The influence of school leadership and management

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This essay discusses the influence of school leadership and management on the performance of the school; it explores how far school leadership and management can contribute to school improvement in general and to students' learning outcomes in particular. Contemporary educational reforms concentrate on the relationship between school leadership and school improvement. There are many examples of International research that affirm the importance of leadership in securing and sustaining improvement in schools (e.g. Hopkins, 2001; Van Velzen et al., 1985; West et al., 2000).

It is clear that effective leaders exercise an indirect but powerful influence on the effectiveness of the school and on the achievement of students' (Leithwood and Jantzi, 2000).

'The impact of leadership upon school effectiveness and school improvement is significant.' Wallace, M. (2002). Leithwood and Riehl (2003: 3) noticed that large scale studies of schooling concluded that the effects of leadership on student learning are small but educationally significant. Surely, the key question must be what forms or models of leadership in schools maximize students' learning and contribute to school improvement? This essay aims to explore this question, at the same time, it tries to discuss the roles that school leadership and management can play to create an environment in which education can flourish, for example, developing staff, distributing of leadership, creating the spirit of respect and recognition, creating the fit environment of both physical and social elements, involving parents and local community in the educational process and practicing an effective form of self-evaluation and reviewing.

Education is not only a service which is found and provided by schools, but it could be also provided by other institutions, such as; social clubs, mosques, churches, cinemas and families. Most societies, in our modern world agree that having a 'good' school and a 'good' education is a right for every young citizen according to the abilities and the circumstances of each country. In some poor countries which suffer from the lack of money and the lack of buildings and sources needed to establish educational institutions, children do not have enough opportunities to get and enjoy an effective education.

The term effective education was defined and discussed by different authors who are interested in education. For example, it was defined as

The deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to transmit or evoke knowledge, attitudes, skills, and sensibilities. Cremin, L (1974).

Cremin's definition of effective education concentrated on education as a process in which learners act only as receivers without mutual interaction between learners and teachers. Most people agree that effective education happens when the learners get the knowledge but through mutual interaction and discussions which lead to conviction, so the individual can use this knowledge to live the life without conflicts. This effective education is found only in what is called good schools where 'young people realise that education is a 'lifelong' not a 'once and for all' activity.' Brighouse, T. (2006).

There are some essential factors that help to have the good school. The first thing that we should think about is school leadership and management at different levels and in different circumstances to make sure that everyone performs the tasks in the right way and effectively. Another important factor is the fit environment: visually, socially, aurally and spiritually which encourage and motivate learning inside the school. Moreover, the continuous development of school staff and connecting with parents and community are very essential elements to make school progress and succeed. In addition, the good school is that one which applies what is called self-evaluation to be able to review its policy and improve teaching and learning for their learners. Although all these elements which I mentioned above are very important and effective, the school leadership and management stand as the organizer and the controller of all these elements inside the good school.

For many years, leadership has been studied extensively by different researchers and specialists. For example, Whitaker, p (1993) mentioned that 'one useful definition of leadership is behavior that enables and assists others to achieve planned goals'. In some studies leadership has been described as a process but most studies and research focused on the characteristics of the leader as a person to gain understanding. These types of studies which concentrated on the leader as a person, explained and interpreted leadership by the internal qualities with which the individual or the person was born. The authors of these studies assume that leadership is based on some particular personal skills and some specific characteristics of individuals who are found in particular places or positions to implement or perform particular roles or duties within the organization.

Becoming a leader is much more than simply accepting a particular role or position. It is about personal values, beliefs and qualities. Leaders are effective because of who they are on the inside- in the qualities that make them up as people. Maxwell (1999)

Such authors dealt with the individuals who have particular skills or competences as the main framework of studying leadership.

On the other hand, there are other authors who have studied and discussed leadership within the organizational circumstances and settings. They demonstrated that different organizations need different and particular individuals to lead them according to the different circumstances of every organization. These particular individuals are qualified properly to perform particular roles or duties inside each organization.

Leadership therefore can only be understood in relation to shared or invented meanings within an organisation. Morgan, G. (1986).

From these two points of views we realize that leadership is an ambiguous concept. Those researchers argued that not only the individual characteristics create the leader but also the nature of the organizations and the circumstances in which this individual or this person is working and practicing leadership as a function.

