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2. Definition of the internationalization of education
The internationalization of education is reaction to the globalization with recognition of uniqueness of the nation (Knight 1999, p. 14). This means that it is not an aggressive flow. In other words, it is a natural flow by globalization. For precise definition of the internationalization of education, globalization also has to be defined. Knight (1999, p. 14) defines that globalization is the stream such as culture, technology and economy between countries, and each country has a different influence because of characteristic of each country.
Working definition of internationalization of education is a unify progression about international education (Knight 1999, p. 16).
3. Benefits and Challenges
The internationalization of higher education in Australia has led to benefits and it creates some new challenges.
The internationalization has good influences on both international student and Australian.
3.1.1 Benefits for international student
Australia's exchange rate, location and policy might be big reasons why many international students come to Australia to study (Handa 2004, p. 2). These are:
Expenses are one of the most important factor for international students to choose a country, because studying abroad is expended a lot of cost. Australia's exchange rate is relatively lower than the other English-speaking countries.
Proximity to Asia:
Handa (2004, p.2) mentions that over 75% of international students are Asians. Australia is located to the south of Asia, so it is nearby Asia. Easy of proximity can reduce international students' time and money, such as airmail fees, aviation fees and the equation of time from Asia.
Australia is a multicultural country. Therefore many nation communities were already formed. Students can experience many cultures of other countries, and also they can purchase their country's things easily.
3.1.2 Benefits for Australia
Great foreign exchange earner:
International students spend huge amounts of money. For example, they have to pay tuition fee, visa, insurance fee, general living expenses and overseas student health cover. Moreover, international students cannot receive a scholarship, and also they cannot work over 20 hours a week because of their visa problem.
Creation of occupation:
Internationalization of education creates many occupations, such as student agent and language school lecturer.
Passive class attitude:
According to Handa (2004), many international students do not have positiveness in the class. There are two main reasons. One reason is English, because English is not their first language. They have a limitative English problem of expression and understanding, so they cannot have confidence in their speaking. The other reason is different culture background. For example, most of Asia's class style is passivity, so Asian students have been adapted to listening class.
Lack of interaction with local students:
- Knight, J. 1999, ‘Internationalization of Higher Education', Quality and Internationalization in Higher Education, OECD, Paris, pp. 13-17.
- Handa, N. 2004, ‘What else did I need to bring with me? International students and their dilemma', Paper presented at the 15th ISANA Conference of the International Students Advisors' Network of Australia (ISANA), Melbourne.
- Withers, G. 2009, ‘Impacts on Students in Australian Universities', The Nature of International Education in Australian Universities and its Benefits, Universities Australia, Canberra, pp. 34-40.
- The University of Queensland 2009, Courses and Programs, Fees and costs for international students, viewed 5 January 2010, <http://www.uq.edu.au/study/index.html?page=1119>