This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
The second set of dimensions is based on work or intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to being motivated and curious enough to be engaged in an activity for its own sake (Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004)). Intrinsic motivation is considered to be highly self-determinant in the sense that the reason for reading is linked for solely to the individual's positive feelings while reading. The findings of some important studies have led some researchers to hypothesize that the intrinsic motivation described above is related to reading involvement, reading curiosity, reading frequency and reading amount. Increased intrinsic motivation has been related to greater interest in the reading material, higher reading performance, higher amount (Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J.T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K.C. (2004)), higher frequency, higher achievement in text-comprehension tasks (Benware, C. & Deci, E. L. (1984)), and higher sense of competence (Miller, R.B., Behrens, J.T., Greene, B.A. and Newman, D., (1993)) the dimensions based on intrinsic motivations are reading curiosity, reading involvement and importance of reading. Reading curiosity is the individual's desire to learn about a particular topic of interest. Reading involvement is the enjoyment of experiencing different kinds of literary or informal texts. Importance of reading is the individual valuing of different tasks or activities. Different dimensions of extrinsic motivation are also highlighted. Motivation refers to efforts directed toward obtaining external recognition, rewards, or incentives (Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. U., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991)). Extrinsic motivation reflects the fact that children do much of their reading when their reading performance is evaluated and compared to others' performance. The dimensions based on motivations include reading recognition is the gratification in receiving a tangible form of recognition is the reading. Reading for grades is the desire to be favourably evaluated by the teacher. Reading competition is the desire to outperform others in reading. 2. STUDY 2.1. Research Questions What is the effecting of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation on students' second language learning success? Motivation is the feelings of the learner towards the particular target language and culture and individual's reasons for learning language. In this research, I aimed investigating the role of grade and sex differences and investigating the avoidance and performance of the students in learning second language. 2.2. Participants I made this research at Ataturk University KazÄ±m Karabekir Education Faculty to second, third and fourth-class students. I applied the motivation. The students in these classes whom I applied the questionnaire were 90, 58 of them were females, 32 males. All students took part in my research replied the questionnaire honestly and helped me to do this research. 2.3. Measure In this research, I use the motivation questionnaire. I use the motivation questionnaire. They were applied to 90 students at Ataturk University KazÄ±m Karabekir Education Faculty to second, third, and fourth-class students. My questionnaire was to find the motivation, performance, and avoidance of the students. I aimed to consider to the success of students in learning second language. 2.4. Data Analysis Factors in Second Language Acquisition Theories Theories of what causes language acquisition have been inconclusive to date (Ellis, 1994). However, some of the main factors that are believed to facilitate second language acquisition have been identified. They are: (a) a sufficient amount of comprehensible target language input (Krashen, 1982, 1985); (b) opportunities for negotiating meaning (Day, 1984; Ellis, 1991); (c) opportunities to produce output in meaningful communication (Swain, 1985); (d) opportunities to sensitise the learners to gaps in linguistic knowledge (Nicholls, 1983; Sharwood-Smith, 1986); and (e) a low affective filter to let in the input (Krashen, 1985). Krashen (1982, 1985) proposes comprehensible input be i+1, that is, the input must contain linguistic elements that are a little beyond the learner's current level of proficiency while the Learnability Hypothesis (Pienemann and Johnston, 1985, 1986, 1988) suggests that the sequence of some of the language features that an individual learns is previously determined. That is, teaching something to a particular learner who is not ready for it may be counterproductive, thereby, leading to avoidance or loss of confidence, which in turn increases the affective filter. Of these language acquisition theories, the notion of a low affective filter is the only factor that is related to attitude and motivation. Taguchi 561 Motivational Factors that Influence Learning The importance of high motivation, which all educators wish to create in their students, has been closely linked with the need for achievement. Murray (1938, p. 164) described its expression as the manifestation of one of 20 basic human needs, namely achievement. To make intense prolonged and repeated efforts to accomplish something difficult. To work with singleness of purpose towards a high and distant goal. To have the determination to win. To try to do everything well. To be stimulated to excel by the presence of others, to enjoy competition. To exert will power, to overcome boredom and fatigue. The need for achievement has been spelt out in detail by Atkinson (1964), McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell (1953), and McClelland (1987) who see it as the result of intrapersonal dynamics such as libido, drive, tension and need as well as inhibitors, for example defence mechanisms, barriers in the environment and fear of failing. Franken (1982) has added to the understanding of 'high' motivation and achievement by claiming that the learner needs to overcome inhibitors by what is termed habituation, that is, to learn to ignore or adapt to disruptive stimuli. This is done by exposing students to these inhibitors in small doses, (stimuli, though, should never be too great), rewarding the