with other people.
2. People with high oral communication apprehension seek to avoid oral communication.
3. People with high oral communication apprehension engage in less oral communication than do less orally apprehensive people.
4. When people with high oral communication apprehension do communicate, their oral communication behavior differs from that of people who are less apprehensive.
5. As a result of their oral communication behavior, highly communicatively apprehensive people are perceived less positively by others than are less apprehensive people (McCroskey 1978).
The PRCA conducted according to four types of communication apprehension which were the most obvious types an individual encountered in the communication contexts (McCroskey, 1982). Trait-Like Communication Apprehension is the first type which experienced by many persons in a rather general state across all communication contexts. Generalized-Situation Communication Apprehension which represents communication apprehension in a single generalized context is the second type. For instance, one person may be highly apprehensive in one situation, for example public speaking, but may experience less anxiety in other situations as small group discussion. The third type is Person-Group Communication Apprehension which involves an orientation of the individual toward communication with a specific person or group of persons under whatever circumstances the communication took place. Situation Communication Apprehension is the fourth type, it combines those apprehension orientations above which happened to the individual while communicating with given individual or groups, in a given time and context.
3.3.2 Test anxiety
Test anxiety is, "the tendency to become alarmed about the consequences of inadequate performance on a test or other evaluation"(Sarason 1984)¼Œ investigated in L2 learning process, and the results of these studies are very confusing and not easy to interpret. In Young's study (1986), an outstanding negative correlation between anxiety and the Oral Proficiency Interview is found. In another study, Chastain (1975) correlated the test scores of French, German, and Spanish learners with two anxiety scales. And Chastain also found that the scores of French audio-lingual method students were negatively correlated with the test anxiety, while the scores of traditional German and Spanish students were positively correlated with test anxiety. A number of factors can lead to the test anxiety, such as the negative experience that students once have experienced before, less confidence to perform in the testing situations or being afraid of having bad scores on tests. All of these can develop anticipatory anxiety. Another factor which contributes to the test anxiety is lack of preparation. Students will feel overwhelmed when their time management and study habits are very poor, and lack of organization. The learners who follow a clear studying plan will feel more confident than those who are reluctant but forced to cram in L2 learning process. Suitable pressure for students who want to perform better in the tests is a good motivation, but if it is too serious, the results are opposite. Thought in this aspect, students should pay much attention on the negative consequences of failure, rather than prepare to be successful in the tests.
3.3.3 Fear of negative evaluated
Watson & Friend defined it as "apprehension about others' evaluations, avoidance of evaluative situations, and the expectation that others would evaluate one negatively" (Watson & Friend 1969). The fear of negative evaluation is similar to test anxiety. The former is broader in scope for test anxiety which is only limited to the test taking situations, but fear of negative evaluation may occur in any social situation. The fear of poor performance and ridicule by peers is erring to one's "language ego". The self-image of L2 learners, especially of pupils, is challenged because they have less control over the language and do not feel like themselves when speaking a L2.
Horwitz and her associates concluded that LA is not just the combination of communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, although they form the foundation of language anxiety studies. LA should be regard as "a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process" (Horwitz et al., 1986, p.128)
IV Methods and Measure of lessen pupils' anxiety
This chapter will introduce the methods of the study and discuss the measures of lessen pupils' anxiety in second language learning.
This investigations aim at learning the level of pupils' anxiety so far, searching and the causing factors of pupils' anxiety
The participants of the questionnaires are 21students from Kehuan English training school, whose ages are from 8 to 13. Two questionnaires were applied in this study. Questionnaire 1 of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale of Primary School was designed by the author to detect students' language anxiety. Questionnaire 2 was used to figure out that which classroom activities were popular among students, whereas, which activities made students nervous, and sources and factors provoking students' anxiety were to be found out as well.
The present study uses student interviews to figure out students' English learning experiences and other sources provoking their anxious reactions in and outside the classroom. The interviews start with the following questions:
What have your parents done about your English leaning?
How do you feel in English class?
Do you think you have English learning anxiety?
Do you think what reasons directly lead to your anxiety?
4.2 Analysis the factors leading pupils' anxiety
According analysis the surveys, it is easily to know that pupils' LA is caused by the following four reasons: 1 the learner's own weaknesses such as lack of self-confidence; 2 excessive demands from parents on their children, lack of communication; 3 teachers improperly guiding.
