This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
English language is a required school subject in the Malaysian schools. Students experience 11 years of schooling prior to entering the upper educational institutions. Students in secondary schools spend five 40 minutes English periods per week. Regardless of the shift from the conventional teaching methods to communicative language teaching, most English language classrooms continue to be places to commit textbooks to memory rather than practice communication and English is still to be treated as a school subject that needs to be mastered and tested rather than a tool for communication. Students in Malaysia cannot get a degree from the institutions of higher education without passing the Malaysian University English Test (MUET). So, success in learning English might determine ones upward mobility and future.
It is worth mentioning that in spite of the great efforts exerted in Malaysian secondary schools to teach English, one can hardly come across fluent school graduates. Weakness in listening and speaking skills are clearly noticed because teachers are "forced" to educate students in a manner which is directed to meet the requirements of the exams (extensive vocabulary and grammatical rules). Because the General Secondary Exam is not directed toward the speaking and listening skills of students, the teachers of English find themselves uninterested in preparing students for something which will not be examined. Unfortunately, many students in Malaysian secondary schools dislike learning English and consequently they attend the English lessons to pass the compulsory exams. As a result of my brief experience in the teaching field, I found out that most students have passive attitudes toward learning English due to the previous experiences, that English is hard to learn and it is observed that students in the current school systems are feeling hopeless and helpless because they lack the skills needed to help them develop motivation.
The word motivation appears to be simple and easy but it's so difficult to define. It seems to have been impossible for theorists to reach consensus on a single definition. Martin Covington (1998:1) states that "motivation, like the concept of gravity, is easier to describe in terms of its outward, observable effects than it is to define. Of course, this has not stopped people from trying it." A few definitions were found during the research process. According to the Macmillan's dictionary (1979), to motivate means to provide with a motive; move to effort or action. Gardner (1985) states that motivation involves four aspects, which are the goal, effort, desire to attain the goal, and a favorable attitude toward the activity.
Motivation is defined as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal seeking acts (Ames& Ames, 1989). Oxford and Shearin (1994) defined motivation as a desire to achieve a goal combined with the energy to work toward that goal. Keller (1983) states that motivation is the degree of the choices people make and the degree of effort they will exert.
Furthermore, when we read or hear the word motivation, many words and expressions are triggered in our minds, words like goal, desire, will, effort, ambition, energy, persistence, achieve, inspire, and reward. Indeed, motivational issues take up large part of our daily life. When we talk about likes and dislikes, interests, or wishes we are in fact concerning ourselves with main motivational determinants of human being. When we complain about long working hours, poor salaries, tough colleagues, or alternatively when we are pleased by the recognition of our achievements, promotions and generous incentives, we are addressing issues at the heart of the motivational psychology.
- Background of the Problem:
- Problem Statement:
- Purpose of the Study:
Kanfer (1998:12) states that motivation is "psychological mechanisms governing the direction, intensity, and persistence of actions not due solely to individual differences in ability or to overwhelming environmental demands that coerce or force action. In short, the concept of motivation is very much part of our everyday personal and professional life and few would ignore its importance in human affairs in general." Dornyei (2001:1).
In fact learning and teaching English as a second/foreign language is no exception in this respect. When we think of how to encourage slow learners to work harder, how to create an attractive learning atmosphere or how to reward the hard-working students we indeed deal with motivation.
Because motivation is one of the most significant factors in language learning, it is difficult for the low motivated students to learn English as a foreign language. Dornyei (1994) clearly states that motivation is one of the main determinants of second/foreign language learning. Interestingly, motivation is perceived by Dornyei (2001) as cyclic, going up and down, affecting language achievement and being affected by it. He also claimed that a demotivated person is someone who initially has had motivation to fulfill a goal or to engage in an activity and has lost the motivation to do so because of negative external factors which related to the environment in which learning takes place such as the classroom and school. Nikolov (1999, in Dornyei, 2001) found that the most important demotivating factors for all the age groups were related to the learning situations such as materials, the teacher or teaching methods and he added that these factors had great effect on language acquisition and achievement.
Thus, understanding the students' goals and motivation for learning English in addition to the demotivating factors help the teachers, educational policy makers and curriculum planners to improve the students' proficiency.
