Nowadays education is very important in our life. It plays an important role in producing quality human resource in every aspect. As such, a lot of schools have been built in order to give enough education for long lasting learning to everyone. So, in order to produce quality human capital that can give benefits to the religion, community and country a good quality of education must be provided to everyone. Effective teaching and learning should be conducted correctly to make sure learners are able to learn efficiently and effectively to face today's development and modernizations.
Hence, an effective way must be used to train learners so that a quality of human capital can be produced. So, homework is the one of the methods teachers use as a teaching tool. It is also a method that teachers use to teach students outside of school. It is a task assigned by the teacher to the students as a form of continuous learning. Homework has been defined simply as "tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during non-school hours" (Cooper, 1989, p. 3). Homework is a way that student can reinforce, apply or reinforce knowledge and skill.
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However there are still people who do not realize the importance of homework to them, especially students who are not aware of the importance of homework to their academic performance. Student will give many excuses to their teacher why they do not do their homework such as they do not understand the subjects, they have no time to do homework, no support to do homework outside of the class and some of them choose not to do their homework. Homework also contributes to the conflict among students, teachers, parents and people surrounding. It also has been debated a long time ago since the beginning of the twentieth century and it has been seen continuous until today.
Background of the study
According to The National Assessment of Educational Progress, two thirds of all Malaysian students were occupied with homework and the percentage is increasing (Ling, 2004). The issue of homework has became a matter of concern in Malaysia when an Australian psychologist Michael Carr-Gregg published a report in a local daily (New Straits Times, July 30, 2004 p. 2) highlighting that Malaysian students spend more time on homework than their counterparts in most other countries. The Malaysian students were said to spend an average of 3.8 hours a day compared to Singapore (3.5 hours), Russia (3.1 hours), Australia and Canada (2.2 hours) and Japan (1.7 hours). This show that students, teachers, parents and people surrounding are not aware about the important of homework to student's achievement.
As we can see that, Japan is highly developed country in technology, industry, education and others but Malaysia is developing country. In many aspect however when we look at Japan homework they only do a homework at average of 1.7 hours only compared to Malaysians with an average of 3.8 hours. This show that Japan has a good quality of education compare to the Malaysia because their students only take a few amount of time to do homework and that time was used appropriately. So, it can be conclude that less time but a good quality of homework compare to more time but less quality of homework. So, it becomes a question why these situations happen in our country especially in education quality in aspect of homework.
So, homework will give a big effect to the students especially in their academic performance. However, homework also contributes to the conflict between students, teachers and parents especially in amount of homework, types of homework, the effect of homework to students and factor that contribute students do and do not do their homework. Many researchers have conduct a research that related to the effect of homework to the student and factor that contribute student do and do not do their homework.
1.2 Research Statement
Homework should be a good tool of teaching for student especially in order to increase their ability, knowledge, skill and to develop positive attitude in student personality. A good characteristics of homework should be guide properly in aspect of types of homework, amount of homework, time spent on homework and also a supporter to the student to do the homework because this will lead to the effect of homework whether it positive or negative effects. However, many people include students, teacher, parents, and people surrounding do not aware the important of homework to the students' performance especially in their academic. Homework should be giving positive effects to the students. However, if the awareness and realization to the effect of homework it will give a negative effects to the students performance.
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According to the previous researcher, Cooper H. (1998), homework can give many benefits to the students. It can improve students' achievement and learning. It also can increase students understanding in that subject and can provide a good attitude in their habits and skills in their study. Homework also can teach students to be more discipline in manage their time properly. However there is also a negatives effect of homework such as giving student too much homework can lead them to lack of social time due to almost all their time do homework, less time spend with friend and parents, students feel stress and pressure to complete their homework and easy to get boring while doing their homework. Homework has been found to contribute to physical and emotional exhaustion. It also can make student feel desperate to complete their homework and will lead them to cheat by copying others student homework.
