The meaning and the approaches to Curricumlum

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The idea of curriculum is not new except the way we realize and theorize and it has changed over the years & there remains significant dispute as to meaning. It has begun in the running path of Greece & was actually amongst the courses. Definition offered by John Kerr and used by Vic Kelly in his regular work on the subject is useful for us. According to Kerr curriculum is, 'It is all learning which is considered and guided by the school, either it is accepted in groups or individually, inside or outside.

There are 4 method of approaching curriculum theory & practice:

1. Curriculum transmitted like body of information.

2. Curriculum as product which make attempt to get something in students.

3. Curriculum is like a process.

4. Curriculum is like a praxis.

Curriculum to be transmitted like syllabus

Various people still associate a curriculum through a syllabus. Syllabus, naturally, comes from the Greek which means a brief table with the discussions, the contents of a discourse, sequence of lectures regarding subject Smith, M. K. (2000). As per the Cambridge Board French GSCE exam teachers speak to them about the syllabus that make course of exam familiar. As we can observe in such documents there is a series of headings along with some additional notes which point out areas that could be examined. 

A syllabus will not normally point out the relative significance of its topics or the way in which they are to be considered. In cases such as Cruzan (1985) indicates, those who collect a syllabus likely to follow the traditional textbook come up to an 'order of content', or a outline prescribed by doing logical approach to the topic, or intentionally or unintentionally participated in a structure of university course structure. As a result, a way to curriculum theory & practice which concentrate on syllabus is only actually concerned with content. Curriculum is a main part of knowledge substance or subjects. Education given in this logic is the method by which these are transmitted or given to students by the most efficient process that can be work out (Blenkin etal 1992, 23).

People which still associate curriculum with a syllabus they are expected to limit their planning to a thought of the content or might be as body of knowledge that they like to transmit. 'It is also due to this view of curriculum has been accepted by several teachers in primary schools', Kelly (1985: 7) state that, 'have look upon issues of curriculum as of no worry to them, as they have not regarded their assignment as being to convey major part of knowledge in such way'.

The curriculum designed in our case is transmitted like a syllabus as it contains details on all the aspects required like Ms Word, Ms Excel, and Ms Access and is designed using a modular approach and gives a duration of 2 hr to each part. The curriculum follows a modular approach.

Curriculum considered as product

The leading form of describing and managing education in today world is recognized in the productive form.  Learning is most usually taken as a technical work out. In which objectives are made, considered a plan, then implement, and the outcomes in the form of products are measured Jacobs, H. H. (1999).  It is a method of view concerning education that has grown as influence in the late 1970 in United Kingdom with the increase of professionalism along with concern of competencies.  Therefore, in the late 1980s & 1990s many of the discussion concerning the National Curriculum for schools did not get so much apprehension about how the curriculum was thinking about and what its aim & content can be. 

Tyler (1949) and Bobbitt (1928, 1918) were the 2 famous American writers who dictate theory and practice within this belief. Bobbitt writes in The Curriculum as follows:

The fundamental theory of curriculum is straightforward. However human lives are different from each other, consist specific activities in the performance. Education that which is important for life is same that prepares absolutely and sufficiently for these specific activities.  Though these activities are many and varied they can be for any social class and can be discovered.  These will demonstrate the type of knowledge that men wants like abilities, outlook, routine, positive reception etc. and can be the aim of the curriculum.  They will be various, specific and for one person. Curriculum will be then that sequence of experiences which children & youth must contain through obtaining those objectives.  (1918: 42).The concept discussed is followed thoroughly followed as the curriculum focuses on topics that are relevant to students and they want the course which enhances their abilities, outlook, routine, positive reception etc.

This mode of thinking about curriculum assumption and practice was greatly persuaded by the development of management philosophy and observation Bruner, J. (1999).  'Scientific management' is developed by F.W. Taylor which is often associated with its main advocate name.  Fundamentally what he anticipated was division of labor with jobs is being simple; an addition of control of all managerial elements of the workplace; & cost accounting which is based upon systematic time-and-motion study.  All these three elements were concerned in this formation of curriculum assumption and practice.  According to following illustration, one of the appealing approach to curriculum theory was that it occupied detailed attention to needs of people how to work in order, how to one shall live.  The curriculum was not to be the outcome of armchair assumption but it is a systematic study product.  Bobbitt's work and assumption get some diverse responses. According to one criticism that was made, and which can be continue to be made, of this approaches is that absence of social vision or agenda to guide the method of curriculum structure Coate, K. (2001).  As it is a technical exercise. 

Following concerns are translated into a properly ordered method:  which is exactly related to the technical or productive philosophy lay down below.

Step 1: Analysis of need

Step 2: Construction of objectives

Step 3: Making choice of content

Step 4: Association of content

Step 5: Selection of learning practices

Step 6: Association of learning practice

Step 7: Purpose of what to calculate along with the ways and method of doing it. 