Motivational factors affect students' proficiency and performance in learning English. Many studies (Krusdenier, 1985, Dornyei, 1994) have demonstrated that measures of proficiency in the second/foreign language are related to motivational characteristics of students. In this respect, Corria (1999) claims that a full understanding of students' motivation is necessary to maximize the English language results and positive outcomes. To emphasize the importance of identifying the students' needs and orientations, he cites an example of students at the school of nursing in Holguin who rejected learning English because they did not find any relation between English and their own career and learning some irrelevant and unpleasant material wouldn't satisfy their needs.
The research is designed based on one purpose which is:
- To investigate the motivational factors in learning English among lower secondary school students
The following research question is considered in the study:
- Are the students motivated integratively or instrumentally in learning English?
Realizing the vital role of motivation in learning English, in addition to the desire of school administrations and teachers to know what affects the students' motivation towards learning English and the shortage of studies about motivation in Malaysian secondary schools urged me to carry this survey. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to recognize the factors affecting Malaysian students' motivation toward learning English as a foreign language. It also aims at exploring the students' integrative and instrumental motivation for learning English.
The study will first provide information on motivation toward learning L2 through literature review in two relevant areas: integrative (positive attitudes toward the target language group and a willingness to integrate into the target language community) and instrumental (practical reasons for learning a language, such as to gain social recognition or to get a better job) motivation and factors influencing the motivation of L2 learners.
The study is being conducted at one school, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. The results of the study may again be limited in generalizability to a larger population because a convenience sample was being used, and because random assignment is not employed in the research design.
To better understand the students' motivation for learning English as a foreign language; it is helpful to examine the literature in two relevant areas: integrative Instrumental motivation and the factors affecting the students' motivation as they are major determinants for language acquisition and achievement.
Sources of Motivation:
"Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how can teachers water those roots?" Oxford & Shearin (1994: 15). Fisher, (1990) points to three major sources of motivation in learning:
- The learners natural interest (intrinsic satisfaction).
- The teacher/employment.. etc (extrinsic reward).
- Success in the task (combining satisfaction and reward).
Intrinsic motivation deals with acts or behavior performed to experience pleasure or satisfying ones curiosity, whereas, extrinsic motivation involves a behavior to receive some extrinsic reward (e.g. -good grades, employment) or to avoid punishment and it can serve as an interim source of motivation for a demotivated learner. Ryan & Dec (2000) point out that intrinsic motivation is the most important kind and it is defined as the desire to engage in an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequences. To promote intrinsic motivation, many characteristics as challenge, control, curiosity and fantasy should be available to reflect the learners' willingness to learn (Lepper &Hodell, 1989).
It is also stated by Small (1997) that intrinsically motivated learners usually display intellectual curiosity, find learning fun and continue seeking knowledge even after the formal instruction (classes) and this is the major goal of education. The lack of intrinsic motivation among the learners not only frustrates them, but it also frustrates the teachers who are the cornerstone of the educational process. Luce (2002:1) reported: "over the years I have watched them (teachers) collapse, falling hard into vinyl seats of the faculty bun, heard them grunt the 'oh. hell' and 'damn' that come from the experience of working with students who wouldn't learn. I have listened to the sighs of frustration and then the discussion of the fact that students are largely unmotivated, unwilling slugs taking up my time and best performances.
Littlejohn (2001) believes that a small number of students have a sense of intrinsic satisfaction. Some teachers try to affect positively the pupils' sense of intrinsic satisfaction by using games or puzzles. This thing has temporary impact. So, natural interest of the learners is unreliable to generate sustained motivation in language learning. Vroom (1995) originated the Expectancy theory in which motivation is most likely to occur when learning has value to the learner (valence), the effort to learn will be useful to the learner (instrumentality) and the learners' effort will be rewarded by the learners expected outcome (expectancy).
Aware of these facts, many teachers resort to the extrinsic reward and the extrinsic punishment. In the classrooms, teachers may reward good students with good marks or praising words or punish other students with low marks. Therefore, the reward system itself can be frustrating and demotivating for the weaker students. think that the third source of motivation is the most important and crucial one. For the weak and failing students, "we, as teachers have to develop their sense of success and a feeling that they "can" do something, rather than a feeling that they "can't"." (Littlejohn, 2001:4)
- Motivation and Attitudes in L2 learning:
Many theorists and researchers have found that it is important to look at the construct of motivation not as a single entity but as a multi-factorial one. Oxford and Shearin (1994) analyzed a total of 12 motivational theories or models, including those from socio-psychology, cognitive development, and socio-cultural psychology, and identified SIX factors that impact motivation in language leaning:
- Attitudes (i.e., sentiments toward the learning community and the target language).
