The Largest And Most Complex Educational System Education Essay

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India is currently engaged in modernising itself and building perhaps the largest and most complex educational system in the world. Behind it lays an ancient but living culture, a tireless quest for knowledge, in all fields of thought and human endeavour and the proved record of industrial and technological achievements of the past five decades. Education is the aggregate of all the process by which a person in the society lives. The social processes are processes by which people are subjected to the influence of a selected and controlled environment of society so that they may obtain social competence and optimum individual development (Crow and Crow, 1962). Education has been recognized as the most important factor for human development, which contributes to national progress attired to the globalization process.

People enter the teaching profession in search of the satisfaction of their varied needs. Behaviour scientists have categorized the needs of a human beings as physiological needs, security/safety needs, social needs, esteem and self actualization in ascending order. A teacher will only be satisfied with his or her job when he perceives that there is little or no difference between what he expects from the job and what actually receives from it (Singh, 1987). Public criticism, waves of educational reform, and controversy over the direction of education, should not create a difficult and unsupportive environment for school teachers. It is important to note that while the role of teachers has moved through different stages over time, no role has ever been left behind. The role of the teacher has developed like a pearl, adding successive layers in response to initiatives and needs introduced from the surrounding environment, as expectations have increased dramatically in recent years, criticism of education has grown to a point where many teachers find it hard to bear. Teachers feel discouraged by lack of public understanding and environment in which they work. They also feel overwhelmed by so many initiatives involved in ensuring educational success for every student, modern teachers in general find it difficult to maintain morale.

The term burnout was used for the first time in the novel 'A Burnout Case' (Greene, 1961), according to a New York Times critic (Danis, 1961), the novel concerned a tired and detached architect, who, having lost his motivation to work could "neither suffer nor laugh". Because symptoms such as inability to laugh or suffer provided no physical signs of injury. The term burnout was first introduced in academic scenario by Freudenberger (1974), who defined it as "to fail, to wear out, or become exhausted by making excess demands on energy, strength or resources". The consequences of burnout were described in terms of physical outcomes (e.g. frequent headaches, sleepless, gastrointestinal disturbances and shortness of breath) and in behavioural outcomes (e.g. frustration, irritation, difficult to hold in feelings, cynicism). Freudenberger also suggested that it seemed to be those who "work too much, too long and too intensively" and those who had a "need to give" that were prone to burnout. He also pointed out the experience of "less challenges at work" and "monotony of work" as possible risk factors leading to burnout. Maslach (1976) interviewed a wide range of human service workers about the emotional stress of their jobs and discovered that the coping strategies had important implications for people's professional identity and job behaviour. Leiter & Maslach (1988) framed model of three dimensions hypothesing a different sequential progression over time in which the occurrence of one dimension precipitates the development of another. According to this model, exhaustion occurs first, leading to development of cynicism, which leads subsequently to inefficacy. Maslach & Leiter (1997) formulated another model that focused on the degree of match, or mismatch between the person and six domains of his or her job environment. The greater the gap, or mismatch between the person and the job, the greater the likelihood of engagement with work. One new aspect of this approach is that the mismatch focus is on the enduring working relationship people have with their job.

Research on burnout originally focused on people in various occupational groups, including human service workers, teachers, nurses and psychologists. The concept of burnout was popularized with the development of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). Several developmental models of burnout have been outlined since then, but according to Schanfeli and Bunk (2003) a comprehensive theoretical framework is still lacking. Burnout is most often conceptualized in the framework of stress research, but several authors have suggested that stress and burnout are two different constructs (Cordes & Dangherty, Pines & Keinan, 2005, Smith 2006). Burnout has also been described from an existential perspective (Pines, 1993, Pines and Keinan, 2005) and according to Pines (1993), one underlying assumption in the existential model of burnout is that only highly motivated individuals can burnout, study by Hallberg, Johansson and Schanfeli (2007), followed this line of research, by examining possible relationship between Type A behaviour, work engagement and burnout Schanfeli and Buunk (2003) distinguished three overall theoretical approaches to burnout, individual, interpersonal and organizational .Friedman (1996) described burnout on two pathways one as cognitive and another one as unemotional pathway. Farber (2000) proposed typology with three syndromes that are frantic, under challenged and worn- out. Burnout is described as symptom of dominant personality Peterk (2010). To summarize, the term burnout refers to an extreme state of psychological strain and depletion of energy resources arising from prolonged exposure to stressors that exceed the person's resources to cope, particularly stressors associated with human resource professions.