Weaknesses from pupils' characters
Pupils lack of self- confidence ease to be anxiety in learning L2. Some pupils may naturally timid that they don't know what to do or forget the most familiar knowledge due to tension, even if they carefully prepare in class to speech. Some conservative pupils who lack of adventurous spirit fear of making mistakes for being joked after class.
In addition, author also found that the pupils from poor family or countryside have higher anxiety.
4.2.2 Excessive demands from parents on their children
Parental unrealistic demands or lacking communication often affects pupils' learning emotion which causes LA. Through individual interviews, author analysis the effect of relationship between parents and pupils, and found that the parents with high education background pay attention to communicate with their children, while the low education background ones not only have not enough communication, but evaluate their child in a very signal certify: scores first. They think that the students with excellent academic perforates are good children; the students with worse academic perforates are bad ones. These incorrect judgments overburden pupils L2 learning, which result in pupils have to hard work to gain a high score. But the consequence is not as good as parents' expectation for the factors of intelligent, study strategies, and learning capacity.
Most of poor family parents equipping with not high educational background make money by high- tension manual work. The disproportional payment force they urgently desire their children changing fate through excellent learning score in school. Although there are many outstanding students among them, the general pupils are common students who are experiencing LA, such as embarrassment, tears, self-blame and even give up, in front of learning setbacks.
4.2.3 Teachers improperly guiding
Teachers are one of main essential educational settings. In the process of L2 learning, the teacher is the most important factor. Pupils' LA is not only about their own psychological qualities, but also about the direct or indirect relationship with their teachers. In teaching process, teachers due to their quality or improperly using educational methods or means impact on pupils' learning psychology which easily causes LA.
Besides, some teachers with bad tempers are often stern, who could don't endure any error of pupils, so that they prefer to punish or use corporal punishment, which add pupils' psychological burden, promoting learning antagonism, and hinder pupils' roundly grow and school' normal teaching.
4.3 Measures of lessen language anxiety
4.3.1 Measures to overcome weaknesses of pupils' characters
Overcoming pupils' weaknesses of characters mainly focus on boosting their confidence of English and simulating their learning motivation through encouraging them that they can defeat any difficulty when they learning English.
The teachers can use the following measures to promote pupils' confidence: Firstly, creating a comfortable, non-threatening environment to encourage moderate risk-taking without hurting students' self-esteem; Secondly, to avoid correcting mistakes made by students strictly in the classroom; Thirdly, to use proper competition in the classroom; Fourthly, to put forward proper classroom goals and requirements according to the different levels of the students; Fifthly, to give rewards in time to students to cultivate self-esteem and reduce the anxiety resulting from fearing of negative evaluation; Sixthly, to avoid asking the students for perfect performance in English classroom; Seventhly, to help students use active pedagogical implications, for example, self-encouragement; Eighthly, to avoid the activities that students think unhappy; Ninthly, to avoid the activities which are in collision with learning aims; Tenthly, to avoid the activities which are above or beyond the students' abilities; Eleventh, to avoid the activities which are harmful to self-image and social-image; Twelfth, to use learning in second classroom to self-confidence and cooperative self-esteem; Thirteenth, to encourage the students to learn to respect, understand and make friends with others While applying the above suggestions, the students can deal with language of self-esteem and negative evaluation effectively as possible as they can. Only in this way can the students enjoy learning English and achieve success in English learning.
4.3.2 Measures to parents' influence
Parents should bring beneficial influence on their child, because they are pupils' key adults whose attitudes directly relate to pupils' motivation to L2 learning.
1)Setting up good parent- teacher partnerships
Schools as the specific educational institution have abundant educational knowledge, while parents are not provided with these. Therefore, schools should enhance partnership with parents and promote rational theory: 1. Schools can introduce round educational theory by school-newspapers. The school-newspaper edits teachers teaching reflection and problems they once meted and solved and pupils' heartfelt wish about learning. All of these are helpful to strengthen the communication between schools and parents. 2. Parents meeting should be convoked regularly. In the meeting, parents should be allowed together with educators to identify concerns, analyze situations, develop and implement plans, and evaluate goal attainment. Problem solving, information gathering, and resource sharing are all heightened. The attitudes parents and educators hold about each other set the stage for an atmosphere conducive for the formation of effective relationships. School personnel that attempt to put programs into place in the absence of constructive attitudes and a healthy atmosphere will likely experience limited success
2) Establish positive family learning environment
Family is the second important learning place for pupils, in which parents' words and actions and other environment factors affect pupils' L2 learning, thus establishing a positive family environment is essential: 1. Parents should encourage their children to show what they have learnt in school and praise their excellent performance, which aims at enhancing pupils' L2 learning confidence and boosting their learning motivation. 2. Parents should cooperate with teachers to monitor effect of L2 learning in school and urging pupils to finish homework and practicing oral English.