- Beliefs about self (i.e., expectancies about ones attitudes to succeed, self- efficacy, and anxiety).
- Goals (perceived clarity and relevance of learning goals as reasons for learning).
- Involvement (i.e., extent to which the learner actively and consciously participates in the language learning process).
- Environmental support (i.e., extent of teacher and peer support, and the integration of cultural and outside-of-class support into learning experience).
- Personal attributes (i.e., aptitude, age, sex, and previous language learning experience).
Concerning the learner attitudes toward the target language, it was indicated by Gardner's results (1959, 1983, 1985) that L2 learners with positive attitudes towards the speakers and culture of 12 were more successful in learning the language than those who had negative attitudes. Gardner (1983) argued that, because language is an integral part of culture, the learning of a second language is dependent upon the learner's wilingness to identify with the culture of the target language and to incorporate aspects of the target- language culture, including linguistic repertoire, into his or her own behavior.
Moreover, Fasold (1984) stressed the role of learners' attitudes in language growth or decay and he stated that the concept of language attitudes not only includes attitudes towards speakers of a particular language , but it also includes all kinds of behavior concerning language to be treated (e.g. attitudes toward language maintenance and planning efforts).Interestingly, success in learning L2 largely depends on the social relation among the L1 and L2 communities. Wong-Fillmore (1991) suggested that success in learning a second language is contingent on the existence of the following conditions:
- Motivated students who realize they need to learn the target language.
- Target-language speakers who support the second- language learners.
- Frequent social contad between target-language speakers and learners.
Concerning the effect of learning a foreign language one's own culture, Kramsch (1995) writes about how language plays an important role not only in the construction of culture but also in the emergence of cultural change. In this regard, Kramsch (1995: 85) claimed that "social change occurs slowly, but inevitably at the edges of dominant cultures. This is true also of the change that we might want to bring about by teaching people how to use somebody else's linguistic code in somebody else's cultural context." Teaching members of one community how to talk and how to behave in the context of another discourse community potentially changes the social and cultural equation of both communities, by subtly diversifying mainstream cultures.
The level of the relationship between students' own cultural background and the background projected by the target community culture usually affects their attitudes and motivation toward learning L2. Lambert (1990) differentiated between two types of bilingualism: "additive" and "subtractive". In additive bilingualism, the L2 learners feel that by learning a new language, something new to their knowledge and experience is added without taking anything away from what they already know. But, in subtractive case, the learners feel that learning L2 threatens what they already gain for themselves. So, it can be said that additive situations lead to successful L2 learning and integrativeness.
In this respect, Obeidat (2005) conducted a study to investigate Malaysian students' attitudes -who were studying in Jordan Universities- toward learning Arabic as a foreign language. He concluded that the students were integratively motivated and their integrative orientations could be attributed to the shared belief in Islam which made them inclined to broaden their horizon and build up their personality through learning Arabic.
Furthermore, attitudes of the foreign language learners may be affected by the fear that involvement with the target language group may result in alienation from one's own group. For instance, perceptions that English is being pitted against Arabic, or in competition with Arabic, may have a negative affect on acquisition of English in the Arab World. Pennycook (1994:204-10) has remarked..." that whether or not tension exists between Western and Islamic knowledge , there is a strong feeling that English is linked to forms of culture that threaten an Islamic way of life." Thus, an investigation into learners' attitudes is a means by which language teachers, education planners, syllabus designers and researchers can gain greater insight into the language learning/teaching process.
Motivation and needs are closely related. On the one hand, motivation is seen as the fulfillment of needs, and on the other, human needs serve as drives or incentives which move one to a particular action. The best known theory of human needs is Maslow's (1970) hierarchy of need. Maslow formulates a fivefold hierarchy of human needs which begins with biological needs and progresses upward to psychological ones: physiological needs, including the need for food and water; the need for safety; social needs, including belongingness and love; esteem needs, e.g. the feelings of self-respect and positive recognition from others; and self-actualization, which means the need for a sense of self-fulfillment.