I agree that personal skills and competences are important for leaders, but I think that no one was born as a leader. Most individuals can be leaders if they get the chance. But the question is: who can be a successful leader? When the individual has the opportunity to lead, the personal skills play the most important role and determine who will be a successful leader and who will not be, so I think that most people can be successful leaders provided that they try to improve their skills by learning or training.

Everyone is an individual and likely to be leading and managing in a unique environment. There cannot therefore be a "one size fits all" model of personal effectiveness. Department for Education and employment (2000)

Once the person reaches the point that he or she has the ability to put the plans, organize the work, communicate effectively and be responsible, then he or she will be a successful leader. Now we may agree that leadership is an ambiguous word to somewhat. For full understanding, we need to distinguish between leadership and management. How, then, does leadership differs from management? Leadership and management are closely linked together, and, indeed, these two terms are sometimes used alternatively as the case in some schools in Egypt. Some people see that there is no big difference between leadership and management because they almost share similar roles and aims.

A simple distinction between these two terms sees management as doing things right and leadership as doing the right things. The ability to do both, and to blend the two sets of skills appropriately in response to complex situations, is the hallmark of the effective leader and manager. Department for Education and Employment (2000)

Other people think that there is a kind of contrast between leadership and management. They see that leadership comes from the spirit, so it is connected with the person's vision. Practicing leadership is regarded as an art. It means that the leader is a creator who has the ability to create new and unusual ideas to achieve the duties or missions. These people see that management comes from the mind; it is connected with the reality and our practical life, so practicing management is regarded as a science and the manager is not more than an official who has to perform and achieve the duties without some sort of flexibility.

There is a difference between leadership and management .Leadership is of the spirit compounded of personality and vision; its practice is an art. Management is of the mind, a matter of accurate calculation…its practice is a science. Managers are necessary; leaders are essential. Van Maurik (2001), quoted in Brighouse, T & Woods, D (2008)

I agree that both the manager and the leader are needed and their roles are essential for the good School. The manager is the person who is responsible for planning the basic and the general policy of the school. He can give the power and encouragement to the leaders to implement the general policy of the school. The leaders are responsible for providing and creating the suitable environments and conditions for the staff to perform effectively. They should be close to the members of the staff to solve any problems, remove any obstacles, and help them to carry out their tasks easily and successfully.

When we discuss or speak about school leadership and management, I think it is agreed that the role played by school leaders and managers is vital for creating and maintain effective education which is considered a characteristic of good school. 'Management enables an organization to function: leadership helps it to work well'. Whitaker, P (1993). Again it is thought that the leader, in most times , is the person who has the ability and competence to provide and create the appropriate conditions and the valid environments that help and enable the staff of the school to do their best in order to get the aspired good school.

Of course, there is no superiority of one style of leadership over the other. Some persons are sociable by nature; others are pessimistic and do not socially interactive. 'There cannot therefore be a 'one size fits all' model of personal effectiveness.' (Department for Education and Employment.) (2000). we may work with a transactional leader who assumes that all members of the staff agree to obey him totally when they are taking a task on. I think that this style of leadership is suitable for military institutions not for schools. Another style of leadership is the transformational one which concentrates on building values and principles. There is also the democratic leadership against the bureaucratic leadership. These last two styles are completely different styles. In the democratic leadership, the leader gives the chance to all members of the staff of the school to participate in the decision making process, while, in the bureaucratic style, the leader works according to the decrees and legislations and does not give the opportunity to the teachers to be innovative or creative in doing the tasks.

All these styles of leadership may be successful in leading in different schools. Leadership is differentiated according to the type of school, experiences of staff, pupils' performance and the general circumstances of the school.

There is no one way to succeed as a leader: "Successful leaders use a variety of strategies and styles depending on what it takes to create an environment for learning and they actively search out the many good practices that are out there , but also adapt them to their particular context. (Ofsted, 2003, para.11, p.7) quoted in Southworth, G (2005)

There is no right way to lead or manage that suits all situations. In schools, it is the good leader who realizes which styles and strategies are appropriate according to the staff and the circumstances of the school that he or she leads. It is not a puzzle, but the key common element is the skill of integrity.

