An Investigation into the nature of classroom management skills

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Purpose: To increase awareness, understanding and knowledge of the importance of using appropriate classroom management skills, the promotion of self-motivation and

personal growth. It is hoped that this study will encourage teachers to revisit the

classroom management strategies learnt during their training and discourage the use of the old methods of maintaining discipline such as corporal punishment. It is also

important that teachers foster a positive school atmosphere which is influential in

promoting positive attitudes, enhancing the quality of communication and aid in human "

relations skills. It is also important that teachers develop positive identity, maintair1 their

own learning and work as a team in promoting good classroom discipline.

Significance: The bad publicity highlighted in the media has had negative impact on the

teaching fraternity. The identity of our teachers includes more than their role as a teacher.

It includes their personal life, physical and mental health, lifestyle, relationships, and A

i personal interests. It is important that teachers regain the trust of all stakeholders, develop

positive identity of who they are and promote best practices in the classroom. Of i I

significance is the respect of the profession and the teachers. It is also important that

teachers examine their emotional intelligence as these skills are important in helping

them get along with others and improve their social interactions.

Methods: The researcher intends to use strategies such as questionnaires, observation,

coaching and consulting. The questionnaires will be used to obtain information on the strategies used by teachers in maintaining discipline in the classroom, awareness of emotional intelligence and mental health. The researcher will coach participants as they

if use appropriate strategies to deal with the challenges in the classroom. This will provide information of the best practices in the classroom and the most effective strategies in maintaining discipline.

The researcher will use the process consultancy model as she will actively engage

T participants in the diagnostic process, implementation, intervention and assessment of the project. This will help the teachers as they gain better understanding of what works well and what changes would be helpful and how strategies implemented can aid in classroom management. With this process it is expected that the teachers with the help of the consultant will be more likely to identify realistic interventions. The researcher plans to " obtain feedback and provide additional information as she participates in regular weekly staff meetings.

The researcher will use observation as she actively engages participants in examining

organization and class rules, physical and psychosocial environment and implementing

and using strategies.

The researcher solicited the involvement of the participants who are all adults. They were

all encouraged as they think this was a genuine concern of the institution. All

participants including, principals, counsellors and teachers were encouraged by this

project as this task was in line with their everyday activities as they carried out their

duties in and out of the classrooms.

An investigation into the nature of classroom management skills by a group of teachers

Introduction

The school is an educational organization in which teaching learning takes place. It is an institution in which teachers should have excellent instructional strategies

if supported by methods of goal setting, instructional planning and classroom management. Because of the complexity of teaching, teachers are required to have professional knowledge and skills, commitment and engage in professional growth. Many new teachers report that teaching is more difficult than they envisioned. Santrock (2001) stated that, "Scientific knowledge alone is insufficient to inform the situations that

one will encounter in the classroom" p.6. He believed it will require some personal skills and experiences as well as accumulated wisdom of our teachers.

Need for the Study

The Holy Rosary Primary School formerly Ormsby Hall Primary is situated at 9 A

Géabs Avenue, Kingston 2. This school was formerly located at 6 Victoria Avenue,

Kingston 3. Its present name was adopted from the Holy Rosary Catholic Church which

In close proximity to the school. The school has over 500 students on roll and 17

on staff. It has 6 ancillary members on staff. The school is in close proximity to .

innnercity communities in which most of the students live. The teaching learning

process has become considerably difficult because of the frequent incidence of violence

in the classroom. As a result the teachers lack the motivational skills that are necessary

enhance the teaching learning process. The cognitive theory suggests that frustration and discomfort trigger unpleasant feelings (Rule et al., 1987). He remarked that these

in turn, prompt aggression.