In terms of the foreign or second language learning, the need for safety indicates that the L2 learner needs to be secure that learning the target language and culture doesn't affect negatively his/her own culture or language. Additionally, leaning in general and learning languages in particular needs a safe and an unstressful atmosphere to facilitate language acquisition. Esteem and social needs also indicate that the learner needs to be a knowledgeable person who is able to communicate and integrate with others by learning their language. Failure to satisfy students' needs is likely to hinder their risk-taking and motivation. Psychologically insecure L2 learners can be very anxious (Macintyre & Gardner, 1991) and if this happens, L2 learners regress in their needs, motivation, and performance in the classroom.
Motivation for learning a second/foreign language is defined as the learners' orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. (Crookes & Schmidt 1991). To investigate and realize the effect of motivation on second language acquisition, the two basic types of motivation (integrative and instrumental) should be identified. Integrative motivation is characterized by the learners' positive attitudes towards the target language group and the desire to integrate into the target Language community. Instrumental motivation underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through L2 achievement, thus, referring to a more functional reason for language learning (Gardner& Lambert, 1972).
Gardner (1985) established a model of motivation in second language learning called the socio-educational model. As a result of long studies and research, he concluded that the learners attitude toward the target language and the culture of the target language learning motivation. The model is concerned with the role of various Individual differences in the learning of an L2. In the model, two classes of variables, integrativeness and attitudes toward the learning situation are said to contribute to the learner's level of motivation.
Gardner states that leaning a foreign language is unlike any other subject taught in a classroom because it involves the acquisition of skills and behavior patterns which are characteristics of another community. He also claimed that motivation is a dynamic process where many other variables play a part, and that this model can accommodate broader views. To assess various individual differences variables based on socio-educational model, Gardner developed the Attitude) Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) which consists of these five categories: integrativeness, instrumental motivation, motivation, anxiety and attitudes toward learning situations. Gardner's model has been used in many motivational studies (e.g. Tremblay & Gardner, 1995, Masgoret, 2001).
It can be said that Gardner's model put too much emphasis on the integrativeness and the role of learners' attitudes towards L2 group in learning the second language. Despite the fact that both kinds of motivation are essential elements of success in learning the second/foreign language, much debate and controversy among researchers and educators have been taking place about which kind of motivation is more important for the second language learners. Lambert (1974) viewed integrative motivation as being of more importance in formal leaning environment than the instrumental one and it was a more powerful predictor of linguistic achievement.
Falk (1978) agreed with Lambert's claim by pointing out that students who are most successful when learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire their culture and have a desire to become familiar with the society in which the language is used. On the other hand, Lukmani (1972) found that an instrumental motivation was more important than an integrative one among the non-Westernized female learners of L2 (English) in Bombay. Dornyei (1990) opposed Gardner by claiming that instrumental motivation and the learner's need for achievement are more important than the integrative motivation. Brown (2000) stated that second language learners rarely select one form of motivation when learning a second language, but rather a combination of them and he cites the example of the international students residing in the United States.
However, n response to calls for the adoption of a wider vision of motivation, Tremblay & Gardner (1995) incorporated other motivational variables into the socio- educational model and they acknowledged that other factors as instrumental orientation, attitudes toward the teacher and the course, learning strategies and self confidence might contribute to motivation. I think that socially grounded attitudes may provide important support or lack of support for motivation because language learning takes place within a social context In other words, success in second language learning is not only correlated with integrative and instrumental orientations but it is also affected by social factors because motivation -which is a complex construct- interacts with social or political variables. Many studies have found negative correlations between attitudes and language proficiency (Chihara, 1978, Oller, 1977). Oller attributed the anti-integrative motivation of the Mexican Americans in Southeast to the situation in which colonizes minority of Mexican Americans have been oppressed by a powerful political system.