Teaching profession is one of the largest and most visible professions. Teachers are often expected to correct social problems like educate students in academic and skill areas, provide enrichment activities, meet the individual needs of students with a wide range of abilities, and encourage students moral and ethical development. Third, the human and financial resources required to meet these diverse expectation have not been forthcoming. Finally teachers have found their credibility eroding with large community. Politicians, corporate executives and educational experts have expounded conflicting answers for correcting the ills of education. Their solutions are often simplistic, neglecting the complex social constraints under which teachers work and often blaming the teacher for the problem they face. As a result of these pressures many teachers are leaving the profession, suffering the consequences of job-related stress and experiencing burnout.

The school is more than a place where knowledge and skills are taught and learned. A teacher is a person engaged in the interactive behaviour with number of students for effective learning. The increasing need for educational reform has driven researchers and educators to determine effective teaching strategies. As teachers and students are unique individuals with varied strengths and weaknesses (Rushton, Morgan & Richard, 2007) so, countries worldwide are in dire need of outstanding educators. Research indicates that teachers in European and Asian countries generally feel more respected and enjoy better compensation than those in America (OECD, 1995). In this regard Ruston, Morgan, &Richard (2007) raised question as to whether European and Asian countries exhibit personality tendencies differing from American teachers.

Teacher's personality has a clear and measurable effect on the progress of pupils academically and socially. Personality factors may be defined as generalized traits of readiness to respond with a marked degree of consistency to a set of situations that are functionally equivalent for the respondent. Bernerd (1954) found that personality of teacher has direct and accumulative impact on the lives and learning habits of pupils. This has also been supported by Sorenson (1954) in his statement. The pupils look at the teachers many minutes each day. They are affected by his state of clothes, by the expression of his face and by his mannerism, pupils hear for hours each day the voice of their teachers.

The importance of attitude in human life is universally recognized. Our attitudes which determine our favourable or unfavourable reactions to environmental stimuli to which we are exposed. These also determine our social, religious political and cultural institutions in the matrix of which we function and develop our personalities and general outlook of life. Attitudes, in turn, are significantly influenced by the institutional influences to which we are exposed. By knowing the attitudes of a person, we come to know that which in life is significant for him and what not. Since the chief aim of education is the development of human personality, it cannot but essentially concern itself with creation of an environment for the pupil in which the development of wholesome attitude is facilitated and aroused. Attitudes are the product of experience. Hence there is a close connection between education and attitudes. Education has to ensure right and appropriate experiences for pupil so that they are enabled to cultivate personal, social and moral attitudes worthy of a meaningful and dynamic life

Attitude towards teaching is thus an enduring perceptual organization of teacher's belief and learned tendency to react favourably or unfavourbly in different degrees which determine his actual or potential response towards teaching. In order to understand teacher's attitude towards teaching in its correct perspective it seems pertinent here to ascertain various definitions on teaching and put them into some order. Highet (1950) viewed teaching as an act which in turn is dependent on certain variables such as liking for the understanding of pupils. Knowledge of the subject matter along with planning and preparation for its preparation, the environment in which teaching and learning are taking place and certain other attributes of the teacher. The concept of teaching to him is a system of action intended to include or facilitate learning.

In review of studies Birmingham (1985) studied burnout among school teachers in Minnesota. He reported that highest level of emotional exhaustion was experienced by 34-44 years olds. However, Hock (1988) reported that no differences were found in susceptibility to burnout due to demographic variables such as age, grade level, subject taught and years of experience. Basi (1990) found that teachers with service of 0-5 years were the most burned out, while teachers with service from 6-10 years were least burned out. Burnout slightly increased after 10 years of service. Friedman (1991) concluded that levels of teacher burnout rose steadily with years of teaching experience and then declined among the highest years of experience. Raima (1997) concluded that female teachers were found to be more burnout than male teachers in primary schools. More qualified and more experienced teachers were found to be less burnout than their counterparts. Subudhi (1997) found that old teachers experienced more burnout feelings than their younger counterpart. Chaudhary (2001) found that marital status, educational qualifications, teaching experience and residence of teacher had independent effect on burnout and its various dimensions to varying degree. Sari (2004) found that in terms of gender, males have less emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment and higher depersonalization than their female counterparts. In relation to their work experiences, more experienced subjects had higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization than their less experienced colleagues. Tonders & Williams (2009) explored the origins of burnout among secondary educators and found that demographic variables that influence job burnout including age, gender, job tenure and marital status. It was also found that younger employees tend to suffer from burnout compared to their older colleagues. Mukundan & Khanderoo (2009) found that emotional exhaustion of female teachers and depersonalization of male teachers were significantly high and both had significantly high level of personal accomplishment. Luk et al. (2010) studied the relation between demographic variables and burnout among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Macau. The results revealed that Macau school teachers had moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and low levels of depersonalization. Age, Marital status, teaching experience significantly affected burnout levels of teachers. Younger and single teachers had significantly higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization than older and married teachers. Similarly teachers with less years of experience had significantly higher emotional exhaustion than teachers with more than 20 years of experience. Teoh et.al (2011) studied factors influencing job burnout among human resource employees and analyzed significant differences between marital status, job tenure, and burnout.