The behaviours of our teachers are now a major concern to the Jamaica teachers

Association and the Ministry of Education. Perhaps the most worrisome is the reports of

abuse by teachers in our news media. Could this be that the teachers have reached the

exhaustion stage? The Ministry of Education Schools Bulletin dated February 29, 2008

that corporal punishment is tantamount to physical abuse and does not have the

it support of the Ministry of Education. The teachers are trying various behaviour

modification techniques but are stressed by the amount of incidence on a daily basis. This

is affecting the way they carry out the duties daily and this may lead to some losing their

jobs. G. Smith (2010) in his article entitled," Finding work-life balance", spoke with a

_ 8, maple about the effects that work had on his lifestyle. The first remarked was, "It's really stressful" (p.Il). The other person expressed that the problem is not just the lack of time, but the emotional and physical toll the workday takes.

The study seems timely, as the jobs of our teachers are on the line. It is therefore important that teachers become self-motivated in order to provide a learning environment

That motivates students to learn. Sigmund Freud of the Psychodynamic Perspective

hat aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life.

Many educators are concerned with the insecurity in the classroom setting.

Purpose ofthe Study

The purpose of the study is to increase awareness, understanding and knowledge me importance of classroom management skills. Specifically, the study sought to gain

greater insight into the strategies used by the teachers and to implement new strategies that can help to promote self-motivation and personal growth and aid in better classroom management skills.

Significance of the Study

The fact that classroom management seems to rank high on the list of concerns for

many schools in Jamaica makes this problem very significant. Teaching involves social .

and ethical matters. On the front page of The Sunday Gleaner dated May 9, 2010 was

entitled, "A teacher's Rage'. It further highlighted that a l4 year old was cursed and

choked by an educator. The fact that some teachers are highlighted as abusers in the by

media makes this problem significant. This bad publicity is causing embarrassment to

both the schools and professional members of the teaching fraternity.

The Ministry of Education has informed teachers that they are not in support of

corporal punishment in the schools. The Ministry of Education is discouraging the old '

school methods of maintaining discipline. The teachers are having difficulty as they try

to solve the problems and dilemmas that crop up on a daily basis. Students' vast

individual variations and diversity increase the classroom's complexity and contribute to .

the challenge of teaching.

The school is a setting in which considerable socialization takes place. Teachers

are given the responsibility to make, teach and implement rules that will go a long way to

if prevent behavioural problems. The way some teachers manage their class or deal with r

challenges is alarming. This negative highlight on the education system makes this study a significant one. The study is `necessary at this time to reduce the bad publicity of our schools. It is also significant to ensure that teachers create the optimal learning

environment. The school has had a new principal since September 2010. ln order to improve the school atmosphere, several changes had to be made to deal with this problem. Some

changes however, are met with challenges and resistance and this has also added more

tension to the already unstable classroom setting. This is having a negative impact on

' some teachers' performance and the way they handle misbehaviour in the classroom.

. Finally, the study is significant as it is aimed at providing teachers with

information that can promote positive behaviour in children and aid in classroom

management. Gladding (1999) stresses that, "Consultation is an efficient method of

impacting the well-being and personal development of many students that can be seen

directly by a counsellor (p.469)". lf students and teachers have problems, the climate of the school becomes the focus of concern. To be helpful, the consultant has to work on changing the school atmosphere and structure.

Statement of Problem

Appropriate classroom management strategies are necessary to create the optimal 9

learning environment.

Research Questions

The following research questions have been developed in order to provide data on the

appropriate and inappropriate classroom management techniques used by teachers,

professional growth, emotional intelligence, personalities and professional skills of

teachers.

1. What are the classroom management strategies used by teachers? s

2. What are the personalities of the teachers? S

3. How do teachers manage their emotions?

4.· How often do teachers involve in professional development?

Limitations of the Study

Certain limitations of the study must be acknowledged. The main ones are cost and

limitations of time. Another limitation to the study is the possible lack of cooperation of

teachers.

Related Terms and Definition

Conditioning: consist of reluctantly adjusting to the more unpleasant aspects of one's job

(Schaefer 2001).