correct responses subsequently but not each time or too often. To reward the correct responses, Nicholls (1983) and Maehr (1983) both suggest the satisfaction of task-completion as the most ideal reinforcement out of three possible goals, namely, ego goals, task goals and extrinsic rewards. These scholars claim that if learners perceive given tasks as worthy of their effort, within the reach of their successful completion, the locus of control being within the learners themselves, the reward being intrinsic, (within the tasks themselves), then learners will choose to persevere rather than avoid the tasks. In defining human motivation from both intrapersonal and environmental perspectives, Maslow (1970) argues that the driving force that causes people to work towards a goal is actually the potency of hierarchy of needs. When lower order needs in the hierarchy (eg. food, water, shelter, security, safety, social affiliation, approval, and self-esteem) are satisfied, higher-order needs appear, and, since it has the greater potency at the time, this higher-order need causes the individual to attempt to satisfy it. The highest level of need (which echoes the behaviours described earlier by Murray of a motivated individual) is a desire to reach one's potential. According to this theory, in order to activate this highest-order need, educators must try to ensure that all the lower-level needs of the students are satisfied. Concerning initial motivation, Carroll (1963) and Oppenheim (1992) have added another dimension by drawing attention to the role of attitudes. They suggest that attitudes are only very rarely the products of a balanced conclusion. As a rule, attitudes are acquired or modified by absorbing or reacting to the attitude of other people. Once acquired, due to the strong tendency for consistency, humans avoid modifying the initial frame of perception. According to Robinson and Nocon (1996) many language teachers falsely assume that their students come to their language lessons with a positive attitude towards the language and its culture, just because they are studying the language. Unfortunately, learning a foreign language can produce a negative attitude in some students (Nocon, 1991). In her research, students tended to separate or compartmentalise, their attitudes about language as a subject matter from their attitudes about the speakers of that language. For formal instruction settings, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968, p. 179) powerfully argue for the effect of a type of motivation on learning called 'self-fulfilling prophecy' based on numerous empirical cases and concluded that "teachers may not only get more when they expect more; they 562 Is motivation a predictor of foreign language learning? may also come to expect more when they get more." These authors believe that somehow if a teacher 'knows' that a particular student will improve, then the teacher's behaviours will have predictable effects on pupil motivation. On the basis of other experiments on interpersonal self-fulfilling prophecies, we can only speculate as to how teachers brought about intellectual competence simply by expecting it ...[W]e may say that by what she said, by how and when she said it, by her facial expression, postures, and perhaps by her touch, the teacher may have communicated to the children â€¦ that she expected improved intellectual performance. Such communications â€¦ may have helped the child learn by changing his selfconcept, his expectation of his own behaviour, and his motivation, as well as his cognitive style and skills. It is self-evident that further research is needed to narrow down the range of possible mechanisms whereby a teacher's expectations become translated into a pupil's intellectual growth. (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968, p. 180) Hargreaves (1975) and Matza (1969) have cautioned against what they regard as a simplistic interpretation of the self-fulfilling prophecy and labelling in general. They point out that some individuals, especially adolescents can and do ignore the teacher's 'labelling'. The respect the individual student has for the teacher, the degree to which the act of labelling is explicit and made public and the frequency of the act of labelling all will influence whether the student accepts the prediction and acts accordingly. An obvious aspect of motivation level relates to the difficulty level of the goals as perceived by the learner. Locke and Latham (1990, pp. 21, 26) claim: Extensive researchâ€¦ has established that, within reasonable limits, the more challenging the goal, the better the resulting performanceâ€¦People try harder to attain the hard goal. They exert more effortâ€¦ In short, people become motivated in proportion to the level of challenge with which they are facedâ€¦. Even goals that cannot be fully reached will lead to high effort levels, provided that partial success can be achieved and is rewarded. Locke and Latham's (1990) comments have not, however, recognised that motivational levels can be adversely affected by the gap between targets and learner's perception of his own ability. Most Australian learners, for example, would be daunted by the appearance of a full page of Chinese characters compared with a page of German where at least the orthography is the same as their own. The 'gap' tests the competence of every language teacher to present the learner with achievable and graded targets on the path to fluency. In summary the following three conditions are necessary to increase learning outcomes. First, students' lower-order needs are satisfied and second, teachers believe in learner's capabilities and expect them to achieve those capabilities. Third, the quality of instruction needs consideration. According to Carroll (1963), the quality of instruction was one of several important aspects in the mastery of any knowledge or skill. He drew attention to the fact that time on task as well as the individual's degree of persistence or perseverance were other key features. Others have added to his theories by pointing out the following four factors. They are: (a) the importance of pursuing the learner's own interest (Wilson, 1975); (b) a ready acceptance of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1982); (c) learning by