Nowadays, the implementation of technologies in learning and teaching had been done in all education institutions, not only in higher education but also in secondary and primary school. This was because the technology had become an important need to all people in developing country like Malaysia.
Technology had developed in all countries rapidly in order to help people to do work to be easier, more effective and in short time, not only in daily uses, but also in teaching and learning in class. This is because, by using technology for teaching, it will help the teacher to transfer better the knowledge and information to the students, while when the students use technology for learning, it will help the students to explore and try to get knowledge and information by themselves, besides help them to receive the knowledge and information from teachers better. Tinker asserts that; "technology utilization patterns in schools could change dramatically from today's occasional use of simple applications to essentially continuous use of a suite of powerful tools. This could cause advances in learning and teaching" (n.d.).
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In fact, Noraini Idris asserts that "in the age of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the use of current technology is essential to enhance the teaching and learning process in order to stimulate the critical and logical thinking capabilities of the students. The National Philosophy of Education and Malaysia's Vision 2020 aims to produce a new generation of Malaysians who are able to think critically and systematically and who are able to use their knowledge of mathematics to meet the new challenges in this fast changing world" (n.d.).
There are many examples of technology implementation in education in all countries in the world in order to enhance effective teaching and learning session. For Malaysia itself, starting of year 2002, the Ministry of Education (MOE) has given authorization to teachers and students in secondary schools to use scientific calculators as give support to increase students' performance in calculation subjects; mathematics, additional mathematics and accounting. As supported by Pomerantz (1997), instructional session by the teachers and students' performance in class can be increase if scientific calculators are put in action in every stage of mathematics curriculum.
Another new technology that had been used in Malaysia's education was e-book or electronic book. E-book is a digital form of many books (Rao, 2003) and can being read through the screen of mini laptop (The new Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2001). According to Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman, who is the Chairman of the Education Committee, Higher Education, Science & Technology and Human Resources Affairs, the person who responsible generates the idea of using e-book in education was Menteri Besar of Terengganu himself; Dato 'Ahmad Said. He had proposed his idea to Minister of Education Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, who is also the Deputy Prime Minister.
According to Menteri Besar Terengganu, Y.A.B. Dato' Seri Haji Ahmad bin Said, e-books in Terengganu had been created to replace the printed textbooks that had been used in primary school, in order to help the pupils to decrease their load of carrying heavy backpack everyday to school. Besides that, with the Internet access capability of e-book, this will increase pupils' achievement and prepare them to be working in k-economy era after they had finished their studies someday (Bernama Online, 2009).
The implementation of e-books in primary schools in Terengganu had been done because it implies with the needs of teaching and learning for both teachers and students at this modern era. This was claimed by McGuire, D. (n.d.);
"At the beginning of the 21st century technological change has reached an amazing pace. New methods of communication, creation and transmission of ideas or works â€¦ appear almost daily. Until recently, the technologies available to copy a work would not allow a perfect copy. A photocopy of a textbook is a poor substitute for the original, a tape made from a record is never as clear as one from the publisher. Now digital technologies allow for perfect (or near-perfect) copies-as many as are needed-to be transmitted around the world".
Statement of Problem
E-book is one the new technology that had been implemented in primary school in Terengganu in order to help pupils to learn better and increase pupils' performance in their education. It's also can develop pupils' logical thinking and have fun when serve Internet, besides increase their basic skills in computer usage. Besides that, their computer organizational performance also will improve if they use computer (Davis, Bagozzi, and Warsaw, 1989).
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However, according to Al-Khaldi and Al-Jabri (1998), even there were many researchers had investigated the effects of users' attitude on their usage of computers (Hartwick and Barki, 1994; Robichaux, 1994; Swanson, 1987, 1974; Srinivasan, 1985; Desanctis, 1983; Ives, Olson, and Baroudi, 1983; Fuerst and Cheney, 1982; Ginzberg, 1981; Locus, 1975; Robey, 1979; Schultz and Steven, 1975), the findings were mixed and inconclusive, which use various different measures of belief, attitude and satisfaction and sometimes without appropriate theoretical foundation. Davis et al. (1989); Goodhue (1988); Robey (1979) as cited in Al-Khaldi and Al-Jabri (1998) claimed that this was happened because the management information systems (MIS) have been worried to use the existing theories and models of social psychology literature in studying the relationship between attitude and computer utilization. Therefore, Thompson, Higgins, and Howell (1991); Davis, et al. (1989); Robey (1979); Shultz and Slevin (1975) had been getting mixed and inconclusive empirical support for the hypothesis that users' attitudes could affect their computer usage.