Commitment refers to the enthusiastic acceptance of pleasurable duties that comes with if recognition of the positive tasks of an occupation (Schaefer 2001).

According to Schaefer (2001), "Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted

customs, knowledge, material objects and behaviour (p.65).

Schaefer 2001 refers to the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create

distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences (p.96)

According to Schaefer 2001, "Personality refers to a person's typical pattern of attitudes,

needs, characteristics and behaviour (p.91). The self is a distinct identity that sets us apart from others (Schaefer, 2001).

Classroom Management skills is an important aspect of being an effective teacher and is

being able to keep the class as a whole working together and oriented toward classroom

tasks (Borko & Putnam, 1996)

Resocialization refers to the process of discarding former behaviour patterns and

accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life (Schaefer 2001).

Schaefer defines Socialization as," the process whereby people learn the attitudes, values

and actions .appropriate for members of a particular culture" (p.l 12).

A group is any number of people with similar norms, value and expectation who interact

with each other (Schaefer 2001). ·

Literature Review

The classroom is filled with children who differ in many ways. They will have

different levels of intellectual ability, different personality profiles, different interests,

varying motivation to learn and different family, economic, religious and cultural

backgrounds. Because of the complexity of teaching and the variation among students,

effective teaching and classroom management is not like a "one size fit all" sock.

Teachers must master a variety of perspectives and strategies and should be flexible in

their application.

Personality

Feldman (2001) define personality as the relatively enduring characteristics that

differentiate people, that is, those behaviours that make each of us unique. He remarked

that it is also personality that leads us to act in a consistent and predictable manner both

in different situations and over extended periods (p.472). Ryckman, (2000) outlined the

main dimensions of personality founded by some personality researcher. The "Big Five"

personality factors: emotional stability, extraversion, openness to experience,

agreeableness and conscientiousness (P.152). These personalities are used by Santrock to

describe the personalities of the students in a classroom. Teachers must be aware of the

personalities of their students and know that it is also these traits that lead students to behave in a particular way across situations.

Santrock (2001) explained the concept of "person-situation interaction". He remarked that the best way to characterize an individual's personality is not in terms of

A personal traits or characteristics alone, but also in terms of the situation involved (p.l52).

The context or situation matters. Teachers are given the responsibility to monitor

situations of students with varying personality characteristics, help them to will feel most

comfortable and provide them with opportunities to learn in those situations.

' A Santrock (2001) defined "temperament" as a person's behavioural style and

characteristic ways of responding. He remarked that it is closely related to personality

and to the learning and thinking styles (p.153). Chess and Thomas, 1991 believed that there are three basic styles or clusters of temperament.

An easy child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular

routines, and easily adapt to new experiences.

A difficult child tends to react negatively, has aggressive tendencies, lack self- .

control, and is slow to accept new experiences. " A slow-to-warm-up child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative,

shows low adaptability and displays a low intensity of mood difficult temperament or a temperament that reflects a lack of control can place a student at risk for problems. Teachers must become aware of the variations in student's temperaments and use strategies that can facilitate students as they work in groups, and

provide opportunities for students to change, Samson & Rothbart, 1995 outlined the

strategies that teachers can use involving students' temperament. He remarked that

. teachers can, show attention to and respect for individuality, consider the structure of a

student's environment and be aware of the problems involved when labeling a student as

"difficult" and packaged programmes for "difficult children" (p.l54).

Because individual variations are so important in effectively teaching children, teachers must also identify his or her personality and temperament traits. It is also important that teachers are aware of how they manage their emotions in various situations. The school is an institution in which people relate to each other on a daily basis. Teachers must be aware of how to relate to their students, colleagues and management.

