The Many Meanings of Multiple Measures

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Questioning whether it is important to use multiple measures in today's classrooms to assess students' academic performances is becoming more valuable to draw on multiple sources of information when making decisions about a student's achievement. In the article, the meaning of multiple measures Brookhart, S (2009) points out that multiple, measures is the means to using more than one score before making any judgements. We should not base our decisions to one measure alone. Multiple assessment methods provide a widespread view of whether students achieve the learning outcome.

Brookhart (2009) is of the opinion that the concept of multiple measures is defined and applied in many different ways and the decision on what measures to use and how to combine them must be the purpose these measures are accomplished.

Multiple measures enhance strength of measuring in education as an achievement and meaningful information collaborated about students. : Construct validity is the degree to which any score conveys meaningful information about the attribute it measures." (Brookhart, S, 2009). In education, to build better and more relevant measures into our education systems these measures can be accessed from the learning targets and standards, addressing educational goals, education objectives and teaching objectives.

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Educational Goals are a general statement of what students will know and be able to do and develop over a longer period. Example Learn to think critically and solve problems.

Educational Objectives - relate to specific statements of students performance that should be demonstrated at the end of a key learning unit. Example "The student will….."

Learning Targets- are what is to be achieved with a lesson or learning activity, it is a criteria standard in which the performance is judged. . Example Student will be able to by the end of this lesson, understand how a narrative is to be constructed.

Assessment results will be used to establish whether a school is making sufficient yearly progress, and the results will also provide schools with information they can use to evaluate their curriculum and learning instruction. Student-level results will be reported to schools and parents to provide an indicator of how students are performing on state standards. Brookhart (2009) states in the article the meaning of multiple measures that "To decide whether a school is doing a good job, we need to consider different measures ". McMillan ( 2007, p 33) discusses how standards are described by "what knowledge and skills that students should attain." The system of using a variety of measurements can play a role with deciding what best outcomes can be achieved within a school educational environment and a students' knowledge and skills.

Different combinations measures are used to construct the aspect of students' achievements. Teachers therefore use specific comprehensive assessment plan that assesses several performance accomplishment. Brookhart (2009) states with "combined grades from all three measures to give a richer picture of plot understanding for all students in the class." Multiple assessments used within a classroom environment include observations, written notes, formal standardized testing, informal, summative, and self and peer assessments. These results can be used to evaluate programs and account for pupil progress .This approach places the accurate sort of assessment to work for the right purpose. "Knowing the nature of the measures and the combination method in any particular application of multiple measures helps us understand the results and the value of decisions or consequences based on those results." (Brookhart, 2009).As a result, teachers use a criteria to evaluate the performance of students.

.In conclusion, multiple measures are used to establish a variety of evaluations of what a students has accomplished. These different sources are used to ascertain criteria's in learning targets, standards, learning objectives that reflect school goals. All of these components are essential to draw upon when making decisions about the achievements that have been experienced.

Topic 4: Overview of summative assessment

Summative Assessment

Summative Assessments are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Summative assessment as a means to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards, the information from this type of assessment is important, it can only help in evaluating certain aspects of the learning process. Summative assessments at the end of the program to ensure students have met the program targets and objectives. McMillan(2007) states that assessments consists of "determining a purpose and learning, targets relate to standards, obtaining information from students, interpreting information,and using the information." Using various methods and measures in order to have a range of valid, reliable, fair and useful information collected about the students progress. The foundation for an assessment is to help evaluate the effectiveness of programs, school improvement goals, alignment of curriculum, or student placement in specific programs. Summative assessments happen too far down the learning path to provide information at the classroom level and to make instructional adjustments and interventions during the learning process "Knowledge and understanding learning targets are the types most commonly assessed in summative tests." (McMillan.2007 p.157) Structuring of test items and selection of item type requires careful consideration. The layout of the test and administration conditions, are important aspects of summative assessment. Learning taxonomies such as that devised by Bloom inform the development of learning targets and consequently, the structure of summative assessments. McMillan (2007) identifies that parts of knowledge dimensions of taxonomy include, factual knowledge, conceptual, procedural knowledge, remember, understandings and applying.

Topic 5: Analysis of 'Keeping learning on track: Formative assessment and the regulation of learning' (William, 2005)

Formative Assessment

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An assessment activity can help learning if it provides information to be used as feedback, by teachers, and by their students, in assessing themselves and each other, to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. The purpose of this technique is to improve quality of student learning and should not be evaluative or involve grading students. This can also lead to curricular modifications when specific courses have not met the student learning outcomes."Assessment is to gauge students learning." (McMillan, J 2007 p. 117) Classroom assessments examine information about lessons and targets objective programs are met in all sections of the contents. 'This assessment is the bridge between teaching ant learning." (William 2005 p.22)

The key ingredients of formal assessments fit into the regulated learning includes

Effective questioning

Feedback

Ensuring students understand the criteria for success

Peer and self assessments

Questioning

Students are able to answer questions correctly, but sometime are unable to provide or show evidence of understanding the concept. By questioning students' teachers can assess a students; conception. Questions need to be rich, as it encourages students'' to talk which developing their think skills and concepts. William (2005) article keeping learning on track, formative assessment and regulation of learning states it "promotes a window into thinking."It is essential that teachers explore students' thinking before assuming that a student has understood the concept. Rich and good questions provide teachers evidence about what their students can do, but also what a teacher needs to do next. Classroom questioning is an effective way of directing the attention of the class (behaviourism), and keeping students' motivated to the activities.