doing (Maehr, 1983); and (d) learners' perception of their own capacities and want of self actualisation (Maslow, 1970). METHOD Sixty-one Grade 10 students (14-16 years old) and four teachers in the study were drawn from four schools (Schools A and C are public, B and D are private) in South Australia. The classes Taguchi 563 varied in size from 5 to 24. In order to minimise the effect of teacher experience, only experienced (8 to 12 years old) teachers with considerable proficiency in the language were chosen (see Table 1). Table 1. Schools investigated School Grade 8-12 Enrolment Public/ Private Teacher Co-Ed Grade 10 classes (N) A 1500 public non-native co-ed 24 B 400 private non-native boys 17 C 1660 public native co-ed 12 D 500 private non-native co-ed 5 Data in this study consist of (a) pre- and post-tests (pre-test and post-test were identical), (b) two measures of motivation filled in by students and (c) records of classroom interactions collected by means of classroom observations (four times per class) using COLT observation scheme Part A (Allen, Frohlich and Spada, 1984) as well as field notes on features that were not prescribed in COLT, that is, ethnographic in nature. The observed classes were also audio taped for later analyses with the permission of the teachers. The rationale for using COLT was to facilitate data collection on features which were believed to enhance communicative language learning based on second language acquisition theories. Language Pre- and Post-Tests Language gains were measured by comparing the results of pre- and post-tests that were created by the writer based on the textbooks the students were using, namely, Kimono Level 2 and 3 (Burnham 1992) and a South Australian locally compiled textbook. These tests required students to translate ten English sentences into Japanese using as many Kanji characters as they could. The knowledge tested consisted of lexical, orthographic (including Kanji), morpho-syntactic, as well as mood and aspects which students would have learnt before the commencement of the study as well as what they would have learnt during the three months of investigation. Two Measures of Motivation McClelland (1987) and Oppenheim (1992) have pointed out the unreliability of motivation and attitude measures based on self-report. In the light of this, rather than asking students explicitly about their motivational level, two questions were formulated. One of these invited students to rank in their personally preferred order all the subjects (excluding Physical Education) that they were currently studying. The subject rank was calculated as a proportion as the following: Subject rank = N +1 Rank Where N was number of subjects studied. N + 1 was used in the denominator to ensure that 5/5 and 8/8 were not given the same strength of preference. The other question was to indicate, on a pie chart, the proportion of their spare time students would like to spend on each of the subjects if all subjects were equal in their difficulty level (this is called projected spare time for short). The amount of time indicated by students was converted into a percentage for calculation purposes. It is to be noted that time available for the investigation, access to classes and demands on teacher's workload all contributed to the limitations of the study. For example, some relevant data possibly affecting motivation and language learning outcomes could not be collected and the duration of the study was only three months. The findings of this study must, therefore, be interpreted with these limitations in mind CONCLUSION In this research, it has been aimed to consider the effects of motivation, sex, and grade differences, avoidance, and performance in learning second language. It has been found very interesting results in this research. For instance, the male students do not want to take responsibilities and they avoid to their works. Nevertheless, the female students like to take responsibilities. In addition, the female students are more successful than the male students in learning second language are. In another way, male students show more performance than the females do in learning second language. According to the research, the 2 nd class students are more successful than the 3 rd and 4 th class students in learning second language. And the 3 rd class students don't like to take responsibilities. The 4 th class students don't avoid to their work. The 2 nd class students show more performance than the 3 rd and 4 th class students in learning target language. Consequently, teachers should decrease the performance of female students and 3 rd and 4 th class students. Especially females can be more successful in target language. Because they like to learn a new language and they don't avoid to their responsibilities. Males can be more successful if wouldn't avoid to their works and responsibilities. Because they show great performance in learning second language. In this century, English is the universal language, and the people must learn English very well also the students. If we tell the importance of English, we will help their learning. We should motivate students to learn English for their future career. They must understand that they will learn English for themselves REFRENCES: Seven, Mehmet Ali;Â 0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0="Engin+Ali+Osman""Engin, Ali Osman Effective motivation in language learning 2008-01-31 Rowen, Dennis The Write Motivation Using the Internet to Engage Students in Writing across the Curriculum. Learning Connections--Language Arts Learning & Leading with Technology, v32 n5 p22-23, 43 Feb 2005 Benjamin, Jane Construct Validity of "Motivation Orientation & Language Learning Strategies Scales": for Spanish as a Foreign Language 2003-04-00 Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E A Cross-Cultural Study of the Motivation of Students Learning a Second LanguageBenjaming 2003-04-22 Song, Sung-Hyun Motivation in Foreign/Second Language Learning: Some Problems and Implications 2002-00-00 .. Gardner, R. C Language Learning Motivation: The Student, the Teacher, and the Researcher Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, v6 n1 p1-18 Fall 2001 Kang, Dong-Ho. Motivation and Foreign Language Learning in Korean EFL Context 2000-00-00