Acknowledging that some students are harder to teach than others is often helpful, and advice on how to handle a particular temperament also can be stressful. Teachers must be cautious on the way they" label" a child as this has the danger of

becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Culture

Teachers are expected to interact with students, parents, teachers and school personnel from different cultural backgrounds. Gladding 2000 defined culture as "any

group of people who identify or associate with one another on the basis of some common

include learned experiences, beliefs and values (p.8l). Teachers interact with individuals

at school and in their communities. An important educational goal of the teachers is to

help students develop respect for people from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

Teachers must become aware of the cultural backgrounds of their students. They must

also be aware that culture also influences their own behaviour as they interact with their

students. Brewer &Campbell, 1976; Campbell & Levine, 1968) found that people in all

cultures tend to believe that what happens in their culture is "natural" and "correct" and

what happens in other cultures are "urmatural" and "incorrect" p 2. behave in ways that favour their cultural group perceive their cultural customs are universally valid , feel proud of their cultural group, and feel hostile toward other cultural groups.

Teachers must be aware that ethnic and gender biases, prejudice and discrimination can have negative impact on the teaching learning process. Children from a low socio-economic background are often faced with problems at home and at school and these present barriers to their learning. They might have parents who do not set high educational standards for them, who are incapable of reading to them, and who do not set

positive behavioural patterns for them to follow. Students may have difficulty in the way

they acquire English and vocabulary because of the enormous differences in amount of

language to which they are exposed and the level of language development they

eventually attained. Some parents are unable to provide much academic supervision or purpose, need, or similarity of background? He remarked that share elements of culture purpose, need, or similarity of background? He remarked that share elements of culture

include learned experiences, beliefs and values (p.8l). Teachers interact with individuals

at school and in their communities. An important educational goal of the teachers is to

help students develop respect for people from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

Teachers must become aware of the cultural backgrounds of their students. They must

also be aware that culture also influences their own behaviour as they interact with their

students. Brewer &Campbell, 1976; Campbell & Levine, 1968) found that people in all

cultures tend to:

believe that what happens in their culture is "natural" and "correct" and

what happens in other cultures are "unnatural" and "incorrect" p 2. behave in ways that favour their cultural group perceive their cultural customs are universally valid feel proud of their cultural group, and feel hostile toward other cultural groups.

Teachers must be aware that ethnic and gender biases, prejudice and discrimination can have negative impact on the teaching learning process. Children from a low socio-economic background are often faced with problems at home and at school and these present barriers to their learning. They might have parents who do not set high educational standards for them, who are incapable of reading to them, and who do not set positive behavioural patterns for them to follow. Students may have difficulty in the way they acquire English and vocabulary because of the enormous differences in amount of

language to which they are exposed and the level of language development they eventually attained. Some parents are unable to provide much academic supervision or assistance to their children. Teachers should avoid stereotyping and look for ways to

assist parents in contributing to their children's education. Santrock, 2001 defines prejudice as an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual because of the individual's membership in a group (p.l67). He remarked that some students have inferior educational opportunities as they are exposed to teachers and school administrators who have low academic expectations for them and encounter negative stereotypes because of the environment in which they live. Students should feel confident as they interact with teachers, parents and school personnel. People who learn

to think deeply and critically about ethnic relations are likely to decrease their prejudice and stereotyping of others. Teachers should understand that others person's point of "

view require spending time with them and getting to know them, how they think and feel.

Regardless of the cultural background, people need a positive sense of self and

connectedness to others to develop fully as human beings.

Emotional Development

Teachers are faced with several emotional situations in the classroom on a daily

basis. It is not only from the students within their classrooms but also from parents as they seek to respond to various challenges within the school setting. Perhaps the most

challenging is not being able to deal with the negative emotions such as anger, anxiety,

guilt and sadness,. Teachers have to speak to emotional issues such as hurt feelings over

being left out, envy and disagreements that most often erupt into physical conflict. It is important for teachers to evaluate themselves as well as their students' emotional and

intellectual skills. Santrock 2001 pointed out that emotional intelligence consists of

emotional self awareness (such as separating feelings from actions), managing

emotions (such as controlling anger), reading emotions(such as taking the perspective of

. others), and handling relationships(such as solving relationship problems) (p.l 14). One

aspect of emotional intelligence is being able to cope effectively with stressful

circumstances. Self awareness is especially important in emotional intelligence because enables children to exercise self-control. Students can learn conflict resolution skills

which will help them to get along with others and improve their social interactions.

