A Study on the Neuroscience of Learning

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The research to be carried out aims at establishing the importance of neuroscience of learning in education and individual development; this means that effective educational policies and practices are prepared to give room for all the people to learn despite their learning challenges. it also brings out how the brain develop during the childhood stage up to the adulthood and the factors that influence their learning of which various measures may be devised to address them ,for learning to be of importance to the individual and the society as a whole. The research to be undertaken therefore, ought to answer the following questions;

-How does neuroscience of learning impact on education management and development?

-What are the factors that influence neuroscience of learning?

-How can neuroscience of learning be enhanced for learning to be effective?

Neuroscience is a field which deals with the study of the human brain and the nervous system. It also entails the biological basis of perception, learning, memory and being conscious. The nervous system and the brain form the basis of the human learning. Learning on the other hand according to Koizumi refers to a process by which the brain reacts to stimuli by making neuronal connection that act as an information processing circuit and provide information storage

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In contrast, Coffield from the education research proposes that learning refers to significant changes in capability, understanding, attitudes or values by individual groups, organizations or a society. Neuroscience of learning helps the stakeholders involved in education sector to come up with sound policies and they can design a curriculum which suits children according to the needs. It also grants an opportunity for early identification of children with special needs and facilitates the provision of special education in the country.

(Centre for Education Research and innovation 2007)

Neuroscience therefore investigates how our brains learn, remember and keeping what we learn repeatedly. Fruitious learning is influenced by the context provided by class rooms and families, the curriculum in place and the teachers. Thus, neuroscience of learning provides detailed account of how learners respond to different learning approaches and the learning methods, and how the environment influences the individual learning process. The more we learn and know about our brains, we can use the same knowledge in improving the learning process in learning institution right from preschool to the university level.

1.2 Specific objectives

-To establish the impacts of neuroscience of learning in education management and development

- To find out the factors that influences the neuroscience of learning.

- To find out ways of enhance neuroscience of leaning.

1.3 Research questions

-How does neuroscience of learning impact on education management and development?

-What are the factors that influence neuroscience of learning?

-How can neuroscience of learning be enhanced for learning to be effective?

2.0 THE LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The brain development in neuroscience of learning

Human brain develops differently throughout his/her life time that is from childhood to adulthood. Changes in human brains influences learning and as such different thing can be taught at different period in life.

2.1.1 At the early stage of life

This is a suitable age for learning because of the following reasons attributed to the brain: the process of synapses manufacturing and neuron connections is happening at a higher in children than during adulthood. In this stage synaptic pruning occurs and as such this makes learning possible for the young children as there are a lot of changes in their brains. Pruning and synaptogenesis have been coined from researches done on monkeys which show that these processes occur early enough in children signifying that when a child is three years old, it means that it is a good time for learning.

Secondly, it is the period in which a child can learn a particular skill or develop certain abilities. This explains why young children can produce and pronounce words clearly than adults since young children involve movement, memory and their visual basics that are learned naturally. Lastly, are the effects of the improvished and enriched learning environment for example classrooms. The improvished environments are known to affect cognitive and neural development.

2.1.2 Brain development at the youthful stage

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Neuroscience shows that the brain continues to develop even during adolescence period. This development occurs in mostly in the parietal cortices and the fore part where the synaptic pruning does not commence until after this period. Another change occurring in these brain parts is the myelination which is the process of where axons relay the messages from and to the neurons and also they become insulated myelin which is a fatty element found in the brain. The insulation of the neurons increases its efficiency of relaying information in the brain. in these parts myelin process increases gradually throughout the period and also to early adulthood facilitating the increase in the speed of communication of the neurals in these parts of the brain. Synaptic pruning continues to occur and as such it gives the teens the possibility of storing lot information in their mind because they activate many parts of their brains when learning equations in mathematics for example the algebraic ones

2.1.3 Brain development in the adult stage

Changes occurring are not much as those during childhood, the brain will continue to develop and change even if there is increase in age. In this stage, the brain becomes less elastic and it commences losing the neurons at a faster rate. The neurogenesis also occurs in one region of the brain meaning that it is well prepared for continuous learning and makes it able to adapt to new situations, day to day occurrences and experiences that may have significant impacts to life.

2.2 Factors influencing neuroscience of learning

2.2.1 The environment

According to researches that have been done earlier, nurturing of the brain plays a centre role in the learning process. It has also provided the educationists the information on the appropriate timings for different learners undertaking various stuffs. Thus, the process of nurturing brains is not the same for every learner because of the varied genetic make- ups and the surrounding learners are exposed to. The learning brain is therefore, dependent on these two factors since it readily adapts to an environment easily.