Fontana & Abousebie (1993) investigated stress level, gender and personality dimensions in school teachers. Correlational analysis between stress and personality dimensions revealed that stress correlated negatively with extraversion and positively with neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion and neuroticism were best predictors of stress level. Schanfeli and Enzmann (1998) found that emotional exhaustion is positively related to neuroticism and depersonalisation is positively related to neuroticism and negatively to Agreeableness and personal accomplishment is significantly related to neuroticism. Wright and Cropanzano (1998) found that employees higher in neuroticism reported more feelings of emotional exhaustion, a finding that also holds true in the case of depersonalization (Inverson, 1998). Kumari (2000) revealed that high burnout female teachers had scored significantly high on three scales of personality i.e. psychoticism, neuroticism, whereas low on extraversion than the low burnout group. High burnout subjects had scored significantly high on all the three dimensions of burnout. It suggests that high burnout female teachers were characterized as having depletion of emotional resources feeling of being 'empty' or 'worn-out', negative and cynical attitude towards the recipient of their service and negative evaluation of their own accomplishment at work. Cano- Garcia et al. (2004) found that highest scores in burnout were obtained by teachers with a high degree of neuroticism and introversion. High scores in depersonalization were obtained by teachers with low scores in teachers' personal agreeableness. D'Aldersando et al. (2006) studied neuroticism as most predictive of one's level of emotional exhaustion and feelings of lacking personal accomplishment. Fuiks (2008) studied that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were negatively related to extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively to neuroticism. Personal accomplishment was positively related to extraversion and negatively related to neuroticism. Anvari et al. (2011) indicated that no significant interactional effect of stress with personality dimensions was found in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimension. Swietochowski (2011) revealed that burnout syndrome was found to be higher in high school teachers as compared to university teachers. Extraversion was found to be the important determinant of professional burnout.

Batra (2005) conducted a study on secondary school teachers of govt. and private schools of Chandigarh. Burnout was found to be negatively and significantly correlated with attitude towards teaching profession. This implies that teachers having favourable attitude were least burnout and enjoyed their profession. Yavuz (2009) studied burnout levels of teachers working in elementary and secondary educational institutes and their attitudes and beliefs regarding class room management. It was found that level of depersonalization was higher among male teachers than females. Secondary school teachers showed more interventionist attitudes than elementary school teachers. Ispir et al. (2010) examined teachers' burnout levels and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was conducted on 608 teachers from different branches. Results showed that attitudes of teachers were found high and burnout levels were found low. A significant relationship was found between attitude towards teaching profession and burnout levels of the teachers. Attitude scores of the teachers are differed in terms of burnout levels of the teacher for each dimension of MBI.

5.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

BURNOUT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN RELATION TO EYSENCK PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS TEACHING

5.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To study burnout among secondary school teachers of Punjab.

To compare burnout of male and female secondary school teachers of Punjab.

To compare burnout of secondary school teachers with various personality dimensions.

To compare burnout of less experienced and more experienced secondary school teachers of Punjab.

To compare burnout of secondary school teachers with high and low level of attitude towards teaching.

To study the conjoint effect of gender, experiences, personality dimensions and attitude towards teaching on burnout among secondary school teachers of Punjab.

5.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

There will be no significant difference in burnout of male and female secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant difference in burnout of secondary school teachers with various personality dimensions.

There will be no significant difference in burnout of less and more experienced secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant difference in burnout of secondary school teachers with high and low level of attitude towards teaching.

There will be no significant interaction between gender and experience on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction between gender and personality dimensions on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction between gender and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction between personality dimensions and experience on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction between personality dimensions and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction between experience and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction among gender, personality dimensions and experience on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction among gender, personality dimensions and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction among gender, experience and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction among personality dimensions, experience and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant interaction among gender, personality dimensions, experience and attitude towards teaching on burnout of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant relation between burnout and gender of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant relation between burnout and personality dimensions of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant relation between burnout and attitude towards teaching of secondary school teachers.

There will be no significant relation between burnout and experience of secondary school teachers.

Gender, personality dimensions, experience and level of attitude towards teaching will not contribute significantly towards total variance in burnout of secondary school teachers.

5.5 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The present study was conducted on a sample of 700 secondary school teachers.

The study was limited to the schools of four districts of Punjab namely Ropar, Mohali, Patiala and Fatehgarh sahib.

The study was restricted to govt schools.

Personality dimensions were restricted to three dimensions as measured by revised version of Psychoticism scale developed by Eysenck.