Teachers must become aware of their own strengths and weaknesses in order to know

how to manage their thoughts, feelings and reactions. This will also help to improve their

decision making and communication skills. Effective teachers use good communication

skills. They have an assertive rather an aggressive, manipulative, or passive communication style. It will also help them to Understand that empathy, understanding

S others' feelings and respecting differences in how people feel about things are key to

developing good relationships with students, parents and school personnel. Bockaerts,

Pintrich & Zeidner, 2000) stated that "Effective teachers have good strategies for helping

students become self-motivated to learn.

Socialization

Santrock, 2001 pointed out that, as agents of socialization, school fulfill the p

function of teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. In this social

unit, children interact with teachers who are powerful figures in their lives. The teachers

symbolize authority, which establishes the climate of the classroom, the conditions of

social interaction and the nature of group functioning. Teachers are given the

responsibility to provide good strategies that can improve the social skills of their

students. It is also dependent on how teachers manage their classrooms as they teach

children how to communicate with other students, facilitate them in activities and also

improve their chance of being liked by others or their peers. Inappropriate strategies can

lead to antisocial behaviours within the classroom. Teachers should recognize that the

school is a social system and should provide interventions that can enhance better

friendships among students, colleagues and parents. Learning to behave appropriately

within an occupation is a fundamental aspect of human socialization.

Commitment

Teachers often report that that in order to be an effective teacher requires an

investment of time and effort. Some teachers report that they have "no life" from

September to July. Teachers are required to put in hours on evenings and weekends, in

addition to all of the hours spent in the classroom. This sometimes might not be enough

to prepare for classroom instruction, provide resources and plan weekly activities.

Being an effective teacher requires commitment. This includes being motivated,

having a good attitude and caring about students. Santrock, 2001 remarked that,

"Commitment and motivation help get effective teachers through the rough and tough

frustrated moments of teaching (p. l4)." In any job it is easy to get into a rut and develop

a negative attitude. As a result enthusiasm can turn into boredom. Teachers who

respond negatively to situations in the classroom might not have confidence in their own

self-efficacy and therefore let negative emotions diminish their motivation. This can have

negative implications for the school system.

Effective teachers are concemed with their students and will do what they have to

do to meaningfully engage students in learning, even if it means spending extra time or

resources. Effective teachers will look for ways to help their students consider each

other's feelings and care about each other. They will also have concern for parents and

school personnel because they bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom.

Managing the Classroom

Classrooms are public places where students observe how the teacher handles

discipline problems, unexpected events and frustrating circumstances. In some cases they

might perceive that the teacher is unfair in the way they handle the discipline of some

students. It is important that teachers use the first several weeks of classroom instruction

time to establish effective management principles.

Lewin & Nolan, 2000 pointed out that "Effective classroom management

maximizes children's learning opportunities? The older view to classroom management

was focused on creating and applying rules to control students' behaviour. The newer

view focuses more on students' needs for nurturing relationships and opportunities for

self regulation. Teachers are encouraged to teach students self-regulatory skills that can

help them to assess negative situations and use problem solving skills taught in the

classroom.

However, there are teachers within the school setting who still adopt the

Authoritarian strategy of classroom management. Santrock, 2001 describe this method as

restrictive and punitive. He expressed that students in authoritarian classrooms tend to be

passive learners, fail to initiate activities, express anxiety about social comparison and ·

have poor communication skills (p. 44l). This method of classroom management is

discouraged by principals and other educators. Teachers are encouraged to adopt

strategies that will help students develop skills to manage their own behaviours.