Questioning purposes

Involves students

Promotes students' thinking

Understandings and comprehension of concepts

Review contents of lessons or subjects

Control students

Assess students process

Feedback

Same teaching, same aims, same teachers, same class work with three kinds of feedback: marks, comments, marks plus comments. Williams (205 p.25) believes that students with the three kinds on feedback ensures students with high score do not read their scores, low students are unmotivated, attitude will be evident therefore, "students' will not learn." Effective teaching is praising students when appropriate and promoting support will have an incentive to understand the work. "Developing skills with minimal interventions' promote better learning." (Williams, 2005 p.26) Feedback is formative which is offering information back to the learner, is used by the learner in improving their performances. William (2005) indicates that feedback is influential by the way that students attribute their successes and failures.

Peer and self assessments

Criteria must be understood by students so they can apply them : modelling exercises are needed where these are abstract

Students must be taught to collaborate in peer-assessment, for this helps develop objectivity for self-assessment and is of intrinsic value

Students should be taught to assess their progress as they proceed keeping the aims and criteria in mind - so as to become independent learners

All students can be involved

Seeing your work through the eyes of your peers helps you to be more objective

The regulation of learning

There are three elements strategies that raise achievements, and are also necessary processes in learning,

Where the learners are in learning

Where are they going

How to get there.

Teachers' goals to regulate learning

evaluations of students 'work

behaviourism

feedback to students

instructions correctives ( students activities, next steps)

Asking questions

Learning environment -

Interactive regulation which takes place through didactic situations.

"The task of a teacher is not to teach but to create situations in which students learn." (Williams, 2005 p.32) Teachers focus on formative assessment moves away for regulated activities but building on this type of practice will engage students towards learning. Therefore, students take responsibility for their learning at the same time making the learning more collaborative.

Topic 6: Techniques for formative assessment

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment refers to a number of ways that we can uncover student ideas or /knowledge about concepts important being taught therefore teachers can adjust instructions to the needs of the students. Gathering evidence of students' understandings and knowledge, teachers use a combination of methods including student observation, listening to student discussions and student responses from questioning. The purpose of this technique is to improve quality of student learning and can also provide important information to examine if the learning goals and objectives are met in all sections of the content. Effective teachers constantly monitor for engagement and when they identify that students are not engaged, they do something to change it, which is constantly applying varies feedback through praise. In this observation report we will discover how a teacher uses praise effectively to address behavior management within the classroom environment

Classroom Observation Report

Praise & Preparation Video

Teachers TV.

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The teacher greets the children and informs them of the day's learning tasks. The lesson is well planned, as teacher has information already listed on the board.

Praise is an effective classroom management tool, and student motivator. In this praise and preparation video, the teacher has adopted various techniques to address behavior management. The key to being successful with a lesson is to be prepared. Teacher builds on the rapport with her students throughout the lesson. The teacher exhibits a professional yet enthusiastic manner in the classroom. She treats her students with respect and constantly conveys a sense of caring and support. The students were well behaved throughout the course of the lesson, indicative of proper classroom management techniques. The teacher makes every attempt to praise and engage all her students throughout the lesson, providing an environment that encouraged inquiry and knowledge gaining.

Some of techniques include:

Her system of praise: every ten stars a pupil wins they get a postcard sent to their home and those with fifty get invited on a school trip

Constant praise: focusing on the positive

Colour coded lesson plans: mark key words in green, sentences that must be written down in black, instructions and things to do in blue, other information in red

Maintain a daily" put your name down for"… on how students preformed - (the wrong and the right behaviours within a classroom environment. Positive students and negative student's behaviours and deciding what actions were taken.

Using a range of praise

Praising spontaneously as a whole class- Students take a quick quiz from their books and as a whole group discuss what the possible answers are. This type of assessment is to gage what the students know from a previous lesson. The teachers encourages all the students if they are unsure of the answers it is ok they will learn the information together. Teacher praise is focusing on the progress while students are working.

Dependent praise - delivered in a manner upon a student's performance of a desired or noteworthy behavior. The teacher walks around the room and identifies individually the achievement a student's has made to their work. Gives supportive praise to the quality of a student's effort and ability.

Specific - focuses on specific aspects of a student's performance and recognizes genuine accomplishments. Example of this is a student answering a question regarding what coal is made from. Teacher applauses student for his efforts. Therefore praises the student immediately.

This report has shown that a teacher uses less energy because the focus is positive reinforcement. Through this type of feedback it guides student's attention to their own progress, performance of learning new skills and prior knowledge as well as encouraging students for their behaviours. Engaging students with positive reinforcement will can an effective teaching practice.