5.6 DESIGN OF THE SUDY

In the present study, the descriptive method of research has been employed. Best & Khan (1995) considered research studies as non-experimental because they deal with the relationship between non manipulated variable in a natural, rather than artificial setting. According to them method of descriptive research is appropriate in the behavioural sciences because many of the types of behaviour that interest the researcher cannot be arranged in an artificial setting. Types of behaviour under the natural conditions occur in the school. Descriptive research also involves events that have already existed and may be related to present condition. This method was chosen because of those distinctive advantages for the various aspects of burnout, personality and attitude of teachers towards teaching. The independent variables in the study are personality, attitude towards teaching and demographic variables i.e. Gender (male and female) and experience (upto 10 years, 11-20 years and above 20 years). The dependent variable in the present study is burnout among secondary school teachers.

5.7 SAMPLE

The primary purpose of any research is to discover principals that have universal application, but sometimes the population is so large that it becomes impossible to take the whole ambit. In this regard sampling plays an important role in the research. Sampling is an important aspect of life in general and enquiry in particular. According to Best and Kahn (1995) the process of sampling makes it possible to draw valid interferences or generalizations on the basis of careful observation or manipulation of variables within a relatively small portion of the population. By observing the characteristics of the sample, researcher can make certain inference about the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.

The population of this study consist of all secondary school teachers who were working in government secondary schools of Punjab. The random cluster sampling technique was used for selecting sample of the study. The sample of teacher comprised of 700 teachers from four districts of Punjab.

The sample was selected at two levels in the present investigation.

School sample

Teacher's sample

5.7.1 School Sample

For the selection of the sample, the cluster sampling technique was used. The cluster sampling techniques is variation of random sampling that is particularly appropriate when the population of interest is infinite. In the present study to select the appropriate sample, 60 schools from four districts of Punjab were randomly selected.

List of names and location of schools is given in Appendix-4

5.7.2 Teacher's Sample

Teachers sample was taken from 60 schools. 12 teachers were randomly selected from each school. The sample distribution for the teachers has been presented in figure 6.1.

Burnout (700 Teachers)

Male teachers (300) Female teachers (300)

Experience Experience

<10 yrs 11-20 yrs >20yrs <10 yrs 11-20 yrs >20 yrs

Fig 6.1 The sample distribution for the teachers

5.8 TOOLS USED

In the present study following tools were used to study the variables:

Maslach Burnout Inventory (1996) by S.E. Maslach et al. for measuring the dimensions of burnout.(Appendix-1)

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (1985) by Eysenck et al. for measuring dimensions of personality. (Appendix-2)

Attitude Scale Towards Teaching Profession (2001) by Dr. (Mrs.) Umme Kulsum for measuring attitude of teachers towards teaching. (Appendix-3)

5.9 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The following statistical techniques were employed to analyze the data obtained in order to test the hypotheses.

Descriptive Analysis technique like mean, standard deviations, skewness and Kurtosis were computed to study the general nature of the sample employed. The 2X3 ANOVA was employed to study the impact of gender and experience on dimensions of burnout. The t-ratios were obtained to study the difference between scores on high burnout and low burnout with respect to dimensions of personality and attitude towards teaching. The raw data was statistically treated and processed on SPSS installed in Panjab University, Chandigarh.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Organizations should identify specific stressors within work environment that contribute to burnout.

Programmes concerned with burnout management, coping strategies and development of balanced approach to living should be conducted.

Professional support networks should be implemented to overcome sense of isolation among teachers.

Workshops should be organised for increasing teachers' abilities to deal effectively with the demands of educational reforms.

Training must be provided to reduce experience of job burnout by coping mechanism to stay energised, positively engaged with their students.

Attention should be given to burnout and coping strategies within pre-service education and inservice professional development.

Induction programmes should be implemented to help new teachers in dealing with professional and personal problems.

Educational policies should be framed in a order to reduce burnout among teachers.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

A same study can be conducted on teachers working in schools of other parts of states as sample and by including secondary schools from urban areas also.

Burnout can be compared with other variables like age, nature of job, organisational climate, teacher effectiveness, self concept, stress, self confidence, other demographic variables e.g. marital status, social status, economic, educational and employement status.

Similar study can be conducted on different types of institutions like professional colleges, government colleges, private colleges and government-aided colleges.

Same study can be conducted on the principals of government, government aided and private schools and colleges.

A similar study can be conducted on other professions like Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Administrators and other private sector employees. Comparison could also be made between the different professional and different levels in the organizational set up.

Different studies can be carried out to review the role of policies of education a both the central and state government levels contributing towards burnout levels of teachers.

A study may also be carried out to compare the levels of burnout among care givers working in play way schools and children with special needs.

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