The main magnetism of this curriculum theory and observation is that it is organized and has significant organizing power.  Vital to the approach is the building of behavioral objectives which is providing a clear idea of result so that content and technique may be prepared and the outcome is assessed. The curriculum we have designed is thoroughly organized and each aspect of MS Word, MS Excel and MS Access are taught starting from the elementary concepts and further raising the level.

There are many issues with this approach to curriculum assumption and observation. The foremost is that greater importance to the plan or program.  For example, more current definition of curriculum is: 'a curriculum of activities designed by teachers and trainee so that trainee will attain certain educational & other aim or objectives (Grundy in1987: 11). The problem regarding such program is predictably being prior to and outside the learning practice.  This takes to a great extent from learners.  This can be last part up with few or no voice.  They are told about what to learn and how achieve it.  The achievement or failure of both the program and with the individual student is evaluated on the source of whether pre assumed changes take place in the behavior and person of the learner which meet behavioral objectives.  If the plan is tightly stick to, then there can only be limited chance for educators to utilize the interactions that take place. The curriculum is in line with current definition and the teaching methods are clearly planned out along with assessment methods. It also identifies the skill which a user will learn at the end of course and hence helps in evaluation of students.

Curriculum as process

We have seen that curriculum is heavily reliant on setting of behavioral objectives. The curriculum is a set of documents for execution. In this aspect curriculum is not a physical object, but fairly the communication of teachers, students and their knowledge. In other terms, curriculum is actually happens in classroom and what public do to arrange and evaluate. What we have in our model is a number of basics in constant interaction. It is a vigorous procedure and links with practical form of reasoning as set by Aristotle.

Perhaps two major things that put this apart from model for informal education are initial, the perspective in which process occurs; and second, the fact that teachers go in the classroom or other formal educational surroundings with a fully worked through plan of what is to happen.

This form of terms echoes with those of (Lawrence Stenhouse ,1999) who shaped one of best-known explorations for process model of curriculum theory and observations. He defined curriculum uncertainly: 'A curriculum is an effort to communicate essential values and features of educational proposal in a form that this is open to grave scrutiny and able of effective transformation into practice'. He suggests that curriculum is like a recipe inside cookery.

The communication methods and teaching resources have been identified which includes Computer system, MS Office, Smart-board, Whiteboard, Handouts and practical exercise /assignment. These resources helps in effective transfer of knowledge.

Curriculum as praxis

Curriculum as praxis in many ways is a development of process model. While process model is determined by general philosophy and places stress on judgment and sense making, it does not create explicit statements concerning the benefit it serves. It may, for e.g., be used in a way that it does not make frequent reference to communal human well being and to liberation of human spirit. The praxis replica of curriculum assumption and practice brings these to centre of process and makes an open commitment to release. Thus action is not just informed, it is committed too. It is praxis.

Critical pedagogy goes further than situating learning experience inside the experience of learner: it is a course which takes experiences of both learner and teacher and, through conversation and negotiation, recognizes them as problematic (Barnett, R., Parry, G,2001). It encourages students and teachers jointly to tackle the real problems of existence and relations. When students tackle the real problems of existence they will quickly be faced with their own coercion.

In this move toward the curriculum it develops from end to end with dynamic communication of action and manifestation. At its centre lies praxis: informed, committed action.

The Course designed is planned in an informative and detailed manner with focus on content summary, teaching methods, resources required and assessment methods.

Curriculum in context

To square off this discussion about curriculum we need to pay additional attention to social context in which curriculum is created. One condemnation that has been done of the praxis model is that it does not put a strong sufficient emphasis upon background. This is a condemnation that can also be laid at door of other approaches. In this deference the work of (Bruner, J., 1999) is of use. She sees curriculum in a manner of particular type of process. Curriculum is what actually happens in classrooms, 'a continuing social process comprised of interactions of teachers students, knowledge. In contrast, according to Sten house curriculum is an attempt to explain what happens in classrooms moderately than what in fact occurs. (Bruner, J., 1999) promote that curriculum is a practice and cannot be understood sufficiently or changed considerably without notice to its background. One might quibble concerning the simple equation of curriculum by means of process, what (Bruner, J., 1999) do by keeping focus on the interaction is to carry out significance of context.

We have followed a radical approach in designing module and the course is of short duration and uses previous teaching experiences. Course is designed in a manner so that Learners are required to amalgamate practical skills with necessary knowledge, to be able to take positive and reactive actions in order to sustain a healthy and safe atmosphere (H. H., 1999).

The social and economic impact of occupational safety is important. This module aims to fulfill the requirement for learners who are able to ease a safe, well and dynamic professional environment (Knight, P. T., 2001).

The module is easily accessible for everybody irrespective of the student's race, agenda, Culture and their Religion. Centre takes special care for students with disability and is accessible for students who use wheelchair.