Physical punishment may convey to the student the idea that physical aggression is

permissible and perhaps even desirable. Physical punishment is often administered by

teachers who are themselves angry or enraged. Teachers are encouraged to use rewards

and reinforcement as they seek to modify and help students adjust their behavioural

patterns.

Consultation

Grey & Banerjee (2003) defined Consultancy as "Work that requires the

provision of expert or professional advice, information and service to individuals or

organizations? He expressed that there are important insights, lessons and methods of

enabling quality improvement that can be drawn from the trade of consultancy (993).

(Evertson & Harris 1999) highlighted the importance of consulting and working

together with other staff members on management issues. Group consultation is

employed when several individuals share a similar problem (e. g. in a work setting).

Gladding, 2000 remarked that, "School consultation enhances overall school

achievement, improves student self-concept, reduces stress in certain populations, leads

to better classroom management skills and facilitates the moral growth of students

(p.469)." Teachers are also encouraged to engage in consultation as they act in an

advisory and supportive way for others. They can advise persons in positions of power

about what conditions need modifying and then support efforts to make improvements.

Related Theories

. The social cognitive theory (1960) suggested that learning is acquired through

reinforcement. B.F. Skinner who was the founding father of operant conditioning,

describes learning as one in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, 1

depending on its positive or negative consequences. He became interested in specifying

how behaviour varied as a result of alterations in the environment. He described the

process that leads the pigeon in his experiment to continue pecking the key

"reinforcement". Feldman (1999) defined reinforcement as" The process by which a

stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will be repeated. Teachers

are encouraged to use "positive reinforcers as they seek to encourage student to adopt

positive behaviours in the classroom. These reinforcers can be in terms of rewards such

as tokens or praise. In using negative reinforcement, student will become aware that

taking an action removes a negative condition that exists in the environment. They will

learn to respond promptly to dangerous situations and become better organized to avoid

consequences.

The Humanistic theorists (1954) argued that people have a conscious need toward

self-actualization. Rogers assumed that self-esteem reflects the esteem in which others

hold us. Teachers must be aware that students' low self-esteem can translate into other

serious problems and can contribute to students' low achievement, depression, eating ~

disorders and delinquency. Teachers are expected to identify the cause of the low self-

esteem and the areas of competence important to the self. They are expected to provide

emotional support and social approval. They must use strategies that enhance

achievement and help children develop coping skills.

The cognitive theorists (1980) concluded that our behaviour is influenced by our

values, by how we interpret situations and by choice. They believe that frustration and

discomfort trigger unpleasant feelings. These feelings they conclude in turn prompt

aggression. Teachers are expected to deal with their own aggression as well as the

aggression of students within the classroom.

Kohlberg (1986) recognized that the moral atmosphere of the school is more

important than he initially envisioned. Moral education is described as that "hidden

curriculum" that is a part of every school. Instructions in moral concepts are important to

modify behaviours such as lying, stealing and cheating. Teachers are expected to reduce

these negative behaviours in their classrooms as they teach basic moral literacy to prevent

students from engaging in immoral behaviours than can hann them and others.

Teachers are expected to facilitate students in clarifying their values. Santrock (2001)

define values clarification as helping people to clarify what their lives are for and what is

worth working for (p.l10). It is important that as teachers facilitate students in this

regard, they too evaluate their own values as they help to develop more advance notions

if of such concepts as trust, cooperation, responsibility and community. Teachers are

expected to provide moral mentors. These are people who have contributed to the lives of if others in the community. This can facilitate students in understanding the feelings of

others around them and promote social responsibility and service to the community.

Methodology

The researcher intends to do a qualitative research. Action research is used to

solve specific classroom or school problem, improve teaching and other educational

strategies, or make a decision at a specific location (Mcmillan, 2000). The goal of this

action research is to improve educational practices immediately in a particular school.

Leedy and Omrod (2001) expressed that this method gives the researcher an increasingly

better handle on the nature of the phenomenon under investigation and so become

increasingly better able ask specific questions (p. l Ol). Qualitative research is by its

nature, flexible and open-ended and so it continues to evolve over the course of the

project.