However, in order to get all the benefits of using e-book, the pupils must have positive attitude in using e-book (Leong and Hawamdeh, 1999). This is because, attitudes largely affect the competency of using computer (Lawton and Gerschner, 1982 as cited in Al-Khaldi and Al-Jabri, 1998). There were many components of attitude that had been identified before. For this research, the researcher had based on Computer Attitude Scale (CAS) develop by Loyd and Gressard (1984). According to thesis wrote by Al-Khaldi and Al-Jabri (1998), there were four components of computer attitude in CAS, which were computer anxiety, computer confidence, computer liking and computer usefulness which need to take note in order to help pupils to have to have positive attitude in using e-book for their learning.
In order to investigate pupils' attitude in using e-book, the factors related to the use of e-book also important to be known. There were many factors related to e-book or computer utilization. According to Roesnita Ismail and A. N. Zainab (2007), there were four factors of use or not use e-book, which were technology competencies, cognitive, functional, and access factors. While, according to Al- Khaldi and Al-Jabri (1998), there were some factors could give impacts to students' usage of computer like computer accessibility, computer experience and computer education.
Besides that, the teachers also need to know their students, whether their students like to use e-book in their learning or not. This is important in order to help them to improve their teaching style with more creative in using e-book so that the pupils will love in learning by using e-book.
Therefore, the main purpose of this research is the researcher wants to investigate the factors related to e-book utilization among primary pupils in primary schools in Terengganu. These factors will be recognize through the pupils' attitude towards e-book usage, whether they really happy and like to use electronic textbook for their learning or they prefer to use printed textbook. These factors of e-book utilization also could be caused by the features of e-book, teachers and parents attitude of e-book usage. The researcher also wants to investigate whether there are implications and problems in using e-book or not.
Purpose of the Research
The purpose of the research is to investigate the effectiveness of e-book implementation in teaching and learning in primary schools in Terengganu. This effectiveness will be look according to primary pupils' attitudes toward the use of e-book in their learning. In this research, the researcher wants to investigate the factors related to e-book utilization and their relationship to the pupils' attitude in e-book utilization. Besides that, the researcher also wants to investigate the validity of teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in e-book utilization.
The pupils are Standard 4, 5 and 6 pupils from a few rural primary schools in Hulu Terengganu and also a few urban schools primary schools in Kuala Terengganu. These two different areas of the schools had been chose in order to investigate whether the issues happen according to factor of area or not.
Objectives of the Research
To investigate if there is any significant relationship between factors related to e-book utilization and attitude towards the use of e-book in learning among primary pupils in primary schools in Terengganu.
To investigate the validity of teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in using e-book in learning.
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What are the factors related to e-book utilization among primary pupils in primary schools in Terengganu.
What are the attitudes of primary pupils in Terengganu toward e-book in their learning?
Is there any significant relationship between factors related to e-book utilization and attitude towards the use of e-book in learning among primary pupils in primary schools in Terengganu?
What are the teachers' perceptions on primary pupils' attitudes in using e-book in learning?
How is the validity of teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in using e-book in learning?
Significance of the Study
This research will be done in order to investigate the effectiveness of e-book implementation in teaching and learning in primary schools in Terengganu. This effectiveness will be look according to primary pupils' attitudes toward the use of e-book in their learning. In this research, the researcher wants to investigate the factors related to e-book utilization and their relationship to the pupils' attitude in e-book utilization. Besides that, the researcher also wants to investigate the validity of teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in e-book utilization.
From the results of the investigation in this research, the factors that affect of e-book usage among primary pupils in learning will be known. Therefore, all parties like teachers, parents and government will know that they have to do some improvement in order to help pupils to have positive attitude towards the use of e-book and enhance pupils' understanding to the lesson. As teachers, they could maximize the use of e-book and improve their teaching styles that are suitable in using e-book and for primary students, which more creative in order to help pupils to have fun and interest to learn by using e-book. The teachers can also prepare the challenge teaching materials that ask pupils to think out of box and inquiry in new things about the topics, which needed for them to find the answers and explanations from the Internet by using their e-book. As parents, they can enhance their children to love use e-book in their learning by giving moral support, besides capture their interest in using e-book by give computer training to their children for those who are able to do so. For government especially Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Terengganu and Ministry of Education, with the results of this research, they could take note that some improvement should be done, especially the physical and functional of e-book to be more interesting and suitable for level primary pupils, so that could help the pupils to love learning by using e-book.