There are a lot of qualities which should be found in the effective school leader. He or she must behave and act as a model because 'teachers do not follow leaders who cannot walk the talk.' Southworth, G. (2005). The school leader should be aware that all of his or her behaviors and words are watched and observed by teachers and pupils. If you are a leader, you should be aware of how you speak, and how you behave. All your actions, behaviours and talks need to be in harmony. It is important for the leader, who takes the responsibility for a school, to have energy, power, hope and enthusiasm. He or she should be approachable and available all the time throughout the school. He or she should have the ability to communicate effectively with all staff members. Moreover, the successful leader should have the ability to understand classroom practice as well as the role of the school in the wider community.

One of the most important roles that the successful school leader have to perform is to listen to all members of school staff to give and add his or her expert knowledge about math , English or whatever is the point of discussion. It will be more useful to the school if the leader is able to create wider discussions in which members of staff, pupils, parents and local community, all are expected to be involved and participate in creating the school future vision. By being able to create this co-operative work inside the school, this manager or this leader will succeed in encouraging the good school to flourish.

In Egypt, especially at schools where I worked, I suffered too much from being working with head teachers who never gave me, or my colleagues, the opportunity to participate in the process of leadership of the school. I did not recognize their real reasons for neglecting us. Perhaps they had to behave according to the regulations that they received from the ministry of education in Egypt.

One of those head teachers whom I would never forget was the head teacher of the last preparatory school in which I spent the last five years. I remembered that this head teacher, throughout those five years, acted just as a conveyor of decrees. He did not accept our discussions or arguments about his decisions during school meetings. Those meetings were held only to inform us of the decisions which he has already taken. So, I usually did not attend most of those meetings or attended briefly, and then I left quickly. When someone of us tried to discuss those decisions, he replied that he had received those decisions as they were and that he could not argue with those people who were above him.

Imagine that you were a teacher and worked in such environment of bureaucratic school leadership…how could you communicate, co-operate, and do your best? I think that this style of bureaucratic leadership could be useful if you are working with machinery or in some particular organizations such as banks or factories. But when you are working in a school, the situation is very different as we need to work together as one team. Leaders should be aware of their effective role inside the school.

In my point of view, the successful leader should lead the school in a democratic way and avoid being bureaucratic. No one can deny that when the school is led in a democratic style, every member of the staff, the pupils and even the parents can have the opportunity to participate and share effectively in the educational process. For example, the teachers can practice more effective teaching methods, or use more additional sources for learning which may be more useful to students and help to motivate them to study and achieve more progress and success.

One of the most important skills which the successful leader has to practise and apply in his or her school is to delegate or distribute school tasks. There are many responsibilities and tasks to be achieved inside the school. I think that it is impossible for one person to carry out all these tasks. 'Leaders are reliant on others because their ideas are mediated by teachers and other members of staff.' Southworth, G (2005). The leaders should be aware that the school staff will not improve if they do not have the chance to practice and gain new skills.

Staff will not grow and improve if they are never given the opportunity to develop new skills. Under pressure, planning time inevitably suffers and managers become overstretched and overworked. They are unlikely to able to protect their strategic thinking time if they are always doing. (Department for Education and Employment) (2000)

It is a reality that leaders cannot do everything alone, and that other members of school staff can do many tasks as well as, and some tasks can be done better by others than by leaders themselves. School leaders should be sure that everyone performs his or her role effectively and in the right way through responsibility and accountability to participate in creating the good school.

The process of distributed leadership is not a new idea and most people who are involved in the educational process know that this kind of leadership is practiced in many successful schools either as delegated or shared leadership. Most people agree that distributed leadership enhances and enriches the learning process and plays an important role in the progress of the whole school.

When teachers of the same school find and share a good practice together and learn together, the possibility of establishing and securing better quality teaching is increased. King et al (1996) and Griffin (1995) found that the practice of distributed leadership in some schools which they studied resulted in positive effective on pedagogy, on the school culture, and on the educational quality. In another study by Louis and Marks (1996) they found that in schools where the teachers' work was planned and organized in ways that encouraged sharing of leadership roles, there was a great noticeable progress for the whole school.

However, it is not easy in some schools to apply the idea of distributed leadership because there are a lot of obstacles which block the spreading of leadership across the school. One obstacle is the wrong understanding of leaders as those who are on the top and enjoy the best ranks in any organization. I think that it is a wrong belief which sees leaders like the headteacher, the deputy head, and the head of department and so on as the only people who have the power and the authority to change and to make the final decision.