In respect of the Malaysian context, second language learners might preserve then identity by unconsciously selecting to be motivated instrumentally. Aspiration related to integrative motivation might affect their Malaysian identity and the fear of identifying with English (Western) culture and values may be related to the colony or to the latest American campaign against some countries in the area. Upon review of the literature available in the area of students' motivation for learning foreign languages, many studies attempted to explore the learners' integrative and instrumental motivation. Oller et al (1997) studied educated Chinese speaking ESL students and he found that those who considered Americans as helpful, sincere and friendly did better in a cloze test of English as a second language. Man-Fat (2004) agrees with Oller when he explored the motivation of English language learners in Hong Kong (grade10) and his study reported the significant correlation between integrative motivation and language proficiency.
On the other hand, instrumental motivation was found more prominent in some situations particularly where there appears to be little desire to integrate. Fu& Lee (1980) found out that Chinese students in Hong Kong were instrumentally motivated and L2 linguistic achievements correlated more with instrumental motivation. Dornyei's study (1996) of Hungarian secondary school learners of English revealed that instrumental motivation is a central component of motivation where relatively utilitarian benefits are actually available for the learners. He also claimed that foreign language learning in a classroom doesn't involve attitudes towards the L2 community because learners have little or no contact with members of L2 group.
Concerning the Arab learners, Al-Shalabi (1982) investigated Kuwait' university students motivation for studying EFL It was found out that the majority of the students reported themselves as having instrumental motivation for language learning (to be "educated person, to get a higher degree" ...). Moreover, AlMutawa (1994) distributed a questionnaire among 1030 Kuwaiti secondary students and he found out that more than three quarters of the subjects disagreed with considering learning English as a means to know and learn the foreign culture. A Saudi study by Alam (1988) investigated the purpose of learning English in Saudi Arabian public schools and revealed that the majority of participants were instrumentally motivated and considered English as the language of business and higher education. Musa (1985) has given a questionnaire to 357 secondary school students' in the UAE to investigate the students' attitudes towards studying English. Seventy-five per cent of the students stated that they liked studying English because of its importance as an international means of communication and because it would enable them to pursue their postgraduate studies and to keep them in contact with a high- status foreign culture.
In a study about motivation for learning English among first year female university students in Zayed University in the UAE (Zayed University, 1999), it was found out that the key motivating factor for the learners was instrumental, Although the attitudes to the target community were generally positive, there appears to be no desire to assimilate or become friends with speakers of the English. Attitudinal studies conducted on Arab students (Zughoii & Taminian, 1984, Harrison et al, 1975) have shown that Arab students are instrumentally motivated to learn English and it is true that some learners are integratively motivated but they are in a minority. Dhaif Allah( 2005) explored the Saudi students integrative and instrumental motivation for learning English as a foreign language and he found out that middle school students were oriented towards integrative and instrumental goals and that none of the two kinds was seen to be more important than the other It is noticed that the Saudi study agrees with Brown (2000) who darned that learners rarely select one form of motivation when learning a second language, but rather a combination of them. However, there is no clear-cut separation between these orientations. For example, Dornyei (1990) defines the desire to integrate into a new community (the assimilative orientation) as an orientation lying between integrative orientations and instrumental orientations and new items were added to the instrumental/integrative orientations, e.g. desire to broaden one's view and avoid provincialism, and desire for new stimuli and challenges to the integrative orientations (Dornyei 1994a).
To sum up, as it is understood from the above discussion, the researchers and educators haven't agreed on what the most important kind of motivation a second/foreign language learner should have. The 1970s studies (Gardner, 1972, 1979, Lambert, 1974) have shown that integrative motivation is more important for success in L2 acquisition and instrumental motivation did not seem to relate to successful language learning. However, the following studies (Gardner& McIntyre, 1991, Dornyei 1994, Oxford, 1994) found that integrative motivation may not be the strongest predictor for language learning and the issue of motivation may not be as simple as integrative-instrumental dichotomy. They suggested that other components such as desire for knowledge need for achievement, intellectual stimulation and personal challenge can also play important roles n second language learning.
A feature shared in most foreign language classrooms where the language in question is a required school subject, is the problem of demotivation. The following behaviors described by Chambers (1993:13) will be familiar to many foreign language teachers: 'poor concentration; lack of belief in own capabilities; no effort made to learn; 'What's the use?' syndrome; negative or nil response to praise; lethargy; lack of cooperation; disruptive; distracted; distracts other pupils; produces little or no homework; fails to bring materials to lessons; claims to have lost materials."