Since there has no research had being done about e-book as textbook in primary schools in Terengganu, this research could be give picture about the importance of developing positive attitude of e-book usage among primary pupils. E-book is one of the modern technologies that had been created in order to fulfill pupils' needs in learning at nowadays advance era. Therefore, like the successfulness of e-book usage in learning in other countries, the Malaysia government should also implement this technology in all schools in all states of Malaysia. The government can make the use of e-book in primary schools in Terengganu as an example in order to improve the contents of e-book to be more interesting, to help teachers to have better teaching styles with e-book and also to help parents aware of their children in learning by using e-book. These will help the primary pupils to have positive attitude towards the use of e-book, which indirectly increase pupils' interest to learn the subjects by using e-book, and also increase their results in tests and examinations.
Limitations of the Research
The research will deal only with availability and uses of electronic book in primary school in Terengganu; it did not attempt to examine any other types or tools of technology. The research is based on case study, which are Standard 4, 5 and 6 pupils from a few rural primary schools and a few urban primary schools in Terengganu. The results paint express in this research will only applicable to students from that school. The questionnaires were self-administered in an uncontrolled setting, which is the accuracy of the results was totally dependent upon the care and accuracy of the respondents. Another limitation of this study was sample size, which depend on population size.
Delimitations of the Research
As in the case with description data, the results and findings of this research apply only to the selected primary schools which will participate in this research. Additionally, in order to eliminate over-representation of the schools, the questionnaires will be distributed directly to the pupils of the schools. The pupils will be chose randomly according to their Standards and their classes. While this will reduce the chance of receiving data from pupils from not chosen schools, it also meant that all questions will be answered only from the pupils from selected schools.
The questions that deal with the use of e-book in learning will be an issue. In responding to these questions, the students will either answer base on his or her observations, or actually meet with the teachers to determine the appropriate responses. Finally, the questions within the questionnaire will not exhaustive and closed-response format will be used wherever possible. These questions making coding for later analysis much easier, but reducing the diversity of the answers.
The methodology that will be use in this research is quantitative. The quantitative data provided will sense of how most pupils respond to the given questionnaires. This provides primary pupils' attitudes toward the use of e-book in learning, the factors related to e-book utilization among primary pupils and teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in e-book utilization.
The research is a descriptive research. This is because, the research will involves making careful descriptions about the primary pupils' attitudes in using e-book in their learning, the factors related to e-book utilization among primary pupils and teachers' judgement of primary pupils' attitudes in e-book utilization. The type of the research will calls survey research because it provided a means of gathering information that can describe both the nature and extent of a specified set of data ranging from tallies and frequencies to attitude and opinions of using e-book in classroom. The type of survey is cross-sectional survey, which will fix at one point in time to provide a base reference for future studies. The data will be collected from a sample that had been drawn from a predetermined population, which are Standard 4, 5 and 6 from a few primary schools in rural area and a few primary schools in urban area in Terengganu. Furthermore, the information was collected at just one point in time.
Population and Sample
The target population for this research will be Standard 4, 5 and 6 from a few primary schools in rural area and a few primary schools in urban area in Terengganu. The sample size will be determine by using formula originally developed by Raosoft, Inc; Sample Size Calculator. The type of sampling that will be use is probability sampling because each and every member in the population has an equal and a same chance of being selected. The sample will be selected by using simple random sampling technique.
The instruments that will be used in this research are questionnaires. The questionnaires will be developed according to the objectives and the research questions in this study. For the questions about the factors related to e-book utilization, the questionnaire will be adapted and modified from thesis by Meor Ahmad Shukri bin Zainal Abiddin (2006) titled "The Study of E-book Usage in Teaching and Learning: Primary and Secondary School". Some questions will be adapted and modified from thesis by Muhammad A. Al-khaldi and Ibrahim M. Al-jabri (n.d.) titled "The Effect of Attitudes on Computer Utilization: A New Evidence from A Developing Nation". The questions also will be developed based on factors related to e-book utilization in thesis wrote by Roesnita Ismail and A.N. Zainab (2007) titled "Factors Related to E-books Use amongst IT Students". The questions were â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦
For the questions about the attitudes in using e-book, the questions will be adapted and modified from Computer Attitude Scale by Loyd and Gressard (1984). The questionnaires will use Likert-type force responses on a four point scale with 1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Agree, 4=Strongly Agree in order to measure the strength of primary pupils' attitude towards the use of e-book in learning.
The questionnaires will be distributed by the researcher herself to the Standard 4, 5 and 6 pupils from a few primary schools in rural area and a few primary schools in urban area in Terengganu. The students will select randomly according to the number of sample size of the study. All selected pupils will be asked to complete the questionnaires and submit them on time. This is because to make sure that all the questionnaires had been submitted by the pupils and to avoid the questionnaires from missing or misplaced.