In fact Leadership is a function rather than a role. In any organization there will be many leaders. At different times and in different circumstances and situations, certain individuals and teams will play a leading part, and on another occasions they will not. It exists formally through positions and roles, and needs to be recognized as being informally exercised too. N.C.S.L. (National College for School Leadership) (2004)

Another obstacle which hinders and prevents the distributed leadership from being achieved in some schools is the passive role of the people who are in senior positions who do not give the chance to other members of the staff to become leaders. Sometimes those people who make decisions for school do not create real opportunities for others to lead parts of the school or even to lead small tasks or projects inside their school. I think that every teacher should have the opportunity to practise the process of leadership whether he or she well trained or not.

In my preparatory school in Egypt, I noticed that the headteacher of the school did not trust anyone inside the school, so he centralized himself for everything and sometimes gives the deputy head some tasks to do. This head teacher did not trust anyone except himself. He did not try to distribute school tasks among teachers or to give us the opportunity to practise the role of the leaders and to trust each other. I felt that there was no confidence between the headteacher and the teachers.

If there were a litmus test of leadership, it would probably incorporate a way of assessing how the stuff saw the trust confidence and humour factors among the leadership team of the school. Brighouse, T& Woods, D (2008)

Of course, this atmosphere of the centralized leadership resulted in negative effects on the performance of the teachers and consequently on the performance of the students in this school.

One important factor which secures and guarantees an effective distributed leadership in the school is the sense of responsibility. Responsibility for something is to be able to control everything about it and provide a vision of how this thing could be done successfully. Every school leadership should have its own system for knowing who is responsible for what. At the same time the whole members of the staff are sharing the common responsibility to improve their school and participate together to raise the performance of the students.

But In some schools, it may be difficult to put 0ne fixed fixed policy of responsibilities distribution. I suffered from this problem in my preparatory school where I used to teach in Egypt. For example, one member of the staff, it was usually the deputy head, may have taken the responsibility of training unit inside the school while he lacks the needed experiences and could not benefit other members of the staff. Another one may have taken the responsibility of the school budget while he refused to give money to renew the library or the playground as he thought they were not essential buildings in the school. In short, it is vital for every member of the staff who is responsible for whatever inside the school to improve his abilities to be able to perform his role effectively. When all members work together not separately, they will make their school better.

School leaders and managers have an important role to play in developing staff, teaching and support in order to create the good school. Development always leads to change which is needed to provide a good teaching and learning. Opportunities and chances should be given to all members of staff inside the school to improve themselves. 'All staff has to be advanced learners in order to develop new skills and insights.' Brighouse, T & Woods, D (2008). It could be achieved by individual training or they can learn from each other. The process of training should continue throughout the year so the performance of the whole school will be better.

In Egypt, the ministry of education began to involve teachers in a kind of training programmes to improve teaching and learning in schools. Teachers are trained to use modern technology in teaching different subjects. Although the number of those teachers whom chosen to be trained was not enough, those programmes contributed so much to improve teaching and learning in most schools in Egypt.

The use and management of learning technologies played an important role in achieving effective teaching and learning in schools. Good school leadership should have its own strategies to make use of information and communication technology (ICT) and makes it available to all learners. It is important not to rely only on teachers as transformers of information. We should teach our pupils to find other sources for learning. It could be achieved through new learning technologies as they can create different learning environment in which they can give actions and get more knowledge. Learning through the use of ICT enriches the curricula and gives the chance for all learners to be more innovative and active than ever before. Using ICT helps pupils feel free to research and get information from different resources.

Existing and emerging ICT teaching tools provide further opportunities to enhance subjects and add value to teaching and learning for pupils. For example, the use of interactive white boards, video, CD ROMS and sources from the internet all provide examples of how ICT can be embedded into subject teaching.

(Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools, Unit 15: Using ICT to Enhance Learning, 2004.)

Such experiences enable students to develop their self-confidence and improve their skills and attitudes for learning. Moreover, students step by step come to a shared understanding of learning goals and how to achieve these goals successfully. Students in such environment will be able to talk about teaching and learning and how to improve themselves as they have a kind of ownership of their learning.

Moreover, the successful school leadership plays a vital role in giving students a lot of chances to develop their learning skills and to learn how to learn. Pupils should be engaged in a kind of learning conversations that takes place between teachers and pupils, as well as among pupils themselves. These conversations may involve students in discussions of how to become learning sources for each other or how to help their peers to learn within the classrooms and beyond. In addition, Pupils can share in the process of the self evaluation form (SEF) of teaching and learning in their school.