However, the weakness of English language learners in general has been attributed to various factors such as teaching methodology, lack of the target language environment and the learners demotivation (Mukkatash, 1983, Zughoti,1987). Therefore, it is important for the teachers at least to be aware of the possible factors that may be affecting their students' motivation. With those factors in mind, they may be able to develop strategies to help solve the problems that arise relating to students motivation and desire to learn English as a foreign language.
Much research has been conducted on language learning motivation but less on the demotivating factors in learning the second language and a few studies have addressed them. Dornyei & Otto (1998) don't perceive motivation or demotivation as a static phenomenon. On the contrary, they are considered as dynamic, increasing and declining, affecting language achievement and being affeded by the surrounding learning context. The demotivated learner is defined by Dornyei as the one who is originally motivated and lost his/her motivation because of negative external factors. Some studies have shown relatedness between demotivation and the learning context such as classroom environment, teaching methods and curricula (Gardner, 1985, Skehan, 1991, Sivan, 1986).
Gorham& Christophel (1992) investigated the factors that students perceive as motivators/demotivators in college classes in West Arginea University The study compared students' perception of the demotivating and motivating factors. As to demotivating factors, the factors related to teacher's behavior were the most frequent, 43%, those under partial control of the teacher were second in frequency (e.g. assessment and choice of text books), 36%, and only 21% related to contextual factors over which the teacher has little control.
In terms of the data as a whole, the teacher behavior contributed equally to both motivation and demotivation. However, the researchers concluded that motivation is perceived as a student-owned state, while lack of motivation is perceived as a teacher-owned problem.
Chambers (1993) (in Dornyei, 2001) investigated demotivation in language learning in four schools n the UK. The study was conducted on the school students and their teachers. Students placed most blame on teachers and learning materials. While the teachers claimed that the students' motivation caused by psychological, social and attitudinal reasons.
Generally, most studies conducted in the field of motivation and demotivation as its flip side found out that the personality of the teacher, teaching methods, learning context in addition to the learners attitude toward L2 could play a vital role in The students' motivation or demotivation toward learning languages.
This survey is a quantitative type of research which involves the use of questionnaire. Quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes. In a quantitative research, questionnaires, and computers are used as data collection methods. The data collected is numerical and statistical. The general objective of the researcher is to observe but does not actively participate. Research design is also structured and well-tested.
Participants consisted of 30 Form 2 students in Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Pekula Jaya located in Tikam Batu, Kedah. The socioeconomic status of the school and the area that the school served was largely middle class, and students were primarily Malays. The instruments were administered in the classroom during two periods of English lesson. During the session, students were asked to complete the questionnaire. Directions and individual items were read aloud by the administrator.
For the purpose of obtaining data on what negatively affects their English learning motivation, I conducted this study by using a questionnaire (see appendix). The questionnaire was adapted from Gardner's (1985) AMTB to measure the students integrative/instrumental motivation in learning English. This part of the questionnaire contains 8 items reflecting the integrative/instrumental motivation and a five- point Likert Scale ranged from strongly disagree to strongly agrees was used.
The integrative motivation scale includes four items to find out how much the learners learn English with a genuine interest to assimilate with the target language, culture, community, their way of life and literature; this would show their Integrativeness toward the target language. But, the instrumental motivation scale includes four items aiming at measuring the respondents' utilitarian reasons for studying English.
At the very beginning of the study, permission was gained from the principal of the targeted schools who showed a willingness to collaborate in this study. To guarantee a positive participation, the subjects were informed that their answers would be confidential and they were not required to write or give their names at any stage of the study. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher and 40 students participated in completing the questionnaire during their English class.
The students were assured that the main objective of the researcher was to find out why they like to study English and what makes them sometimes dislike the English classes. Moreover, the students were told that their answers and opinions would not affect their grades or their teachers' impression and their participation in the survey would help teachers to understand their desires and problems. Students were encouraged to ask questions at any time during the process.
The survey was administered to the students in a classroom environment. Prior to the survey, the participants were assured of anonymity and confidentiality. Then, they were a brief explanation to facilitate the administration, and were asked to respond to the questionnaire items as spontaneously as possible. The students were asked to tick the answer wherever seemed necessary. The participants took approximately 30 to 40 minutes to complete the questionnaire, although there was no time limit. Upon completion of the administration, the participants were offered some refreshments for their participation.