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During post-independence, formation of education system took place in Malaysia is from the reports implemented by national educationist such as the Razak Report and Rahman Talib Report (1961) which were known as the old curriculum or KLSR. The Rahman Talib Report eventually became to be known as the Education Act 1961. During these years the purpose of implementing the education system was to unite the nation of the country and create a universal education for all. As an effort to unite the nation, the names of all primary schools were converted to national and national-type schools. However the old curriculum was replaced with Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah due to some weaknesses in KLSR. For example, there are repetitions in the syllabus and the curriculum only focus on each subject separately. In addition, the syllabuses used also considered too much for the students which make them feel bored. The implementation of KLSR only focuses on the achievement of individuals in academic and does not emphasis on aspects in JERIS.
As KLSR fails to implement the objectives of NPE successfully, Kurrikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah was implemented based on the Mahatir Report in the year 1983. This is a step forward to creating a democratized education in which the educational opportunity is given equally both in rural and urban areas. Later in 1993, KBSR came to be known as Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah. There are four principles four principles in KBSR namely integrated approach, one education for all, holistic development of the individual and life-long learning. The integrated approach is further divided into skills cohesion, infusion, and integration. Secondly, holistic development of individual as it is closely related to the development of potentials of individual. One may only develop potential skills if the person can develop spirituality, emotionally balanced, physically healthy, intellectual and social able. Other principles in KBSR are life-long learning and one education for all.
Nevertheless, the KBSR was replaced by KSSR in 2011 to further reinforce the goals of the country towards creating a better education system. Generally, KBSR focuses only on 3M which are reading, writing and arithmetic. This caused students to lack of critical thinking skills. The elements of KSSR focus more on creativity, innovation, entrepreneurial, information technology and communication contrasting the KBSR elements which focuses only on creativity and analytical thinking. On the other hand, the assessment method used in KSSR is not through public examination and school based assessment. In KBSR, there is only one method of assessing which is through the public examination. On the contrary, the KSSR is designed based on 6 areas which are the as the KBSR is only based on three areas. Moreover curriculum designed in KSSR is modular yet KBSR linear based curriculum. Although the organization of curriculum in both the KSSR and KBSR is divided into two levels but the modules and subjects in each level differs.
ACTIVITIES BEING CARRIED OUT IN SCHOOLS
I have conducted a survey in a Tamil medium primary school which is SJK(T) Dengkil in Selangor. From the survey, I have discovered that the activities that are being carried out are divided into two which are school based activities and classroom activities. According to schoolâ€™s senior assistant, the aims of the activities carried out are to actualize the objectives of NPE.
The school organizes annual sports day between Februarys to March where all students take part. The main aim is to involve all the students and to improve the studentâ€™s fitness level Students will be assembled in the field according to their house colour. For each house colour there will be a teacher assistances guiding the students during the sports day. Students taking part in the event will be contributing points to the house colour. Students will take part in different running, throwing and jumping events. By organizing this activity the schools successfully increase the participation and enjoyments of the students in sports. This activity had also filled the studentâ€™s leisure time. Through this activity the aspect of JERIS can be achieved. The students will be physically active and healthy.
Secondly, the school also conduct science fair project.This activity involve all the students and marks will be given according to class. The project is conducted to expose the students to science. This project is also an effort to make the weaker students to learn science in a fun way. This activity will be monitored by the head panel of science, science teacher and the class teacher. The students should conduct experiments based on the given topic. The winner will be awarded in and will be sent by the school to participate in states level science fair project. As a result, the students have a better understanding on the topics they had experimented on. The students were also able to share knowledge and idea with each other and came up with good experiments. Through this activity students can develop intellectually as this activity helps to improves the students creativity, critical thinking skills and develop the ability on reasoning.