There are too many obstacles that hinder such efforts to be beneficial in most of our schools in Egypt. First of all, the lack of ICT rooms in most schools, so teachers cannot apply what they have learned through training. The second obstacle is the system of leadership in most schools. For example, in the preparatory school where I taught in Egypt, I had a headteacher who did not appreciate the importance of modern technology in teaching so he refused to apply modern styles in teaching. I dream of a computerized school where everything is directed by computers but how while a large number of teachers and leaders can't use computers.

It is important for every member of the staff to know exactly what it is he or she is expected to do to support the whole school. School management and leadership can help in creating staff induction programme that helps to create an atmosphere of consistency inside the school. It unites all members and helps them to sing from the same song-sheet. Some schools do not have this kind of staff induction programme and all members work separately. For instance, in my school in Egypt where I taught we did not have an induction programme, every member of the staff tried to establish his own strategy and his own style far away from other members. I think that not having one accepted policy inside the school where I work, I couldn't achieve my role effectively. Every member tried to apply his style of teaching, preparing, and assessment so the performance of the pupils was not good.

I expect to be able to establish the idea of having a staff handbook in my school in Egypt which should be available to all members throughout the year. It will help all members to be aware of the common elements needed to improve the performance of the staff and the students inside my school. Moreover, we need open-minded leaders and head teachers to help produce this staff induction programme and give the chance to every member to share in this programme to be able to establish my dream of the good school.

Moreover, school management and leadership must work to create the spirit of respect and recognition inside the school. Teaching is regarded as one of the most essential professions in all societies. Although this great importance of teaching and teachers, these people who work in the educational field don't get enough respect or recognition. It may be because teaching is a fairly isolated activity practiced in closed rooms. TES wrote:

Who'd be a teacher; we all know the score;

Tails and frustrations we've all had, and much more.

But we've all felt the glow when a child has succeeded.

And the pride that we've helped to give what the child needed.

Quoted in Brighouse, T & Woods, D (2008)

Most people think that respect and recognition of teachers should come from within the school. Teachers expect to be thanked by their managers and head teachers after their visits in the classrooms. I think that praise could also be done during the staff meetings or at the governors' meetings. I myself had a head teacher in my school in Egypt who didn't visit me in my classroom except one or two times throughout the year. Moreover, I had a supervisor who never came to visit me in my classroom. Both the head teacher and the supervisor didn't think how to praise me, encourage or even to recognize me, but only to have the job done. I think that the school will be better if praise becomes a part of the school morals. We should praise each other, pupils who work well and everyone who contributes effectively to the progress and the success of the school whatever his or her job is.

One of the most important roles of the school leadership and management is to provide a fit environment for teaching and learning. Leaders and managers should work hard to improve both the psychological and the physical environments inside the school because the performance of the whole school is influenced greatly by creating a fit environment for the pupils and the staff.

We do not know of an outstanding school that does not continually seek to make small improvements to its aural, visual and behavioral surroundings.

Brighouse, T and Woods, D (20080

The psychological environment may include the language, personalization, and the social and spiritual elements. The physical environment may include the buildings, the surroundings and the local area. Every pupil should have the opportunity to improve and develop both his physical and spiritual needs. The school is not only responsible for feeding pupils' minds with information but also feeding their hearts, their behaviours and their feelings.

The whole- school community maintains positive relationships and social cohesion through continuous instances of courtesy, respect and reinforcing accepted norms of behavior, despite different and competing subcultures. Brighouse, T and Woods, D (2008)

It is the role, the main role of the school leadership and management to provide the fit environment that enables every member to perform in the best way.

School Leaders and managers should be aware of the level of language used inside the school. 'Language can make or break a school' Brighouse, T (2006). The good school is that one which uses the effective and the powerful written language in reports for parents, staff handbooks, markings, job advertisements and in the spoken word in assemblies, lessons and the playground. By language we teach, we encourage and support our pupils, so it plays an important role and affects positively the school climate and improve the whole performance of the school.

In addition, personalization is another important aspect through which we can create a fit environment to motivate our pupils. It means to make the school as a personal one. It appears in the staff use of pupils' names, in the everyday exchanges in the classrooms in the marking and in the day-to-day practice inside the school. I think that this kind of personalization, in which every adult and child matter, can deepen the sense of the staff and the students of being effective and essential in their places. Consequently, the performance of the school will be improved.