The course designed focuses mainly on the following issues which makes it an effective module. These are:

Enhancing the quality of training and education.

Providing equal opportunities with respect to training, education and employment.

Contributing to full personal development for learner and social and economic development students. 

Explanation of Proposal

OCR Certificate for IT users i.e. (CLAiT Plus) is easily accessible for everybody irrespective of the student's race, agenda, Culture and their Religion. Centre takes special care for students with disability and is accessible for students who use wheelchair.

The course targets group of students having basic knowledge of ICT. The course does not require any prior learning on part of students. However, learners feel beneficial to complete OCR entry level 3/ level 1 Certificate or Diploma for IT Users (New Clait).

Learners re quire to have a entry level 3 in numeracy skills and literacy (learners will be assessed on the basis of literacy and their numeracy skills before enrolling on this course.

The basic aim of OCR Level 2 Certificate for IT Users (CLAIT Plus) is intended to develop the skills, understanding so that IT user may take help for getting employment, education or training.

When a Student completes the course this course aims to improve Knowledge with respect to IT hardware and Software and their corresponding operation. Students get exposure and get converse in using range of software applications for completing the tasks. Students or users get exposure in manipulating complex documents in different application. Users can easily integrate data present in different applications. Data entry into applications gets more accurate. Skills and knowledge gained by users is very important in getting a job.

As part of the learning activities users are exposed to Practical exercise and OCR and regular set of practical assignment.

For any Curriculum assessment of its users is an important activity. In our proposal this activity is categorized into two methods. They are:

Formative Method: First approach follows different Practical exercises and OCR set practical assignment and mock paper (Parker, J., 2003).

Summative Method: Second approach follows Computer Based Assessment i.e. CBA for Unit 1 i.e. integrated e-Document production and Unit 2 i.e. Manipulating Spreadsheets and Graphs and Unit 3 i.e. creating and using a Database.

Resources and ILT/technology used in this curriculum are:

PC Systems with printer.

Smart board and Whiteboard.

Windows system & MS Office application software.

Handouts, practical exercise, OCR-set practical assignment.

Objectives for Course:

Learners who effectively complete CLAiT Plus may desire to progress to level 3 with CLAiT Advanced course. Those students choosing to pursue a work base route can move to level 2 or level 3 ITQ qualifications, while CLAiT units can be counted towards the appropriate level of ITQ.

Role of resources and ILT/technology

In Curriculum's, ILT refers to use of different information and communication methods to support the deliverance and management of education (Smith, M. K., 2000).

This study focuses on methods to assist academic staff and students for task of using ILT resources. There are three main issues and are mentioned below:

Finding resources

Evaluating resources

Using and Integrating resources

Finding Resources

The enormous growth in availability and option of ILT resources to sustain teaching and learning can make task of finding good class resources which are appropriate to the required subject, both time uncontrollable and annoying (Tyler, R. W. ,1999).

Though a number of agencies survive which have put collectively guides to make task much easier for already overstretched lecturer. Some of the examples are listed below:

National Learning Network

Provides good quality learning

chunks for different subject areas

The Virtual Teacher Centre

Database of resources and other activities

are designed to assist teachers for developing

and sharing ideas for good practice

Learning and Skills Development Agency

A national resource warehouse

aimed specially at post16 sector

The resources available can be categorized into two categories:

Some of the resources which can be used by students are:


Learning materials purposely printed for courses.



Databases which can be searched



"How to" Guides

Example of resources useful for staff:

Case studies

Schemes of work



Lesson plans

Alongside materials, that can be found, it is significant to understand that they are of no use if there is no access to equipment required to support them for e.g., laptops, PCs, projectors, TV , video and Interactive Whiteboards (Whitehead, A. N. ,1999).

Using and Integrating Resources

ILT today has a high profile in delivery of teaching, except there is always worry that teaching staff may utilize technology for technology's sake as an alternative of using so as to enhance and sustain the learning experience (Wiggins, G., 2002). Not only institutions are pushing for a better use of ILT, but students also have greater expectations of classroom delivery and demands more exposition, and discussion.

So as to meet expectations proper planning should be done for preparation of lessons. One needs to think whether the room where you are delivering has required specialist equipment like PCs, laptops, interactive whiteboards ,projectors, network points, digital cameras or TV and Video. This equipment may perhaps not be accessible in each classroom, so proper planning is needed to make sure that access to technologies is accessible when required ( T. M. Spring ,2007). It is necessary therefore, that Schemes of Lesson and Work Plans clearly recognize when and where resources are required to be utilized.

With the proper hardware available, ILT assets can be utilized in number of ways. While laptops are associated to digital projector, students or teachers can incorporate presentations or use multimedia resources for their lessons. By means of an Interactive Whiteboard helps educational resources to be utilized in highly interactive manner and are suitable for both large and tiny group's usage. Finest use of whiteboards is done when both teacher and student utilize it in a classroom environment.