4.3.3 Measures to teachers' improper guiding
The teacher should stimulate the students' motivation and interest of English learning. According to the students' level, teachers arrange different tasks and put forward different demands so that students are able to finish them to avoid increasing learning anxiety, which can establish the students' self-confidence in English learning. Teachers should have rich knowledge to make English class enjoyable. Teachers should be patient to help students overcome anxiety as a consequence of failure experience. Teachers should have higher professional quality aimed at offering comprehensible input in English class, making it easy for the students to study English. Teachers should create a relaxing, active and stress-free learning atmosphere in which students don't hesitate to speak English and dare take risk in participating in various learning activities. It is important for students to recognize language learning anxiety. So it is teachers' responsibilities to make the students aware of learning anxiety and take effective measures to lessen learning anxiety. Teachers should encourage the students to take an active part in language practice. The more students practice English, the more confidence they have. Proper evaluation is an important method for reducing English learning anxiety. Teachers should be wise in finding out the students' good qualities so as to promote them to face difficulties. The teachers' response to students' performance should be neither a simple "right" or "wrong", nor a simple "Yes" or "No". At the same time, teachers must carefully decide when, how often, and most importantly, how errors are corrected. Teachers should create a non-threatening learning environment for the students because it is vital for students to learn English. Only when the students feel stress-free can they diminish learning anxiety as possible as they can. Teachers should teach the students in accordance of their aptitude and respect their individual differences in the process of arranging teaching tasks. Teacher should be aware of their influence on students and do everything they can to reduce English learning anxiety. Depending on the students' needs and cultural background, the teachers can use any or all of the following suggestions for diminishing language anxiety by Rebecca L. Oxford (1999). â‘ Help students understand that language anxiety episodes can be transient and do not inevitably develop into a lasting problem; â‘¡Boost the self-esteem and self-confidence of students for whom language anxiety has already become a long-term trait by providing multiple opportunities for classroom success in the language;â‘¢Encourage moderate risk-taking and tolerance of ambiguity in a comfortable, non-threatening environment; â‘£Reduce the competition present in the classroom; â‘¤ Be very clear about classroom goals and help students develop strategies to meet those
This study has investigated the difference of L2 learning anxiety of primary school students from 2 Grade to 6 Grade, examined the relationship between LA and pupils' L2 achievements and probed into the factors that could arouse pupils' LA.
The result of this research can be summarized as follows:
In the first place, this research shows that pupils' LA is obvious, and the higher levels of LA pupils have, the lower achievement they get.
Second, the reasons that arouse pupils' LA are various, therefore lessen pupils' second language learning anxiety should be actualized from the aspects of students, teachers and parents. Students should positively take part into L2 class and bravely show their achievements and ask questions about L2 learning. Teachers should pay attention to students' L2 learning psychology, establish easy and happy teaching environment, and strengthen the relationship with parents. As for parents, they should provide a beneficial L2 learning environment, encourage their children to practice L2 and give them great psychological comfortable and emotional support.
Third, communication apprehension, English tests and fear of negative evaluation are some causes that provoke pupils' language learning anxiety.
As elementary English teachers, we should keep these differences between second-grade students and six-grade students in mind, which would help us to choose preferable teaching methods might student systems and closely monitor the classroom climate to identify specific sources of student anxiety for different grade students.
In order to reduce the anxiety level in the language class, we suggest teachers speak more slowly and reinforce the material to aid comprehension and retention, provide instructional material more relevant to students' life or goals, and be aware of individual learning styles. In addition, teachers can use more whole-class activities, because investigation results of this research indicate that not only third-grade students but also sixth-grade students like the whole-class activity. Furthermore, teachers do not overtly or harshly correct the error, but simply repeats the phrase in the proper grammatical or phonetic form. Correct feedback is given, but mistakes are not emphasized in front of the others. It might also be helpful if the teacher points out that mistakes are an integral part of the learning process and are not to be feared.