There is a close-link between the brain structure and the experiences it comes across. Experience is known to cause changes in the structure of the brain which in turn impacts on the effects that the preceding experience has on the brain, this explains why there is individual learning difference in our society which comes as a result of cumulative and continuous interactions between the brain genetic make up and the surrounding.

The surrounding in which a learner is exposed to affects the expression of genes related to learning throughout ones' lifetime. The resultant therefore, affects the subsequent experience- elicit genetic expression. It is in this manner that each independent brain accumulates structural idiosyncrasies which has impacted on the learning process, meaning that it is difficult to come up with an ideal environment for each learner. Thus, the learning environment is of great significance as it shapes the learning process.

By understanding emotional and physiological processes, educational and training programmes can be designed to aid in development of emotional intelligence so as to enhance learning capacity of the brain. It also adds to defining age appropriate strategies for regulating emotions. This means that parents and teachers embark on a stab le environment for the learners to comprehend and express their emotions clearly.

2.2.2 Personal factors

The sensation and perception elements of a human being affect ones learning, since the sensory organs are the gateway of perceiving stimuli within the environment and learning. Thus, if a learner has a defect in one these sensory organ learning because difficult, for somebody who has a poor eye sight means that he/she can not ready clearly.

Secondly, tiredness also decreases brains' efficiency in learning and has such if one is tired grasping something is difficulty. This is accompanied by boredom which makes one not to have that urge of learning. Thirdly, neuroscience of learning is influenced age and maturity of the individual, children can learn at earlier age than others and increase the age means that a learner can solve problems and can regulate his/her emotions.

Fourthly, needs affect neuroscience of learning since there are basic needs which children can do without. For example, food, affection and recognition, without these growing children are affected in a number way which deter them from learning and changes their normal behavior. Starving poor children concentrate less on learning than their counterparts who have sufficient food.

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Lastly, motivation has a human factor influences neuroscience of learning since it is the centre of learning which drives a learner to do something now and again. When learners are adequately motivated, learning is directed and engages students to activities which result in a continuous learning.

2.3 Contributions of neuroscience of learning towards education.

From researchers done, teachers say that neuroscience of learning contributes to the understanding of the classroom since teachers are enthusiastic about learning. It leads to the understanding of the brain concepts and other concepts of learning. Neuroscience of learning has made teachers to understand and develop interest in the number of learners having psychological problems, growth and development problems. Guy Glaxaton suggested that education has been an unsecured field because of the dangers of enthusiasm. He said that educational problems have to be justified and is to be done must be rationalized. the concerns of other educationists is that they see that there is need for moderation between sense of caution and the optimism that each stakeholder in the education sector has, this is for the learning to something of value.

In general neuroscience of learning helps in problem solving. It provides the necessary information to the building of the educational theories and practice. This is attributed to the fact that behavioral science alone is not adequate enough to used in determining if the development dyslexia is a disorder of the primary visual or that emanating from the phonological aspect of the learning. On other hand, neuro-imaging which is a component of neuroscience of learning has aided in revealing the decreased activation for the learners with dyslexia problem in the brain that supports the processing of the phonology hence perpetuating behavioral citing of the phonological theory of dyslexia.

Thus, for children or learners with this problem who receive good educational intervention may end up changing. The activation patterns of their brains may change and look like those of people with no brain disorders. In relation to this, the brain regions may also act as mechanisms for compensation. This assists teachers and other educationists to understand that even if learners having dyslexia problem improve their behaviors, cognitive and neural response by which they process written information still may be different leading to practical implications on the given instructions during the learning process.

There is clear evidences that neuroscience of learning is significant in the language development, mathematics and other aspects of learning and literacy. Language is a fundamental thing in the production of oral work and academic attainment. Children who have language problems pose challenges on the preparation of the educational policy and its implementation in a country. The earlier these problems are noticed the earlier the interventions are made to aid the learning environment especially the classroom for it to facilitate language development, which an essential component in children's live. Without proper educational interventions it means that the individual, the parent and the country's' economy is affected negatively.

Conclusion

From the literature review neuroscience of learning is a fundamental field which affects individual learning and the education policies in a country. Neuroscience of learning reveals the importance of the brain in the learning process and its development through human's growth. Neuroscience has therefore helped educationists to address the needs of children with developmental problems. The factors that influence neuroscience of learning have different impacts on the learning process and as such remedial measures have to be taken to enhance or to extinct their influence for learning to be effective.