The researcher proposed to use the procedures namely: questiomiaires and

observation. The literature review will consist of books, printed documents such as The

Daily Gleaner, internet resources, audio visual programmes and visual presentations. The project is estimated to be completed in six months. The researcher will use one month to

formulate research questions, two months for reviewing the literature, one month for

preparing methodology, two months for collecting and analyzing data and one month on

writing the thesis. The researcher proposed to use a descriptive presentation in analyzing

the data collected.

The population will consist of` sixteen teachers and twenty-five students. The

project will be conducted during the classroom instruction period and in regular staff

meetings. In order to conduct observations in an unbiased manner, the researcher seek to

write down observations, using symbols or special coding sheets. The researcher plans to use questionnaires to find out about teachers' experiences, beliefs and feelings.

Questionnaires will be sent by internet or given in person. The researcher will use

heterogeneous groups. The researcher plans to use consultation in addressing the needs of the

organization. This will be done in three levels: Individual, Group and Organization

levels. The researcher will use "The Process Consultancy Model". Grey and Banerjee

(2002) expressed that this model, "relies on setting a process that helps people to help

themselves. The consultant works with the client to understand the problems by

engaging them in the diagnostic process. The purpose of this is to gain better insight into

what works well, what changes would be helpful and how these could be implemented

within the contexts of the organization's culture and the external environment in which

they work" (p. 994). This type of collaborative consultation is necessary to provide

services for children, as well as to improve skills and attitudes of teachers. This

encourages shared responsibility in planning and decision making. It also enables

educators to construct effective alternatives as they encounter challenges in the

classroom.

Validation Procedures

The Guidance Counsellor and the Priest of the Holy Rosary Catholic Church who

are actively involved in counselling at the school will be asked to examine the instrument

used in this proposal. They will not be a part of the sample to be used for the research.

letter will be sent to the principal outlining my intentions of carrying out this research and

explaining the purposes of the research. Accompanying the letter will be an outline of

the procedures to be followed, and the expected duration of the subjects' participation.

Questionnaires will be sent by internet or given in person. The researcher will use

heterogeneous groups.

The researcher plans to use consultation in addressing the needs of the

organization. This will be done in three levels: Individual, Group and Organization

levels. The researcher will use "The Process Consultancy Model". Grey and Banerjee

(2002) expressed that this model, "relies on setting a process that helps people to help

themselves. The consultant works with the client to understand the problems by

engaging them in the diagnostic process. The purpose of this is to gain better insight into

what works well, what changes would be helpful and how these could be implemented

within the contexts of the organization's culture and the external environment in which

they work" (p. 994). This type of collaborative consultation is necessary to provide

services for children, as well as to improve skills and attitudes of teachers. This

encourages shared responsibility in planning and decision making. It also enables

educators to construct effective alternatives as they encounter challenges in the

classroom.

Validation Procedures

The Guidance Counsellor and the Priest of the Holy Rosary Catholic Church who

are actively involved in counselling at the school will be asked to examine the instrument

used in this proposal. They will not be a part of the sample to be used for the research.

letter will be sent to the principal outlining my intentions of carrying out this research and

explaining the purposes of the research. Accompanying the letter will be an outline of

the procedures to be followed, and the expected duration of the subjects' participation.

Following the validation the instrument will be sent to the programme advisors for the

approval of the proposal and thesis writing.

End Product

It is expected that this study will help the researcher gain insights into the

behaviour modification strategies to be used in handling misbehaviour in the classroom.

The researcher will then use this knowledge to build awareness of the teachers and

facilitate them in promoting strategies that will promote learning, improve discipline in

the classroom and at the same time integrate their personal life into positive, meaning

identity of who they are. It will also help teachers to build on good resources and

supports thus providing a diverse area of expertise which can promote competent

instructions and provide effective services for students.

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