The problems here homework should be give positive effects to the students but lack of awareness and realization will lead to the negative effect. The issue that related to homework whether it gives negative or positive effects both is true and also related to each other. Due to this problem, this study is carried out to investigate the effects of homework on students achievement and to investigate the factors that makes students do and do not do their homework.
1.3 Research Objective
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of homework towards student performance and to investigate the factors that makes students do and do not do their homework in secondary school from form 1 student in Shah Alam. The study focuses on the following main objectives:
To investigate the effects of homework on the students achievement.
To investigate the factors that makes students do and do not do their homework.
1.4 Research Questions
What are the effects of homework on students' achievement?
What are the factors that make student do and do not do their homework?
1.5 Significance of the Research
This research on homework would give benefit to the students especially and also others parties such as teacher, parent and people surrounding.
This research will give many benefits to the students especially in their academic performance. However student also can be more manage in their time which means they will be more clever, mature and independent. They also can be realize and aware the important of homework to them and they also can determine the quality effect of homework to their performance.
Teacher in their responsibility to give homework to the student can manage and discuss to produce a good quality of homework in aspect of types of homework, amount of homework, time spent on homework and how to relate other people especially parent to involve in students homework in order to increase students' performance. Teacher also can design how homework should be done to make sure students will be more understand to specifics subject. Teacher can make homework as a one way of communication between students, school and parents and this will lead parents will be more aware to the effects of homework to their children performance.
It also gives benefit to parent especially. As we know, homework is a task given by teacher to do outside of the class hour and classroom. So, parent also can get involve in doing their students homework. This will lead to the case against negative effect of homework which student spent more time on homework rather with their family. Homework is also another way that parents can spend their time together with their children. Parents also can determine their children performance especially in their academic and parents also can help their children homework to be completed rather than them copying other people homework. Parents can be a supporter to their children.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
This research will used convenience sampling due to the resource constraint. The sample will be modest and only represent from a large population. The time constraint and budget make the research difficult to be done in larger population. So, the sample was selected randomly to answer the questionnaire and interview question.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
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This research will only take the sample to only 100 samples among secondary school students in Shah Alam to present the data. The students will be chosen randomly. Data from these samples will be getting from questioner and interview. The questioner will be distributing directly to the student. Other than that, two teachers were chosen randomly to be interview to get more data and information from different perspective of view.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In order to make sure that this research is conducted accordingly to the topic and to make sure that this research can be understand, below are the terms that been use in this study and their definition.
Homework has been defined as "tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are intended to be carried out during non-school hours" (Cooper, 2007, p. 4).
"Effect" is the consequences or result of one's action. The result can either positive or negative and also can be influenced by other factors such as surrounding, ability, health etc. (Walberg, 1991). In this research effect means result in students' achievement. The effects of homework on students, their attitudes and their achievements in positive or negative effects.
According to Wikipedia (2007), the word students refer to a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term (or its cognate in another language) is reserved for those who attendÂ university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called aÂ pupilÂ in English (or an equivalent in other languages). In its widest use,Â studentÂ is used for anyone who is learning. In this research student refer to the Malaysian students that will be selected to be the sample.
The Malaysia Government's Official Portal. Secondary school education is the second stage of formal education in Malaysia. Secondary education for Malaysian students starts at ageÂ 13 andÂ continues for of five to seven years. Retrieved from http://www.malaysia.gov.my/EN/Relevant%20Topics/Education%20and%20Learning/Non%20Citizen/nTheNationalEducationSystem/nSecondaryEducation/Pages/SecondarySchoolEducation.aspx, in this research we focus on form one student.
The word achievement refers to things that have been done with effort in order to get something good. In this research we look into the student achievement in high performance and lower performance in academic.
The word factors refer to fact or influence something to produce something whether it positive or negative result. In this research factor that we look is the factor that make student do and do not their homework which are parental involvement, teachers and subjects.