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The aim of my lesson is to design a plan for oral health promotion and in order to achieve this aim I need to promote communication, co-operation and a sense of common purpose in the class by exposing participants to a variety of learning materials and teaching aids such as posters, books, pamphlets, brochures, videos, picture cards and games. Thus I have to utilise both interactive and resource based approach. But the question was the method of delivery and the approach that would comply with the need for the aim of the lesson. After a thorough study of different approaches I decided to deliver on lesson using a student centered approach including strategies like small group discussion and co-operating the pre knowledge and the specific qualification of various participants as the backbone of my lesson. In order to deliver my lesson in an effective and efficient way, I also decided to use various audio visual aids including videos, power-points, and pamphlets. I selected this student centered approach as 'learning is understood as the process of using a prior interpretation to construct a revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action'(Mezirow, 1996 pg 162). Student centered approach is a step that canincrease student participation (Kelly, 1985), tries to develop confidence in students (Dandoulakis, 1986), to foster the intellectual development of students (Burke, 1983), to enable students to build multiple historical perspectives (Ogawa, 2001), to improve students' understandings of historical ideas and concepts (Stout, 2004), to shift the learning responsibility to students (Passman, 2000).
Besides the above mentioned reasons I choose this approach as I will be dealing with adult and as Stephen Brookfield (1995) wrote that adults focus on self-directed learning as they can take control of their own learning, in particular how they set their own learning goals, locate appropriate resources, decide on which learning methods to use and evaluate their progress. Thus this approach will be able to fulfil the aim of the reason. Adding further Brookfield also signifies the importance of critical reflection in adult learning as adults have capability to embed logic, dialectical thinking, working intelligence, reflective judgment, post-formal reasoning and epistemic cognition and so adults come to think contextually and critically. Besides experience plays a significant role in adult learning and is said to be culturally framed and shaped (Brookfield, 1995) and so, this approach is the best to deliver the lesson to the adult students at my work place.
The aim of the lesson is to design and implement strategies to promote oral health in the community and the participants belong to various fields and with specific qualifications. So the purpose is to create an environment an effective and efficient environment to strengthen their abilities and minimise their weaknesses and being adult learners, all the participants will have their individual plans and in order to do so the teacher will pose problems to students, lead a critical dialogue in class; students will select their own topic to suit their job criteria and this will enable me to create a supportive classroom climate (Njoroge, 1998).
The small group discussion mode will be the basis of the lesson and to achieve the aim as a teacher, I will initialise the purpose by providing background and the aim for the lesson first, as suggested by Passman (2000), and then the students will be working in small groups, either by choosing a question on their own or are from the set questions provided by me for stimulation, students then will research and discover the answer, prepare a report and give presentations in class; they will also search library, internet and classroom resources. In order to plan the participants will use computers and have project-based activities to develop and design the promotional technique (Means & Olson, 1995). In the selected approach and the plan the participants will analyse and interpret historical documents, working in teams and present their interpretations and will make comparisons (Stout, 2004). As a result students will lead discussions while working in small groups (Spurlock,2001) and will take turn in creating a response based on their line of specialisation and as a teacher I will interact among various small groups by asking open-ended questions, initiating conversations and high level evaluations (Seidenstricker, 1999).
Student centered approach was preferred when comparing to others as in this particular approach as students will explore authentic issues, self-select inquiry topics, generate and research their own topics through various online and office sources, create multimedia presentations. They will also use computers for individual, group and whole class activities (Luke, 2004) and as an instructed. I will be able to accomplish my aim by using problem-solving, collaboration, multiple intelligence, real world applications and technology (Haruta & Stevenson, 1999). Alternatively within the planning of the lesson, the student centered teaching approach took the form of group-discussion and active reflection (Katz,1981) and this turned the focus on peer-orientation and peer-evaluation method (Delaney,1980) by in-cooperating learning; technology; pair, group and class discussions; and turning the lesson into contextualized and project-based learning (Keller, Russell &Thompson, 1999).
This kind of approach helps the instructor to cater the needs of all accomplices by assigning them tasks, on the basis of their strengths and weaknesses, analysing the material; conducted interviews, class room observations and writing task having discussions, analysing , synthesizing, and evaluating related information (Ogawa, 2001) by engaging in small-group, self-directed learning format with a problem-based learning curriculum (Deretchin, 1997) and these discussions lead to working in small groups (Spurlock, 2001).
Another major factor for selecting this particular approach to deliver the lesson was the past conducted research as the research concluded that with this particular approach students gave very impressive and sophisticated presentations on topics they chose (Passman, 2000). The teaching approach enhanced student work, increased student motivation and self-esteem (Means & Olson, 1995). As a result of this approach, students were able to work collaboratively to develop deep understandings of content, to negotiate difficult primary source text and direct connection to the learning objectives (Stout, 2004). The learning environment promoted the students' self-esteem (Wilkinson, Treagust, Leggett & Glasson, 1988). Students demonstrated high levels of engagement and compliance with the intended content; the peer teaching approach was effective in developing participants' knowledge of lower complexity content, not effective in developing their higher order content knowledge (Wallhead, 2004).
Another approach that could be used was the teacher centered but was not a suitable approach to deliver this type of lesson. From the research conducted in earlier years it was concluded that in the teacher centered approached lesson, students were seen to be passive and were unable to respond critically and when the lessons were too teacher-centered, it labelled teachers to be dull and less creative (Kaur, 2003; Kumar, 2004).
The researches and the literature suggest that adult students preferred student centered approach and the research reckoned that students felt this particular approach was more interesting and favoured the group dynamics method. Researches also inferred that adult students believed that they learned more as reflected by their final grades and reflected a higher achievement (Rada, 1975). As this approach is self-motivated and students will participate more and will be able to learn much about themselves (Njoroge, 1998) and others and this will help in building strong team skills which plays a significant role in promotion of oral health plan. This approach will also give the appearance of increasing the students' personal power without affecting social power (Wood, 1990). Students will be able to gain higher achievement on performance-based and student-centered activities (Erwin, 2004).
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