Among these various elements, most people suggest that the physical environment is the most important one because it has direct effects on the performance of the whole school. Schools should be beautiful places and this beauty should be reflected in our pupils' performance.

In the individual primary school classroom, the environment is planned to encourage the child to autonomous learning. Brighouse, T and Woods, D. (2008)

I think when leaders and managers give the chance to our pupils to learn and at the same time enjoy a healthy climate of school buildings and facilities, it will reflect positively on their performance. The school should be an attractive and a distinguished place. When students leave their homes and go to their school they are expected to see different styles of buildings and a lot of facilities, so they can feel a different atmosphere. I think also that their impression towards their beautiful school will act as a motive to improve their performance.

I have a real experience from one of the preparatory schools, where I taught in Egypt, which affirms the importance of the physical environment of the school and how it affects the performance. Al-ebrahimia preparatory school was built in 1978 .It was an old fashion building and lacked to the basic facilities. There were a lot of lower attainers students, many students were not motivated to learn and the performance of the staff was not effective. Two years ago the government decided to rebuild this school and fortunately, it was rebuilt as one of the most modern schools in Egypt. The influence of this renewing and rebuilding appeared in the pupils' results and behaviors. More than 90% of students achieved high marks in the final exams. Moreover, their behaviors and their attitudes towards their new school became positive. They liked their new school very much; they enjoyed the new learning technology and achieved more progress. Indeed, this new physical appearance affected the whole performance inside this school.

School leadership and management should work hard to create a suitable social environment to relate its members together and to relate itself to the parents and the local community. Members of local community and Parents should feel welcome in the school and be encouraged by leaders and managers to participate in school life through formal visits or as volunteers in classrooms.

The local community also may share in parties and meetings of the school. It can help school to provide a kind of financial support to renew old buildings, buy new books for the library or to help poor students in the school. This effective relationship with parents and local community gives the school more support to achieve more progress.

In fact, this ideal environment is not totally found. From my previous experiences in some schools especially where I worked in Egypt, a lot of parents did not use to come to school to follow their pupils' performance or to participate in the monthly school meetings or even in the annual parties to celebrate their children's success. Of course, it is wrong because the good school cannot be isolated from the civil life, otherwise our pupils can't be able to keep in touch with their society.

Good school leadership engages in the process of self-evaluation and reviewing because it helps to provide a kind of feedback for leadership staff, teachers and students. It helps teachers to improve their teaching practices, helps students to improve their learning and helps leaders and managers to use more suitable styles and strategies in the leading process. There is a common saying 'If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favorable.' (Seneca) Quoted in Brighouse, T and Woods, D. (2008). From the self-evaluation process, the good school analyses the results deeply, identifies the good points and the bad ones, then uses this analysis to put its future plans and policies. School leadership and management should make use of the self-evaluation process to prompt change.

In collective review, the wise school realizes it is embedding continuous change and development. Brighouse, T & Woods, D (2008).

The successful school leadership adjusts and modifies most of what school does including the quality of teaching and learning, the whole performance of the students and the staff, shared values, school culture and school relationship with parents and community. In order to offer the best possible education to students, leaders and managers should evaluate how well the school provide and improve its services for students.

Finally, most researches and studies confirmed that school leadership and management play an important role in creating an environment in which education can flourish. It is the successful school leadership that leads school towards the continuous improvement, development and change. It is the effective school leadership that works hard to achieve the best quality of teaching and learning to make the good school. It is clear now that school leadership and management have great influence on creating and providing the suitable circumstances for the whole school to improve the performance of both students and teachers.

In brief, School leadership and management is considered one of the most important processes needed to make the 'good school' because it has direct and indirect influences on other processes, such as: developing staff, distributing of leadership, creating the spirit of respect and recognition, creating the fit environment of both physical and social elements, involving parents and local community in the educational process and practicing an effective form of self-evaluation and reviewing.

I dream of my good school in Egypt that applies all the above mentioned ideas with leadership team that makes it easy for teachers to teach each other, to observe each other teach, to plan, to organize, and to evaluate their teaching together. I agree totally that school leadership is the heart of the school. 'It is only leadership that can take us all away' Fullan, M. (2003). Because of this serious influence which school leadership has on the educational process, I assume that we have to think of more democratic, collaborative and distributed forms of leadership to improve students' outcomes.

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