The Meaning of Multiple Measures Criteria

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Is it important to use multiple measures in today's classroom to assess children's academic performance?

It is essential for teachers to have the right tools when making judgements on students' achievements. In the article, the meaning of multiple measures Brookhart (2009) points out that multiple measures are characterised by using more than one score before making any judgements. We should not base our decisions onto one measure alone. Multiple assessment methods provide a broader widespread view of whether students have achieved the learning outcomes. Brookhart (2009) is of the opinion that the concept of multiple measures is defined and applied in many different ways and the decision as to what measures to use and how to combine them must be foremost when preparing for, and assessing students.

Multiple measures enhance strength of measuring in education as an achievement and meaningful information collaborated about students. Construct validity is the degree to which any score conveys meaningful information about the attribute it measures. In education, to build better and more relevant measures into our education systems these measures can be accessed from the learning targets and standards, addressing educational goals, education objectives and teaching objectives.

Educational Goals are a general statement of what students will know and be able to do and develop over a longer period. Example Learn to think critically and solve problems.

Educational Objectives - relate to specific statements of students performance that should be demonstrated at the end of a key learning unit. Example "The student will….."

Learning Targets- are what is to be achieved with a lesson or learning activity, it is a criteria standard in which the performance is judged.

The effective use of multiple measures lies within "High-Quality Classroom Assessment" (McMillan, 2009, p. 57). This is the process where teachers use reliable, valid, fair and useful means to measure student performance. Assessment results will be used to establish whether a school is making sufficient yearly progress, and the results will also provide schools with information they can use to evaluate their curriculum and learning instruction. Student-level results will be reported to schools and parents to provide an indicator of how students are performing on state standards. Brookhart (2009) states in the article the meaning of multiple measures that "To decide whether a school is doing a good job, we need to consider different measures ". McMillan ( 2007, p 33) discusses how standards are described by "what knowledge and skills that students should attain."

Brookhart (2009) states with "combined grades from all three measures to give a richer picture of plot understanding for all students in the class." Multiple assessments used within a classroom environment include observations, written notes, formal standardized testing, informal, summative, and self and peer assessments. With high-quality assessment methods in mind, multiple measures can become a meaningful tool in today's classroom.


Brookhart, S. (2009). The Many Meaning of Multiple Measures. 67(3), 2. Retrieved from

McMillian, J. (2007). Classroom Assessment Principles and practices for effective standards- based instruction. (4th ed.). Boston. Pearson Education. Inc.

Topic 4: Overview of summative assessment

Summative Assessments are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Summative assessment as is a means to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards. The information from this type of assessment is important; it can only help in evaluating certain aspects of the learning process. Summative assessments arise at the end of the unit to ensure students have met the program or unit targets and objectives.

Assessments consist of determining a purpose and learning, targets relate to standards, obtaining information from students, interpreting information and using the information. The foundation for an assessment is to help evaluate the effectiveness of programs, school improvement goals, alignment of curriculum, or student placement in specific programs. Summative assessments provide information at the classroom level therefore teachers are able to make instructional adjustments and interventions during the learning process.

"Knowledge and understanding learning targets are the types most commonly assessed in summative tests." (McMillan, 2007 p.157) Structuring of test items and selection of item type requires careful consideration. Summative assessments may consist of: written tests, oral presentations, concept maps, problem solving activities, project work, essays, formal assignments and exams. Therefore the main objective in summative assessments is to gain an indication of a students'' level of achievement.